GANG MEMBER UNDERGRADS:WHAT ARE GANG MEMBERSDOING IN OUR COLLEGES ANDUNIVERSITIES? 2012 – ACJS – New York, NY            C...
WHY DO I CARE?   More than one third of the jurisdictions included in    the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS)    experie...
OUTLINE Gang  problem/presence Adult percentages Gang education Indicators of problems in college Potential solutions
Given USC’s location in downtown LosAngeles, crime can seem almost inevitable,especially when there are two gangsoperating...
GANG PROBLEM/PRESENCE
GANG NUMBERS ARE UP!   More than 1/3 of US jurisdictions had gang    problems in 2007     highest    number since before...
ADULT PERCENTAGES
TABLE 1: IDENTIFIED GANG MEMBERS BY AGE Gang                  Range of Ages   Average Age   Range of Ages Average Age     ...
TABLE 2: GANG MEMBER DEMOGRAPHICS BY AGE      Age %          Albuquerque          Las Vegas            Phoenix            ...
NATIONAL YOUTH GANG SURVEY ANALYSISThe most recent figures show approximatelytwo-thirds adult-aged and one-third juvenile-...
NATIONAL YOUTH GANG SURVEY ANALYSIS Larger cities and suburban counties are more  likely to report adult-aged gang member...
TABLE 3: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS BY AGELocation                           Adult %   Juvenile %Arizona (Phoenix) (2000)        ...
GANG MEMBER EDUCATION Lower   recidivism Fill time Increase opportunities ________
INDICATORS OF PROBLEMS IN COLLEGEDisruptionsGraffitiFear   of crime ________
POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS Increased  awareness Focused enforcement Enforce standards Zero tolerance ________
GANG ACTIVITYON/NEAR CAMPUSResidents from adjacent neighborhoodsOther gang membersStudentsStaff/Employees
GANG MEMBERS ON CAMPUSBlend inHave future plansAvoid detection and capture
2011 STUDENT SURVEYSUMMARY174 respondentsall students in Intro to CJ classes – last third of semester
22% SAW A GANG PROBLEM OFF CAMPUS
16% SAW GANG PROBLEM ON CAMPUS
FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES (POLICE)
36% SAW GANG PROBLEM INCREASE
Half thought gang members were responsiblefor over 10% of crime on campus
ONE-THIRD THOUGHT MORE THAN 10%OF STUDENTS WERE ACTIVE MEMBERS
POLICE PERSPECTIVE  Most (88%) thought gang members were  responsible less than 10% of crime on campus
GANGS V. FRATS - SIMILARITIES Both have initiations. Both prey on and recruit the young  and vulnerable. Both become su...
UNIVERSITY GANG CLOTHING   Duke University Colors - Black/Blue;"Duke" = "Disciples    Utilizing Knowledge Everyday" Folks...
WHY WOULD GANGS WANT   COLLEGE GRADUATES?
3G2 GANGSBased on the coining and developmentof the phrase Third Generation Street Gangs by John P. Sullivanand Dr. Robert...
THIRD GENERATION STREET GANGS Some gangs evolve/transition through three generations Turfgangs Market-oriented drug gan...
THREE FACTORS DETERMINEEVOLUTIONARY POTENTIALPoliticizationInternationalizationSophistication
CHARACTERISTICS OF STREET GANGGENERATIONS
FIRST GENERATION GANGS Traditional street gangs - turf orientation Lower end of extreme societal violence Loose leaders...
SECOND GENERATION GANGS Entrepreneurial and drug-centered Protect markets - use violence to  control competition Broade...
THIRD GENERATION GANGS Evolved   political aims Operate or aspire to operate  globally Garner power, aid financial  acq...
POTENTIAL THIRD GENERATION GANGS: 18th Street Mara Salvatrucha Gangster Disciples Vice Lords Calle Treinta Pagad Ha...
THIRD GENERATION GANGS Economic   and military power equal or  better than many nation-states. Propensity for indiscrimi...
WHAT DID WE MISS?
GANGS INVADETHE IVORY TOWER2011 NGCRC Gang CollegeChicago, IL           Carter F. Smith      carterfsmith@gmail.com       ...
BIBLIOGRAPHY   Sullivan, J. P. (2001). Gangs, Hooligans, and    Anarchists: The Vanguard of Netwar in the Streets. In J. ...
