Ch 5 Motivation


Published on

this ppt helps to motivate the consumer to buy a product and the behaviors of related ventures

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
1 Comment
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch 5 Motivation

  1. 1. Consumer Behavior: A Framework John C. Mowen Michael S. Minor Chapter 5: Consumer Motivation
  2. 2. Ten Key Concepts <ul><li>Concept of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer needs </li></ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><li>Vicarious learning </li></ul><ul><li>Opponent-process theory </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum-stimulation level theory </li></ul><ul><li>Reactance theory </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived risk </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer attributions </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Motivation? <ul><li>Motivation refers to an activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It consists of the drives, urges, wishes, or desires that initiate the sequence of events leading to a behavior. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Motivation begins with the presence of a stimulus that spurs the recognition of a need. </li></ul><ul><li>Need recognition occurs when a perceived discrepancy exists between an actual and a desired state of being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs can be either innate or learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs are never fully satisfied. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings and emotions (I.e., affect) accompany needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Expressive needs involve desires by consumers to fulfill social and/or aesthetic requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarian needs involve desires by consumers to solve basic problems (e.g. filling a car’s gas tank). </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Structure of Emotions <ul><li>Ten Fundamental Emotions People Experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disgust Interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joy Surprise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sadness Anger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fear Contempt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shame Guilt </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Some General Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Maslow hierarchy: physical, safety, belongingness, ego, and self-actualiation </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement motivation is seeking to get ahead, to strive for success, and to take responsibility for solving problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for affiliation motivates people to make friends, to become members of groups, and to associate with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for power refers to the desire to obtain and exercise control over others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for uniqueness refers to desires to perceive ourselves as original and different. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Classical Conditioning <ul><li>A neutral stimulus, such as a brand name, is paired with a stimulus that elicits a response. </li></ul><ul><li>Through a repetition of the pairing, the neutral stimulus takes on the ability to elicit the response. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus which is repeatedly paired with the eliciting stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is an eliciting stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>The conditioned response (CR) is the response elicited by the CS. </li></ul><ul><li>The unconditioned response (UCR) is the reflexive response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning Relations Unconditioned/Secondary Stimulus Unconditioned Response Pairing Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response Flag Emotions Political candidate Emotions
  10. 10. Requirements for Effective Conditioning <ul><li>The neutral stimulus should precede in time the appearance of the unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>The product is paired consistently with the unconditioned stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus are highly salient to the consumer. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Applications of Classical Conditioning <ul><li>Applications: communications--advertising, public relations, personal selling. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: identify powerful positive stimulus and associate brand with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of powerful, emotion causing stimuli: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>beautiful, sexy people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patriotic themes, religious symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music, beautiful scenes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, negative stimuli can be associated with competitors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Credit card insignia may elicit spending responses </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Operant Conditioning . . . <ul><li>. . . is the process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If positively reinforced, the likelihood of the behavior being repeated increases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If punished, the likelihood of the behavior being repeated decreases. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Reinforcement & Influencing Behavior <ul><li>A reinforcer is anything that occurs after a behavior and changes the likelihood that it will be emitted again. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcers are positive rewards that follow immediately after a behavior occurs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcers are the removal of an aversive stimulus. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Secondary reinforcers . . . <ul><li>. . . are a previously neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties through its association with a primary reinforcer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over a period of time, previously neutral stimuli can become secondary reinforcers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In marketing, most reinforcers are secondary (e.g. a product performing well, a reduction in price) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. A Punisher . . . <ul><li>. . . is any stimulus whose presence after a behavior decreases the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Extinction & Eliminating Behaviors <ul><li>Once an operant response is conditioned, it will persist as long as it is periodically reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction is the disappearance of a response due to lack of reinforcement. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Schedules of Reinforcement . . . <ul><li>. . . determine if a behavior is reinforced after a certain number of repetitions or after a certain length of time has passed. </li></ul><ul><li>Example. Slot machines use a variable schedule based upon number of pulls of handle. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Discriminative Stimuli . . . <ul><li>. . . are those stimuli that occur in the presence of a reinforcer and do not occur in its absence. </li></ul>Example: point of purchase display is a discriminative stimulus.
