White7e ppt ch13revised


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White7e ppt ch13revised

  1. 1. Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter 13:Domestic Terrorism SME School
  2. 2. Examining the History of Domestic Terrorism Gurr o terrorism is a tactic used by the weak to intimidate the strong and in turn used by the strong to repress the weak o Terrorism in the 19th century was primarily aimed at protecting the status quo and economic environment o Labor movement of the late 19th century was filled with violence o Frontier had its own form of violence o Settlers developed their own brand of justice Character of domestic terrorism began to change in the 1960s o Rooted in radical politics, nationalism, and the international community’s experience with terrorism o Domestic terrorism defined as a radical phenomenon
  3. 3. Examining the History of Domestic Terrorism Bell & Gurr – Political revolutionary groups and nationalistic groups in the U.S. took their ideas from terrorists in the Middle East and Asia U.S. terrorist groups did not have the same impact as their foreign counterparts o American public rejected the violence of revolutionary groups o Popularity never fully achieved o Ended up as small bands of social misfits with little effect on the political system
  4. 4. Examining the History of Domestic Terrorism According to Bell & Gurr – Two caveats with their conclusion o Although U.S. has avoided significant domestic terrorism, criminals and political activists have used terrorist tactics: bombing and hostage taking o Nationalistic terrorists from Puerto Rico were more successful than revolutionaries at launching terrorist campaigns  Indigenous support Gurr outlines three types of terrorism o Vigilante terrorism o Insurgent terrorism o Transnational terrorism
  5. 5. Examining the History of Domestic Terrorism Vigilante Terrorism – growth of right-wing extremists o Ku Klux Klan, Christian Identity movement, and other white supremacy organizations Insurgent Terrorism – aims to change political policies through direct threats or action against the government o Black militants, white revolutionaries, Puerto Rican nationalists Transnational Terrorism – non-indigenous terrorists cross national borders o Jihadist movement inside the U.S.
  6. 6. Problem of Understanding Terrorism in Law Enforcement American law enforcement is a localized affair Chiefs and sheriffs report to local boards State and federal agencies exercise law enforcement power Agencies approach terrorism with their own interpretations
  7. 7. Problem of Understanding Terrorism in Law Enforcement Terrorism happens in other place o Terrorism does not exist in most jurisdictions  Police officers in the U.S. remain focused on local issues  Terrorism is too exotic for most agencies Classifying Terrorism as Normal Crime o FBI labels the majority of domestic terrorist activities under the common titles of crime in the Uniform Crime Report (UCR) o FBI became the only agency coordinating thousands of U.S. police departments in a counterterrorist direction
  8. 8. Problem of Understanding Terrorism in Law Enforcement Uneven historical development o Terrorists did not routinely targeted the U.S. until 1982  every form of terrorism before 1982 died from lack of support Confusing hate crime with terrorism o Hate crime is frequently used in conjunction with domestic terrorism o Legal definition, not a manifestation of terrorism Hamm – hate crime is an illegal act designed to target a particular social group
  9. 9. Classifying Terrorism in Criminal Justice A label appropriate for theoretical criminology does not always lead to a response that solves an immediate crime o Police officers routinely handle terrorism even though they call it by variety of names Two issues that must be kept in mind: o Beat police officer generally first responder o Investigation techniques used in large, sensationalized terrorist incidents are the same used to investigate routine crime Counterterrorism depends on the fundamentals: o Good investigative skills o Good interviewing techniques o Understanding the context of the crimes investigated o Increased intelligence, long term surveillance and informant development
  10. 10. FBI Classification System In 1980s, FBI developed a general classification system of domestic terrorism Harris – summarized the FBI view: o White leftists o Puerto Rican leftists o Black militants o Right-wing extremists o Jewish extremists Types of groups were defined by location, and since the terrorism tended to be geographically confined, it did not seem to affect all local police agencies in the same manner
  11. 11. FBI Classification System In modern days, FBI categories terrorism on the basis of origin Domestic Terrorism (DT) o Political extremism involves violent left and right- wing extremists o Single issues include violent activities associated with debates over abortion, ecoterrorism, animal rights, and genetic engineering o Lone wolves included in DT when actions are politically motivated International Terrorism (IT) o Composed of three subsets  State-sponsored terrorism  Clearly defined autonomous groups  Jihadists