Gang member undergrads what are gang members doing in our colleges and universities
Gang member undergrads what are gang members doing in our colleges and universities
Gang member undergrads what are gang members doing in our colleges and universities
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Gang member undergrads what are gang members doing in our colleges and universities

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Abstract: With the growing presence of criminal street gang members in the United States, communities everywhere are experiencing the damaging impact of their criminal behavior. A 2011 report by the National Gang Intelligence Center reported the number of gang members in the United States was conservatively estimated at 1.4 million. As these gang members evolve, are they using our nation’s colleges and universities to educate themselves? How will that affect our communities? This paper reports results of a survey of college students and campus police regarding their perception of the presence of gang members on their campus. Less than one in four students agreed there was a gang problem in the community around their campus, while two of three of the police respondents agreed with the statement. Students and police agreed in similar percentages that there was a gang problem within the campus community. At least half of both students and police thought gang members were responsible for less than 10% of crime on campus. About two of three students and police reported less than 10% of the students were active gang members. The Bloods, Crips, and Gangster Disciples were the top three gangs in the campus community for both groups. Drugs crimes, Assaults, assorted Weapons crimes, Robberies and Sexual Assaults were reported as gang-related crimes.

Keywords: gang activity in college, street gangs in university, percent of students having gang association, gangs in college, gangs in universities, college gangs.

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  • http://dailytrojan.com/2011/01/25/gang-violence-near-campus-not-a-threat-experts-say/Gang violence near campus not a threat, experts sayBy KiraBrekke · Daily TrojanPosted January 25, 2011 at 12:14 am in News(Votes: 9; Avg: 4.56)  Loading ...Given USC’s location in downtown Los Angeles, crime can seem almost inevitable, especially when there are two gangs operating within miles of campus. These groups are active and potentially dangerous, but their threat doesn’t extend to the USC campus, experts say.Reform · Jorja Leap, a UCLA professor who works at Homeboy Industries, stands with Fabian Debora, a former gang member, in front of a mural Debora painted as part of the program. - Photo courtesy of Jorja LeapInstead, Jorja Leap, a gang researcher and UCLA professor, said the campus itself motivates, inspires and shows others that a higher quality of life exists.Leap has been working on a five-year study at Homeboy Industries, following 300 gang members as they go through the Homeboy/Homegirl program, which works to counsel young people and to redirect their lives. Leap said all the gang members she has worked with perceive USC as a symbol of opportunity, and most wouldn’t dare bring violence to the campus area.“For them, USC is sacred and they don’t cross the line,” Leap said. “I’m saying this as someone whose been on the faculty at UCLA, and I’m not really interested in propaganda at USC. But this is a phenomenon I’ve seen among the gang members that I’ve worked with.”Dept. of Public Safety Assistant Chief John Thomas said the two gangs closest to campus are the Fruit Town Brims, and the Harpys. Thomas said the Fruit Town Brims are small in comparison to the Harpys, but their area is defined as south of Jefferson Boulevard and west of Vermont Avenue.Leap said these gang members recognize the benefits that USC offers to the community.“Eighty percent of these members love USC, and they want their kids to go to USC,” Leap said. “USC is almost like Switzerland, it’s like a neutral zone and they all observe this.”This rings true for Thomas, who grew up near USC, and ultimately was inspired to attend UCLA.“If it wasn’t for USC, I would never have thought that a college education was a reality. It was the USC students, the people at Doheny, the programs I would go to, being on that campus, and all those things that made UCLA a reality,” Thomas said.Thomas said that gangs don’t often bother students who live in the area, and that the main effect the gang presence has on the community is that it compromises quality of life through intimidation.DPS, LAPD and other departments have been able to identify and closely monitor the majority of the gang members, Thomas said.DPS uses a system called CompStat that compiles all of the crimes that occur every week, according to Thomas. This is part of an accountability process where every week, DPS and other departments dissect the causes of crimes to put together strategies. Thomas said this helps DPS detect patterns of crime earlier, increasing the chances of preventing similar crimes from occurring.“We get a very intimate sense of what’s occurring, where it’s occurring, but usually when we start seeing these patterns, we’re able to jump on them real early to the point where most people don’t see it coming because we’re able to use strategies,” Thomas said.When gang members from the area are released from jail, LAPD officers and other officers often meet with the members to help ease them into a life without crime.Leap and Thomas said that for USC to keep crime rates low, the university needs to maintain community outreach programs as a way to show these at-risk children that a better life exists.“[Community outreach programs are] a win-win. This benefits USC and benefits the community,” Leap said. “The university is kind of a place of enlightenment and it is important USC doesn’t become a place of suppression.”Thomas can personally attest to the value of USC’s community outreach programs.“You walked onto that campus, and you had stepped into a whole other reality, you really did,” he said. “For the folks around [the USC] neighborhood, it’s a blessing to live around USC, it always has been. You felt fortunate.”
