Attitudes            7-1
The Power of Attitudes• Attitude:  – A lasting, general evaluation of people (including    oneself), objects, advertisemen...
The Functions of Attitudes• Functional Theory of  Attitudes:    Attitudes exist    because they serve    some function for...
Katz’s Attitude Functions– Katz believes there is an adjustive function of  motivation.– He says people adjust attitudes t...
The ABC Model of Attitudes• Affect:  – The way a consumer feels about an attitude object• Behavior:  – Involves the person...
Three Hierarchies of Effects                               7-6
Attitude Hierarchies• The Standard Learning Hierarchy:  – Consumer approaches a product decision as a    problem-solving p...
Experiential Hierarchy• Emotional Contagion:  – Emotions expressed by the communicator of a    marketing message affect th...
Smith and Wollensky          • This ad for New York’s            famous Smith &            Wollensky restaurant           ...
Product Attitudes Don’t             Tell the Whole Story• Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad):  – A predisposition to ...
Forming Attitudes• Not All Attitudes are Created Equal:  – Levels of Commitment to an Attitude: The degree of    commitmen...
Levels of Attitudinal Commitment• By describing Cadillac as “my company,” the woman  in this ad exhibits a high level of a...
Forming Attitudes (cont.)• Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among  Attitudes:   – Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When a p...
Attitudinal Commitment• This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers  often distort information so that it fits with ...
Social Judgment Theory• Social Judgment Theory:  – People assimilate new information about Ao’s    based on what they alre...
Balance Theory• Triad:  – An attitude structure consisting of three elements     • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of...
Alternative Routes toRestoring Balance in a Triad           Figure 7.2          7 - 17
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Attitude

7,880 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Attitude

  1. 1. Attitudes 7-1
  2. 2. The Power of Attitudes• Attitude: – A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues – Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao). – Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure over time. 7-2
  3. 3. The Functions of Attitudes• Functional Theory of Attitudes: Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i.e., they are determined by a person’s motives) 7-3
  4. 4. Katz’s Attitude Functions– Katz believes there is an adjustive function of motivation.– He says people adjust attitudes to minimize harm and maximize happiness.– This serves an ego-defensive function because it helps protect ones self respect. Example: Toyota Car and Toyota Prado SUV 7-4
  5. 5. The ABC Model of Attitudes• Affect: – The way a consumer feels about an attitude object• Behavior: – Involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object• Cognition: – The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object• Hierarchy of Effects: – A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude 7-5
  6. 6. Three Hierarchies of Effects 7-6
  7. 7. Attitude Hierarchies• The Standard Learning Hierarchy: – Consumer approaches a product decision as a problem-solving process• The Low-Involvement Hierarchy: – Consumer does not have strong initial preference – Consumer acts on limited knowledge – Consumer forms an evaluation only after product trial• The Experiential Hierarchy: – Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions 7-7
  8. 8. Experiential Hierarchy• Emotional Contagion: – Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product• Cognitive-Affective Model: – Argues that an affective judgment is the last step in a series of cognitive processes• Independence Hypothesis: – Takes the position that affect and cognition involve two separate, independent systems 7-8
  9. 9. Smith and Wollensky • This ad for New York’s famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others associated with a product or service are often more involved with it than are their consumers. 7-9
  10. 10. Product Attitudes Don’t Tell the Whole Story• Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad): – A predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion• Ads Have Feelings Too: – Three emotional dimensions: • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation – Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad • Upbeat feelings: Amused, delighted, playful • Warm feelings: Affectionate, contemplative, hopeful • Negative feelings: Critical, defiant, offended 7 - 10
  11. 11. Forming Attitudes• Not All Attitudes are Created Equal: – Levels of Commitment to an Attitude: The degree of commitment is related to the level of involvement with an attitude object • Compliance • Identification • Internalization – The Consistency Principle: • Principle of Cognitive Consistency: Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviors to be consistent with other experiences 7 - 11
  12. 12. Levels of Attitudinal Commitment• By describing Cadillac as “my company,” the woman in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal commitment to her employer. 7 - 12
  13. 13. Forming Attitudes (cont.)• Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes: – Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behavior.• Self-Perception Theory: – People maintain consistency by inferring that they must maintain a positive attitude toward a product they have bought or consumed• Foot-in-the-door technique: – Sales strategy based on the observation that consumers will comply with a request if they have first agreed to comply with a smaller request 7 - 13
  14. 14. Attitudinal Commitment• This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers often distort information so that it fits with what they already believe or think they know. 7 - 14
  15. 15. Social Judgment Theory• Social Judgment Theory: – People assimilate new information about Ao’s based on what they already know or feel. – Attitudes of Acceptance and Rejection: People differ in the information they find acceptable or unacceptable. • Assimilation effect: Messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as more consistent with one’s position than they actually are • Contrast effect: Messages falling within the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being farther from one’s position than they actually are 7 - 15
  16. 16. Balance Theory• Triad: – An attitude structure consisting of three elements • (1) A person and his/her perceptions of • (2) an attitude object, and • (3) some other person or object• Unit relation: – An element is seen as belonging to or being part of the other• Sentiment relation: – Two elements are linked because one has expressed a preference for the other• Marketing Applications of Balance Theory – Celebrity endorsements 7 - 16
  17. 17. Alternative Routes toRestoring Balance in a Triad Figure 7.2 7 - 17

×