  12. 12. Using the Classification System Smith & Roberts – place terrorist groups into three broad categories o Right-wing extremists o Left-wing and single-issue terrorists o International terrorists Factor separating the average criminal from the average terrorist is motivation Terrorists remain criminals o Motivated by ideology, religion, or a political cause o Engage in activities avoided by most criminals
  13. 13. Terrorist Profile Smith o Characteristic of domestic terrorist:  Native-born U.S. terrorists tend to be older than international terrorists  Foreign operatives working in the U.S. are also older o Comparison of left-wing and right wing extremists  With the exceptions of financing themselves, left and right-wing terrorists are quite different
  14. 14. Left and Right-Wing Terrorists Ideology and beliefs about human nature o Left-wing favor Marxism o Right-wing terrorists are vehemently anti-Marxist and very religious Economic views o Left-wing target economic status quo o Right-wing support economic system Geographic bases of support o Left-wing base themselves in urban environments o Right-wing base themselves in rural areas Selection of targets o Left-wing select symbolic targets of capitalism o Right-wing focus attacks on governmental authority Tactics o Both groups use similar terrorist tactics
  15. 15. Left-Wing Terrorists Left-wing terrorists have remained the same from the 1960s to the present Left-wing groups tended to act in a coordinated fashion Evidence indicated they were linked internally U.S. left-wing terrorist groups include: o May 19 Communist Organization (M19CO) o United Freedom Front (UFF) o Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy (EMETIC) o Animal Liberation Front
  16. 16. American Terrorism Study Leaderless resistance o Several domestic extremists advocated the use of leaderless resistance o Incorporated in umbrella organizations such as Hezbollah, Egyptian Islamic Jihad o Purpose of leaderless resistance is to fight independent of other groups
  17. 17. American Terrorism Study Damphousse & Smith – three measurable ideas o If groups are truly leaderless, groups should be smaller  Federal criminal cases should indicate that the number of defendants per terrorist case declined o If individuals are truly alone, they should be committing more crimes as they can only rely on themselves o If criminals are more committed, they should be less likely to cooperate with the government
  18. 18. American Terrorism Study Damphousse & Smith – found evidence that may indicate leaderless resistance has affected terrorist activity o Size of domestic terrorist groups has been decreasing since 1992  May also indicate that the federal government is prosecuting cases differently o Terrorists are committing more crimes o Found less plea bargaining among suspects  May be due to either a change in federal plea bargaining; or  Lone wolves cannot make deals because they do no have fellow criminals they can testify against
  19. 19. American Terrorism Study 48% of domestic terrorist attacks occur within 54 miles of a suspect’s residence o Domestic terrorists tend to operate close to their home base o Most domestic terrorists are also recruited close to home Cells operate for an average of 470 days prior to an incident o This provides a key for counterterrorist investigations When a group prepares for an attack, they commit about four crimes prior to the attack 3 – 4 months before the actual attack o If law enforcement is aware of the types of crimes terrorists commit – they are in a better position to stop an attack
  20. 20. Jihadists in America Jihadists appeared in the U.S. prior to the 9-11 attack and remain active today Two types of Jihadist terrorist groups o International Jihadists  come to the U.S. to launch an attack or engage in criminal activities to support Jihadist terrorism (fund-rising)  Began with a structure but shifted into umbrella-style networks o Homegrown Jihadist group  Americans who adopt the Jihadist philosophy Interaction of the two may create a third group o A hybrid combination of homegrown and foreign terrorists
  21. 21. International Jihadists Emerson – reports research supporting the existence of a Jihadist terrorist organization in the U.S. o Emerson’s research group, Investigative Project, has gathered an array of reports  Many of the reports point to a Jihadist network inside U.S. borders  Homegrown Jihadists are appearing in the U.S. Critics of Emerson argue that o He is sloppy with facts o He arrives at incorrect conclusions after major terrorist incidents o He is Islamophobic
  22. 22. Homegrown Jihadists Wahhabi missionaries covertly preach religious militancy in America’s prisons Homegrown Jihadists appear in different areas Groups with limited understanding of Islam or the Jihadist movement may become the greatest domestic threat o Self-recruited, self-motivated, and self-trained o Only direct contact with the Jihadists is through the Internet
  23. 23. Homegrown Jihadists Homegrown terrorists are produced in various ways: o Born in the U.S. o Immigrate and find themselves alone  Gravitate to the Jihad to find a purpose in life o Others leave the U.S. to join Jihadists overseas Hybrid form o U.S. citizens recruited to train overseas o Black Muslims who were recruited away from their faith to a traditional form of Islam and further conversion to militancy o Normative U.S. Muslims radicalized in their mosques o Muslims radicalized in foreign countries and return to the U.S.