  • With the growing presence of criminal street gang members in the United States, communities everywhere are experiencing the damaging impact of criminal behavior. More than one third of the jurisdictions included in the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) experienced gang problems in 2007, the highest number since before 2000. A 2009 report by the National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) reported the number of gang members in the United States was conservatively estimated at 1,000,000 as of September 2008. This represented an estimate that was 200,000 (25%) higher than the 800,000 reported by the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Deputy Director Pistole in March of 2008.
  • Larger cities and suburban counties, which typically have long-standing gang problems, are more likely to report adult-aged gang members than juvenile-aged gang members.Conversely, smaller cities and rural counties, whose gang problems are relatively more recent, are more likely to report juvenile-aged gang members.
  • http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/22279005/ CHIMALTENANGO, Guatemala - Tattoos, baggy pants and tank tops are out. Smart blazers and university recruits are in. It's an extreme makeover for Central America's gangs. Facing harsh crackdowns by government security forces and citizen vigilante groups, they are trying to lower their profile. The Mara 18 and Mara Salvatrucha gangs are known throughout Central America and the U.S. for their brazen tactics, including beheading their enemies and covering entire buildings and even their bodies with gang symbols. Now, according to anti-gang operatives, these traditionally uneducated and aimless youth have begun recruiting high school and college students, and are expanding their criminal repertoire from minor robbery to large-scale extortion, prostitution, car theft and kidnappings.
  • Campus police (mostly MTSU) surveyed 2009-2010 said . . .
  • Campus police (mostly MTSU) surveyed 2009-2010 said . . .
  • The Similarities Are FrighteningThere are many hidden and frightening resemblances between College Fraternities and Street Gangs. The members of these groups may come from very different socioeconomic backgrounds, but their similarities cannot be denied. Both of these groups have initiation rituals that often involve violence and humiliation. College Fraternities “haze” new pledges by using a variety of tactics including forcing the pledges to perform strenuous physical activity or drink large amounts of alcohol. Occasionally, we will hear about potential members being “beat down” by the group. “Beat downs” are very common in street gang initiations as well. Gangs and fraternities will both degrade potential members sexually. Gang members often participate in gang rape and Fraternities force pledges to expose themselves and sometimes even partake in what seems to be homosexual activity. Both prey on and recruit the young and vulnerable to become “Pledges” or “Gang Wannabees”. Many potential gang members grow up isolated in their own communities generally surrounded by crime and poverty. They are often lonely and crave the acceptance that gang life brings. For first year College students the same feelings of isolation and loneliness exist. This is the first time that many of them are away from home, their parents and everything familiar. Potential members have such a strong need for acceptance by the group, they comply with attitudes and behaviors that they normally would not. This desperation often proves tragic. JB Joynt, a former student from Frostburg University wrote “I’ve come too far to quite now, I’ve done too many dishes, too many push ups and been bitched at by too many brothers to quit now, I am ready to do whatever it takes to get Phi Sigma Kappa letters.” He died less than two days later during a fraternity initiation. Many street gang initiations also become fatal. Besides “beat downs”, gangs also require “wannabees” to commit crimes to show their commitment to the group. It is when these crimes turn bad that the initiation becomes fatal. Fraternities and Street Gangs become surrogate families to these young and lonely people. If an “outsider” is physically or verbally attacking a member, the entire group will respond. Members crave this sense of security. However, when a member leaves the “family” it is a huge disgrace. Both Gangs and Fraternities frequently harass and threaten dropouts. They are also territorial and experience problems with rival groups. Street Gangs become aggravated when another gang is on their “turf” or “block”. Fraternities