Innate Needs (Biogenic or Primary) – Physiological
Acquired Needs (Psychological or Secondary) –
Learned from culture or environment.
Extrinsic Needs – Motivates an individual to achieve
Intrinsic Needs – His/ her own comfort.
MOTIVES – Positive and Negative
Positive – Shaping up the body
Negative – To avoid health problems
Product Specific Goals
The selection of Goals
Prevailing cultural norms & values
Goals accessibility in the physical and social environment
Positive and Negative Goal
Positive Goal( Approach Object) – towards which
behavior is directed.
Negative Goal ( Avoidance Object) – behavior which is
Promotion and Prevention Focus
Promotion – growth and development.
Prevention – safety and security.
Utilitarian and Hedonic
Utilitarian – Utility
Hedonic – feelings, to enhance satisfaction
Interdependence of Needs and Goals
Needs and goals are interdependent; neither exists
without the other.
Individuals are more aware of their physiological
needs than are of their psychological needs.
Rational Vs Emotional Motives
Rational – people choose product which gives most
utility (size, weight, price and miles)
Emotional – people select goals according to
personal or subjective ( eg: pride, fear, affection or
Dynamics of Motivation
Needs are never fully satisfied
Needs emerge as old needs are satisfied
Success and failure influence goals:
Aggression – express anger.
Rationalization – they say the goal is worthless.
Regression – childish behavior.
Projection – blaming others
Daydreaming / fantasizing.
Identification – solving the issue by comparing with others.
Repression or suppression, Sublimation – avoid thinking about the goal
Power e.g. ego needs
Affiliation e.g. groups
Achievement e.g. self confident
A trio of needs
Measurement of Motivation
e.g. underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions concerning
product, service or brand etc.
Word association and sentence completion
Thematic apperception test
Drawing pictures and photo sorts