  24. 24. Nationalistic Separatism: Puerto Rico A number of revolutionary organizations in Puerto Rico embraced the nationalist terrorist campaign Puerto Rican terrorists have engaged in terrorist activities on U.S. soil since the 1950s o Planned assassination of President Harry Truman o Shooting at members of Congress in the House of Representatives The most notorious groups: o The Armed Forces of National Liberation (FANL) o The Macheteros o The Volunteers for the Puerto Rican Revolution (OVRP) o The Armed forces of Liberation (FARP) o The Guerilla forces of Liberation (GEL) o The Pedro Albizu Campos Revolutionary Forces (PACRF)
  25. 25. Right-Wing Violence In the U.S. right-wing extremism has been around since the 1700s o Whiskey Rebellion Anti-federal attitudes were common in the early 1800s o Questioned the legitimacy of the federal government o Anti-Catholic, anti-Irish, and anti-immigrant Ku Klux Klan (KKK) o Nathan Bedford Forrest (founder)  Intended to create an anti-unionist organization to preserve Southern culture and traditions  When KKK started terrorizing newly freed slaves, Forrest tried to disband organization but it was too late o KKK operated in three phases  Hooded Knight Riders - terrorized African Americans to frighten them into political and social submission  1920s sought political legitimacy - became political  Collapsed in the wake of a criminal scandal o Present day is dominated by hate filled rhetoric Development of modern KKK parallels growth of right-wing extremism from 1930s to present
  26. 26. Christian Identity Blend of Jewish and Christian biblical passages Based on premise God was white Identity theology is based on conflict and hate Christian Identity helped provide basis for violence among the extremists o Provided new twist to extremist movement o Demonize Jews  White people originated with God  Jews came from the devil
  27. 27. Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Belief, and Tactics  Right-wing extremism came to fruition around 1984 and has remained active since that time  Issues holding the movement together o Right-wing tends to follow one of the extremist religions  The Name of God is usually invoked o The movement is dominated by belief in conspiracy and conspiracy theories  Followers feel they are losing economic status because of sinister forces o Followers continue to embrace patriotism and guns  They want to arm themselves for a holy war
  28. 28. Contemporary Right-Wing Behavior, Belief, and Tactics Stern – Three issues rejuvenated the extremist right o The Brady Bill a law the limits the gun ownership o Ruby Ridge standoff between alleged survivalist and U.S. federal law enforcement officers o Branch Davidian (founder David Koresh) siege near Waco, Texas Religious messages changed in the 1990s o Patriotism and anti-Semitism as strong as the Christian Identity message Movement mutated after 9-11 o Following the pattern of international terrorist groups members of right-wing groups organized chains or hubs o Small groups operating autonomously engaging in more individual violence
  29. 29. Right-Wing Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms 1990s Nordic Christianity took root in Michigan, Wisconsin, Montana, and Idaho o Claim to worship the Triune Christian Deity Creatorism (World Church of the Creator) (Creativity Movement) o Rejects Judaism and Christianity o Claims the Creator left each race to fend for itself o Call for a racial holy war (RAHOWA)  The White Man’s Bible  White people must struggle to defeat Jews and non-white race o Embracing the urban Skinheads movement  Racial hatred and white supremacy Free-Wheeling Fundamentalists include in its ranks a majority of right-wing extremists o Federal and local governments are the enemy o God will assist them in their confrontation of evil