are very competitive and can sometimes become aggressive with other fraternities that they feel threatened by. Both groups often alienate themselves from non-members. Demonstrating membership is very important to Gang and Fraternity members. These groups make sure people know that they are members by wearing certain colors, symbols and clothing. While gang members get gang sign tattoos and wear gang colors to represent their group, Fraternity members wear letters to show which group they belong to. Members of these groups have a lot more in common, than anyone wants to admit. People do not want to associate groups that commit crimes and traffic drugs with organizations at Universities that go back generations. While society looks upon these two groups very differently, the striking similarities cannot be denied nor dismissed. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/87597/college_fraternities_and_street_gangs.html?cat=9Are There Similarities Between Greeks and Gangs? Written by Christine Thomasos - Black College Wire    Friday, 31 August 2007 Across the country, young black men gather wearing matching colors, throwing up signs with their hands, and using unique calls recognizable and exclusive only to their circles. Florida Department of CorrectionsThe Crips handsignMost would assume that this group is a gang. However, stepping onto a college campus would confuse anybody trying to identify these groups, because Greek-letter organizations share very similar customs. The World Book Encyclopedia describes gangs as a group of people who associate with one another for social or criminal reasons. Elijah Bowdre, a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc. from Long Beach, Calif., said he has grown up around gangs and can see how some people would make the mistake of comparing them to a Greek-letter organization. "I always grew up with gangs around me," said Bowdre, 21, a senior finance student at Florida A&M University. "When I first came on campus I saw (a fraternity) with red jackets, and I thought they were Bloods." Bowdre admits to seeing similarities in the physical setup of the two groups, but he recognizes important differences in the purpose of each group. "A gang's purpose is to destroy other gangs and make money through crimes," Bowdre said. "A Greek letter organization's purpose is not committing crimes; the purpose is well documented, to serve the community." Camron Hawkins, 18, who said he is a member of the Crips gang, does not agree. "There are people who haven't been in a gang who commit worse crimes than us," said Hawkins, a Tallahassee, Fla., native. "Its not always about violence, it's about money." Hawkins considers gangs and fraternities to be one and the same, and even considers a family to be a gang. Ironically, a lack of family structure is what draws many to join gangs in the first place. Robert Corley, a North Carolina Crip for 14 years, has left his former lifestyle to become a church laborer in Tallahassee. "We get with our own kind of people to form gangs because we come from a broken family," Corley said. "We find people that we can relate to, and we unify ourselves to become an army." According to sociologist Daniel J. Monti, quoted in the book "Gangs" by Gail B. Stewart, the family structure provided by gangs helps to build young people the same way families, churches, schools and neighbors do. However, Bowdre said he does not believe that sociologists can give expert opinions about things they have never experienced. "While sociologists are at home reading their books, gang members are in the streets," Bowdre said. "They probably don't fully understand gang culture. You can't only go off of an assumption." Although gangs provide a family structure, many question whether gangs are worth the destruction that they cause the wider community. That question is not frequently asked of Greek letter organizations. "You can't put us on the same scale," Bowdre said. "The net sum of productivity of gangs and fraternities are completely different." Elizabeth Hollifield, a psychology professor at FAMU, agrees. "I don't think gangs and fraternities can be compared, because gangs have a very negative connotation and fraternities don't," Hollifield said. "It's like comparing apples and oranges. They are both fruits, but they have very different tastes." Christine Thomasos, a student at Florida A&M University, writes for the Famuan. To comment, e-mail Black College WireThis e-mail address is being protected from spam bots, you need JavaScript enabled to view it . Posted Aug. 31, 2007 It's a Rise in "Gangsta" Mentality Among