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Gangs And The Military 4of7


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Gangs and the Military presentation at the Northwest Gang Investigators Association , Missoula, Montana. October 2007 by Al Valdez, Ph.D. University of California - Irvine & Carter F. Smith, J. D., Austin Peay State University

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Gangs And The Military 4of7

  1. 1. Gangs and the Military Presented at Northwest Gang Investigators Association October 2007 Al Valdez, Ph.D. UCI & Carter F. Smith, APSU
  2. 2. Definitional Challenges
  3. 3. Definition (Army) as of 23 Feb 06 <ul><li>Gang </li></ul><ul><li>A group of individuals whose acts of crime are committed against the public at large as well as other groups. A gang usually has in common one or more of the following traits: geographic area of residence, race, or ethnic background. They have a defined hierarchy that controls the general activities of its members. </li></ul>Army Regulation 190–45 23 February 2006
  4. 4. Definition (Army CID) - 1 Dec 06
  5. 6. National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). <ul><li>NAGIA developed a recommended definition of the term “gang” to facilitate a national discussion: </li></ul><ul><li>Gang. A group or association of three or more persons who may have a common identifying sign, symbol, or name and who individually or collectively engage in , or have engaged in, criminal activity which creates an atmosphere of fear and intimidation . Criminal activity includes juvenile acts that, if committed by an adult, would be a crime. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Motivation for Joining
  7. 8. Motivation for Joining <ul><li>Military </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn discipline and obedience & training in weapons, explosives, and tactics (DA PAM 600-15) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>great weapons training and access to weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Andrea Simmons, El Paso, TX FBI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal Employment/Career </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gang </li></ul><ul><ul><li>positive self-validation and self-definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sense of both individual power and protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Terrorist Organizations And Criminal Street Gangs, An argument for an analogy, 21 November 2002 - ) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Motivation for Joining <ul><li>Sergeant escapes drugs, violence to lead troops in Iraq “When I was just a kid, I knew people getting killed by gangs,” said Reeves from southwest Oklahoma City. “It was hard growing up in that kind of environment, but I knew I didn’t want to be around it for the rest of my life.” US Army Public Affairs – </li></ul>
  9. 10. Motivation for Joining
  10. 12. Motivation for Joining
  11. 13. In Mosul, a Battle 'Beyond Ruthless' <ul><li>Sgt. 1st Class Domingo Ruiz watched as three cars stopped on the other side of the road. A man carrying a machine gun got out. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Take him down,&quot; Ruiz told a sniper . . . the man's head exploded. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a war that Ruiz said reminds him of his youth as a member of the Coney Island Cobras, a Brooklyn street gang. He said he applies many of the principles he learned in the rough neighborhoods where he grew up. </li></ul><ul><li>Acting swiftly, he said, &quot;sends a message to the enemy that we're not playing games. If you engage us, you are going to die. </li></ul>Onetime Gang Member Applies Rules of Street
  12. 14. Gangs and the Military