  19. 19. Stimulus Discrimination and Generalization <ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism behaves differently depending on the presence of one of two stimuli. Goal of differentiation is to cause stimulus discrimination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization occurs when an organism reacts similarly to two or more distinct stimuli. Goal of “knock-off” brands is to use stimulus generalization. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Shaping Consumer Responses . . . <ul><li>. . . is creating totally new operant behaviors by selectively reinforcing behaviors that successively approximate the desired instrumental response. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vicarious Learning . . . <ul><li>. . . is the phenomenon where people observe the actions of others to develop “patterns of behavior.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Three important ideas: <ul><li>People are viewed as symbolic beings who foresee the probable consequences of their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>People learn by watching the actions of others and the consequences of these actions (i.e. vicarious learning). </li></ul><ul><li>People have the ability to regulate their own behavior. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Factors Increasing a Model’s Effectiveness <ul><li>The model is physically attractive. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is credible. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is similar to the observer. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is shown overcoming difficulties and then succeeding. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Three Major Uses of Social-Learning Theory <ul><li>A model’s actions can be used to create entirely new types of behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>A model can be used to decrease the likelihood that an undesired behavior will occur </li></ul><ul><li>The model can be used to facilitate the occurrence of a previously learned behavior </li></ul>
  25. 25. Midrange Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Opponent-Process Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum Stimulation Levels </li></ul><ul><li>The Desire to Maintain Behavioral Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>The Motivation to Avoid Risk </li></ul><ul><li>The Motivation to Attribute Causality </li></ul>
  26. 26. Opponent-Process Theory <ul><li>. . . explains that two things occur when a person receives a stimulus that elicits an immediate positive or negative emotional reaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The immediate positive or negative emotional reaction is felt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A second emotional reaction occurs that has a feeling opposite to that initially experienced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of the two emotional reactions results in the overall feeling experienced by the consumer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains addictive behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains priming—the effects of a small exposure to a stimulus. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Optimum Stimulation Level <ul><li>. . . is a person’s preferred amount of physiological activation or arousal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation may vary from very low levels (e.g. sleep) to very high levels (e.g. severe panic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are motivated to maintain an optimum level of stimulation and will take action to correct the level when it becomes to high or too low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for high vs. low sensation seeking people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for variety seeking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts for hedonic consumption—I.e., the need of people to create fantasies, gain feelings through the senses, and obtain emotional arousal. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Desire to Maintain Behavioral Freedom <ul><li>Psychological reactance is the motivational state resulting from the response to threats to behavioral freedom. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of threats can lead to reactance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social threats involve external pressure from other people to induce a consumer to do something </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonal threats are barriers that restrict the ability to buy a particular product or service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent in marketing: e.g., pushy salesperson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity effects: scarce products are valued more. Limited time offer, limited supply. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. The Motivation to Avoid Risk <ul><ul><li>Perceived risk is a consumer’s perception of the overall negativity of a course of action based upon as assessment of the possible negative outcomes and of the likelihood that these outcomes will occur. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived risk consists of two major concepts - the negative outcomes of a decision and the probability these outcomes will occur. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. 7 Types of Consumer Risks. <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity Loss </li></ul>
  31. 31. Factors Influencing Risk Perception <ul><li>Characteristics of the person—e.g., need for stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the task </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary risks are perceived as less risky than involuntary tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the product—price </li></ul><ul><li>Salience of negative outcomes </li></ul>
  32. 32. Six risk-reduction strategies <ul><ul><li>Be brand loyal and consistently purchase the same brand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy through brand image and purchase a quality national brand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy through store image from a retailer that you trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek out information in order to make a well informed decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy the most expensive brand, which is likely to have high quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy the least expensive brand in order to reduce financial risk. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Motivation to Attribute Causality <ul><ul><li>Attribution theory describes the processes through which people make determinations of the causality of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal attribution is when a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because he or she actually liked the product. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External attribution is when a consumer decides that an endorser recommended the product because he or she was paid for endorsing it. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Augmentation-Discounting Model <ul><li>Discounting occurs if external pressures exist that could provoke someone to act in a particular way - so actions would be expected given the circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>The augmenting principle states that when a person moves against the forces of the environment to do something unexpected, the belief that the action represents the person’s actual opinions, feelings, and desires is increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Attribution error : One consistent finding is that people are biased to make internal attributions to others. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Applications of attribution theory <ul><ul><li>endorsers: seek to get consumers to perceive internal motives for making endorsement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>satisfaction: seek to get consumers to perceive external reasons for product problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sales promotion: find ways to avoid consumers attributing the cause of the purchase to the sale rather than to the excellence of the product. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Managerial Applications of Motivation <ul><li>Positioning/differentiation: use discriminative stimuli distinguish one brand from another. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental analysis: identify the reinforcers and punishers that impact consumers; identify factors that influence risk perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Market research: measure motivational needs (e.g., McClelland’s needs and need for arousal), measure risk perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing mix: use motivational needs to design products (e.g., safe cars) and to develop promotional strategy that meets needs. Develop messages to influence consumer attributions. Use in-store promotions to prime consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation: Segment market based upon motivational needs. </li></ul>