StudentsI work with Latino gangs here in Northern California and have done so for about 15 years. My first comment is that I believe that there are both superficial differences and similarities that set gangs and Greeks apart: colors, purpose, hand signs, gestures and even dances. I say superficial because these things are all seen on the outside. What connects them fundamentally is the human need to belong to something; respect, identity, status, support and belonging. Second: Greeks need to be careful not to emulate the "gangsta" image so much that they cannot be distinguished from the local gang set down the street. I have been to many a party or college event where the Greeks became "ganglike" in their actions and demeanor. I would argue that there isn't so much a rise in gangs on college campuses as a rise in the "gangsta" mentality among college students, They are at a place where one does NOT have to be a true gang member to intimidate or cause problems. Thanks for writing the article. Alejandro VilchezManager of Violence Prevention & Strengthening NeighborhoodsThe Peninsula Conflict Resolution CenterSan Mateo, Calif.Sept. 4, 2007 http://www.blackcollegewire.org/index.php?id=4977&option=com_content&task=view
  • The following information is an indicator as to how many gang members are using popular sports clothing to represent their individual gangs. Both professional and college teams are represented. It should be noted that the sporting of clothing does not always signify gang affiliation. This list was compiled to make the reader aware of possible gang involvement.  It should also be noted that street gangs have become aware of the fact that law enforcement uses the wearing of colors as an indicator of gang involvement. Sports Teams, Clothing, Logos and Gangshttp://www.gangsorus.com/clothing.html
  • Gang member undergrads what are gang members doing in our colleges and universities

    1. 1. GANG MEMBER UNDERGRADS:WHAT ARE GANG MEMBERSDOING IN OUR COLLEGES ANDUNIVERSITIES? 2012 – ACJS – New York, NY Carter F. Smith carterfsmith@gmail.com 615-656-3505
    2. 2. WHY DO I CARE? More than one third of the jurisdictions included in the National Youth Gang Survey (NYGS) experienced gang problems in 2007  highest number since before 2000. 2009 report by the National Gang Intelligence Center (NGIC) reported gang members in US estimated at 1,000,000 as of September 2008. Adult gang members represent approximately one of every three gang members  gangs evolving into more organized crime groups Are gangs using our nation’s colleges and
    3. 3. OUTLINE Gang problem/presence Adult percentages Gang education Indicators of problems in college Potential solutions
    4. 4. Given USC’s location in downtown LosAngeles, crime can seem almost inevitable,especially when there are two gangsoperating within miles of campus.These groups are active and potentiallydangerous, but their threat doesn’t extendto the USC campus, experts say.
    5. 5. GANG PROBLEM/PRESENCE
    6. 6. GANG NUMBERS ARE UP! More than 1/3 of US jurisdictions had gang problems in 2007  highest number since before 2000 (NYGS). Progressive increase in adult gang members since 1996 (then 50-50%).  In 2006 it was 36.5 juvenile -- 63.5 adult.• National Gang Intelligence Center reported conservatively estimated 1,000,000 gang members in US as of September 2008.• 80% of all crimes committed by gang members.
    7. 7. ADULT PERCENTAGES
    8. 8. TABLE 1: IDENTIFIED GANG MEMBERS BY AGE Gang Range of Ages Average Age Range of Ages Average Age 1996 1996 2006 2006 Crips – LA Based 12-31 20.47 15-41 28.09 Bloods – LA Based 14-26 19.69 17-38 26.03 Folk – Chicago Based 12-33 18.51 15-38 24.59 People – Chicago 17-24 19.58 19-46 27.63 Based Hispanic – 14-25 18.59 16-36 21.51 Independent Asian – Independent 15-27 20.59 16-37 25.34 Local 15-30 21.46 17-43 32.47 White Supremacist 17-22 19.50 20-47 31.15
    9. 9. TABLE 2: GANG MEMBER DEMOGRAPHICS BY AGE Age % Albuquerque Las Vegas Phoenix (5,647 in 1999) (6,232 in 1998) (7,115 in 2000) 17 and 10.5 11.0 15.8 under 18 and over 88.6 79.0 84.2 Unknown 0.9 Unavailable None Adapted from “Policing Gangs in America,” by Charles M. Katz and Vincent J. Webb, 2006, New York: Cambridge University Press, pages 98-114.
    10. 10. NATIONAL YOUTH GANG SURVEY ANALYSISThe most recent figures show approximatelytwo-thirds adult-aged and one-third juvenile-aged gang members.
    11. 11. NATIONAL YOUTH GANG SURVEY ANALYSIS Larger cities and suburban counties are more likely to report adult-aged gang members. Smaller cities and rural counties are more likely to report juvenile-aged gang members.
