Hi. My name is Marie Downing. My presentation today is about Albert Bandura. Before we start: (Share a story – one where everyone assumes a particular outcome for a student merely because of their environment. Show how the opposite occurred. Ask the group if they have experienced similar situations? Can they name any in particular?) This presentation will share with you information on Albert Bandura, a well-known psychologist and learning theorist. We will start with a little history about this life and how he got into the field of psychology (not his first choice). Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory combines elements of behaviorism and social learning theory. We will take time today to talk about the Bobo doll experiment. We will also talk about the reciprocal concept before discussing the different motivators and what motivates you. Before I go on I would like to identify the session objectives: Albert Bandura personal history Understanding behaviorism orientation The social cognitive theory, what does it mean The reciprocal concept Understanding self-efficacy Understand two different styles What motivates adult learners What does Bandura’s theory imply for teaching and learning Where do the criticisms come from? Real life applications of Bandura’s theory
We will start by touching briefly on a little history of Bandura’s life and some of his contributions to the field of psychology.
He was one of six children. He was the youngest and the only boy. His parents each emigrated to Canada when they were adolescents His parents did not have any formal education but placed a high value on educational attainment. His high school math curriculum used only one book for the entire four years. &quot;The students had to take charge of their own education,&quot; Bandura recalls.
Bandura discussed how some things we do put us into situations that shape the course of our own lives. For example, taking a psychology class just to fill time in the early morning, not because it was his major. He major had been biological sciences
There are many well-know theorists in the field of behaviorism. We will just touch on two of them today. Some feel Thorndike is one of the greatest learning theorists of all times. His book “Adult Learning” was published in 1928. It was one of the first to report on research in adult learning. S-R theory (connectionism) S- Stimuli R-Responses The theorist who did the most development with behaviorism as B.F. Skinner Operant conditioning Reinforce the behaviors you want to see repeated. Ignore behaviors you do not want to see again. Behaviorists espouse, among other assumption that: A person’s environment shapes their behavior. Reinforcement increases the probability a desired action will be repeated.
Commercials make suggestions that viewers will become as beautiful as the model on the screen if they use a particular product. Wash your hair with Dove shampoo and your hair will be just as soft, full, and beautiful as that of the model on the commercial. Bandura’s social cognitive learning theory suggests that people can learn through observation but do not necessarily have to repeat the observed behavior. So if a person sees a commercial for a product that espouses wonderful outcomes, the viewer of the commercial will not necessarily run out to purchase the product. Can you think of a time when you saw a commercial for a new product? Did you purchase the product based on the claims of the commercial alone?
In 1963 Bandura conducted the Bobo Doll experiment . This experiment showed that people will model what they see. The children viewed aggressive actions in a video and when left in the room with the Bobo doll, the exhibited the same aggressive behaviors. We will view a short video of the experiment narrated by Bandura. According to Bandura, the behaviors were repeated 88% of the time (http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm) The behavior of the children in this video is a result of modeling a behavior. Two groups of children watched the adult beat the bobo doll. One group saw the lady rewarded and the second saw her punished.
Psychological processes is a person’s ability to think about images in their minds. Can the person see the image of what the preferred situation would be?
Let’s talk a little about self-efficacy. Can you tell me what self-efficacy means to you?
A person’s perception of how they believe they will behave in particular environments. It is a person’s perception of their abilities. When it came to goal setting, Bandura felt high self-efficacy increased the chances the successful imagines would become a reality. On the other hand he felt low self-efficacy would likely cause an individual to have images of failure. A person may perform either poorly, adequately, or extremely well depending on their self-efficacy thinking. Even in court trials, self-efficacy is something attorneys are considering as they prepare witnesses to take the stand. I want to point out that Bandura says there is a difference between self-efficacy and confidence. Cramer, R., Neal, T., & Brodsky, S. (2009). Self-efficacy and confidence: Theoretical distinctions and implications for trial consultation. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61(4), 319-334. doi:10.1037/a0017310.
There are many different learning styles, but today we are going to talk briefly about just two of them. Observational learning and enactive learning. Can you think of what these two styles entail?