  30. 30. Right-Wing Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms  Militias thrive on conspiracy theories o Believe the U.S. government is leading the country into a single world government  New World Order o Militias are generally issue oriented  Groups gather around taxes, abortion, gun control, and/or Christian Identity o Militias are almost always religious  Rely on violent passages of Christian scripture as justification  Many militia members unable to cope with changes in the modern world are frustrated • May be extremists, but not necessarily terrorists
  31. 31. Right-Wing Conspiracies, Militias, and the Call to Arms  Paramilitary groups consist of armed civilian militias organized into a military manner o Operate on different levels  Freemen of Montana  Paramilitary groups come in a variety of shapes and sizes o Most of their action is rhetorical  Third Position movement tried to unite left- wing radicals and right-wing reactionaries o Both share hatred of government and large corporations as well as distrust of the media  William Pierce as Andrew MacDonald: “Turner Diaries”, “Hunter”
  32. 32. Decline of the Left and Rise of Single Issues Left-wing terrorist groups dominated terrorism in the U.S. from 1967-1985 o Riley & Hoffman – left-wing groups engaged in symbolic violence Intellectual elites controlled the movement o Lost its base when student activism began to disappear from American academic life Government actions, improved police tactics, and lack of tolerations for violent activities may have contributed to the decline of left-wing terrorism in the U.S. and Europe
  33. 33. Decline of the Left and Rise of Single Issues Left-wing terrorism transformed o Ecological and animal-rights extremists have united  Variety of names  Myriad of extremist causes  Focus on particular causes  Individual harassment and property destruction o Earth Liberation Front (ELF)  Monkey Wrench Gang Ecoterrorists o From 1995-1999, damages totaled $28.8M o Destruction of animal research laboratories, sabotage against industrial equipment, raids against farms o Ecology as surrogate religion o Positions are contradictory
  34. 34. Black Hebrew Israelism Black Hebrew Israelism is an African American version of Christian Identity Claims black Africans were the original Israelites o Hulon Mitchell Jr., leader, changed the name into Hebrew Jahveh ben Jahveh  Nation of Yahweh  Demonized whites, called for their destruction  Internal group BROTHERHOOD required killing of the white person to obtain a membership  Death Angels – selected members of the brotherhood, sent to kill whites in Miami area • Were ordered to bring victims severed body parts of a victim to Mitchell as proof that killing had occurred  Beheaded members who tried to leave FBI indicated it has the potential to become a violent group o Critics argue the FBI overreacted to a set of beliefs o Others argue the FBI has identified dangerous violent religious trends
  35. 35. Anti-Abortion Abortion is a heated topic Most pro-lifers denounce violence as contradictory to their beliefs Violent pro-lifers justify their actions in the same manner as other political extremists o Manual of the Army of God Nice – abortion clinic bombings are related to several social factors o Most occurred in expanding areas of population (urban areas) o Abortion bombers feel compelled to act by social and political circumstances o Individuals who kill abortion doctors felt murders were necessary to make a political statement Abortion debate represents a political issue with positions identified by militant extremes o Perfect example of terrorism
  36. 36. Critical Engagement: Police Operations and the Future  Brian Jenkins o The most effective action in preventing terrorism is to gather local criminal intelligence through police agencies committed to community policing models o Attempts in formation sharing  Fusion centers and criminal intelligence units in large police agencies are able to analyze possible violent activities  The effectiveness of criminal analysis increases when officers are routinely gathering information and forwarding it to through intelligence channels