    12. 12. TABLE 3: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS BY AGELocation Adult % Juvenile %Arizona (Phoenix) (2000) 84.2 15.8Florida (2007) 56.5 38.4Nevada (Las Vegas) 79.0 11.0(1998)New Jersey (2004) 53.0 47.0New Mexico (Albuquerque) 88.6 10.5(1999)United States (2006) 63.5 36.5
    13. 13. GANG MEMBER EDUCATION Lower recidivism Fill time Increase opportunities ________
    14. 14. INDICATORS OF PROBLEMS IN COLLEGEDisruptionsGraffitiFear of crime ________
    15. 15. POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS Increased awareness Focused enforcement Enforce standards Zero tolerance ________
    16. 16. GANG ACTIVITYON/NEAR CAMPUSResidents from adjacent neighborhoodsOther gang membersStudentsStaff/Employees
    17. 17. GANG MEMBERS ON CAMPUSBlend inHave future plansAvoid detection and capture
    18. 18. 2011 STUDENT SURVEYSUMMARY174 respondentsall students in Intro to CJ classes – last third of semester
    19. 19. 22% SAW A GANG PROBLEM OFF CAMPUS
    20. 20. 16% SAW GANG PROBLEM ON CAMPUS
    21. 21. FOR REFERENCE PURPOSES (POLICE)
    22. 22. 36% SAW GANG PROBLEM INCREASE
    23. 23. Half thought gang members were responsiblefor over 10% of crime on campus
    24. 24. ONE-THIRD THOUGHT MORE THAN 10%OF STUDENTS WERE ACTIVE MEMBERS
    25. 25. POLICE PERSPECTIVE Most (88%) thought gang members were responsible less than 10% of crime on campus
    26. 26. GANGS V. FRATS - SIMILARITIES Both have initiations. Both prey on and recruit the young and vulnerable. Both become surrogate families. Demonstrating membership is very important for both.
    27. 27. UNIVERSITY GANG CLOTHING Duke University Colors - Black/Blue;"Duke" = "Disciples Utilizing Knowledge Everyday" Folks Georgetown Hoyas Initial "G" for Gangster Folks "Hoyas" stands for "Hoovers On Your Ass" (Larry Hoover) Gangster Disciples Georgia Tech Initial "G" for Gangster Folks Indiana University Initials "I" & "U" overlapping appear to make the shape of a pitchfork Folks Miami Hurricanes Color -Orange People Michigan Initial "M" Maniac Latin Disciples North Carolina - University Colors - Black/Blue Folks University of Nevada at Las Vegas: Vice Lords Colors: Red/Black; "UNLV" backwards stands for "Vice Lords Nation United"
    28. 28. WHY WOULD GANGS WANT COLLEGE GRADUATES?
    29. 29. 3G2 GANGSBased on the coining and developmentof the phrase Third Generation Street Gangs by John P. Sullivanand Dr. Robert Bunker
    30. 30. THIRD GENERATION STREET GANGS Some gangs evolve/transition through three generations Turfgangs Market-oriented drug gangs Mix of political and mercenary elements
    31. 31. THREE FACTORS DETERMINEEVOLUTIONARY POTENTIALPoliticizationInternationalizationSophistication
    32. 32. CHARACTERISTICS OF STREET GANGGENERATIONS
    33. 33. FIRST GENERATION GANGS Traditional street gangs - turf orientation Lower end of extreme societal violence Loose leadership Focus on turf protection and gang loyalty Criminal activity - opportunistic and local Limited in political scope and sophistication
    34. 34. SECOND GENERATION GANGS Entrepreneurial and drug-centered Protect markets - use violence to control competition Broader market, sometimes overtly political Broader spatial or geographic area Sometimes multi-state and international
    35. 35. THIRD GENERATION GANGS Evolved political aims Operate or aspire to operate globally Garner power, aid financial acquisition, mercenary-type activities Most primarily mercenary Some seek to further political and social objectives
    36. 36. POTENTIAL THIRD GENERATION GANGS: 18th Street Mara Salvatrucha Gangster Disciples Vice Lords Calle Treinta Pagad Hard Livings
    37. 37. THIRD GENERATION GANGS Economic and military power equal or better than many nation-states. Propensity for indiscriminate violence, intimidation, coercion, transcending borders, and targeting nation-states Significant national security threats Both regional and transnational phenomenon
    38. 38. WHAT DID WE MISS?
    39. 39. GANGS INVADETHE IVORY TOWER2011 NGCRC Gang CollegeChicago, IL Carter F. Smith carterfsmith@gmail.com 615-656-3505
    40. 40. BIBLIOGRAPHY Sullivan, J. P. (2001). Gangs, Hooligans, and Anarchists: The Vanguard of Netwar in the Streets. In J. Arquilla, & D. Ronfeldt (Eds.), Networks and Netwars: The Future of Terror, Crime, and Militancy (pp. pp. 99- 126). Santa Monica: RAND. Sullivan, J. P. and Bunker, R. J. (2003) “Drug Cartels, Street Gangs, and Warlords,” in Robert J. Bunker, ed., Nonstate Threats and Future Wars, London: Frank Cass Manwaring, Max G. (2005) Street Gangs: The new urban insurgency. Available at http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?PubID=597

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