Observational learning (modeling) Attention is the first process of the observational learning style. In order for a person to learn, first attention must be given to the person. Some people are given more attention than others, for example the favorite student. Learning continues with the person being able to retain what they have learned so that the information can be used at a later date. This can be accomplished with symbols or words. Have you ever drawn upon a memory to help you remember something? The mental pictures we store in minds help us to bring back something we have learned in the past. Symbols can do this as well. Or mnemonics. Who remembers “Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally” Can you think of another time you used mnemonics to remember something? The learned behavior is stored by the individual until they are ready to act upon it. Lastly, the person must be motivated to model the new behavior. Enactive Learning (Learning reinforcement through reward and punishment) Occurs when an individual performs a particular behavior and then witnesses the consequences, positive or negative.
Can you think of different motivators? What motivates you to do things? What motivates you to learn? People base many of their actions upon the anticipated consequence.
There are different types of motivators. There are incentive motivators and vicarious motivators. Incentive motivators: These change depending on the developmental stage of the person. A trip to the park may work for a group of elementary school aged students, but would probably not yield the same results for adult learners. What about money motivators? Pay raises? Bonus points on a test? Vicarious motivators involve witnessing the rewards or punishments of another person Can you think of examples of both incentive and vicarious motivators
We will end our time together today talking about how Bandura’s theory fits into your teaching and learning styles. Can you share some real life applications of Bandura’s theory. Can you think of instances where his theory would be applicable in your work environment?
This list is included in your handout.
Please take time to complete the evaluation.
I am available to answer any more questions you may have after we conclude today’s presentation. Feel free to contact me at [email_address] Thank you again for your time and participation.
Albert bandura power point presentation97
Marie Downing Walden University Richard W. Riley School of Education and Leadership EdD Student EDUC 8101
<ul><li>Born December 4, 1925 in Canada </li></ul><ul><li>He and his family struggled through many hardships during his younger years </li></ul><ul><li>He attended his elementary through high school years at the only school in town. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The school had very limited resources. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>He attended the University of British Columbia in Vancouver </li></ul><ul><li>He went on to study psychology at the University of Iowa where he earned a M.A. degree in 1951 and a Ph.D. degree in clinical psychology 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1953, he joined the faculty of Stanford University where he remained throughout his long career </li></ul>
<ul><li>Theories on behaviorism are derived from several different theorists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Edward L. Thorndike, B.F. Skinner, and others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assumptions include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment shapes behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement increases probability of desired action being repeated </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Examples of social learning situations include television commercials. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bandura’s theory of learning takes into account three things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The person’s environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The person’s psychological processes </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Observational learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retention (memory) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral reversal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enactive learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning from the outcomes of a person’s personal actions </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Incentive motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A trip to the park if a task or assignment is completed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vicarious motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed positive outcomes </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Can we think of ways that Bandura’s theory can be applied to teaching and learning? </li></ul>
<ul><li>One problem with social learning is that it is difficult to predict what all individuals will perceive as positive. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Alexander, R. (1976). Toward a moral criterion for use by behavior modifiers. Retrieved from ERIC database </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura, A. (2009). Social cognitive theory goes global. The Psychologist, 22(6), 504-506. Retrieved from PsycINFO database. </li></ul><ul><li>Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitivist theory. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Cramer, R., Neal, T., & Brodsky, S. (2009). Self-efficacy and confidence: Theoretical distinctions and implications for trial consultation. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 61 (4), 319-334. doi:10.1037/a0017310. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Elias, H., Mahyuddin, R., Noordin, N., Abdullah, M., & Roslan, S. (2009). Self-efficacy beliefs of at-risk students in Malaysian secondary schools. International Journal of Learning, 16 (4), 201-209. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>Griffin, E., (2010). A first look at communication theory. Retrieved online from http://www.afirstlook.com/docs/sociallearning.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L. M. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Nilsen, H. (2009). Influence on student academic behaviour through motivation, self-efficacy and value-expectation: An action research project to improve learning. Issues in Informing Science & Information Technology, 6, 545-556. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. </li></ul><ul><li>Pajares, F. (2004). Albert Bandura: Biographical sketch. Retrieved, from http://des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html . </li></ul>