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Consumer Motivation


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this is for notivating cnsumers

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Consumer Motivation

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Consumer Motivation
  2. 2. What is Motivation? <ul><li>An activated state within a person that leads to goal-directed behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desires </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Motivation begins with the recognition of a need. <ul><li>Need recognition: a perceived discrepancy exists between an actual and a desired state of being </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs can be either innate or learned. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs are never fully satisfied. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Two Types of Needs: <ul><li>Utilitarian needs </li></ul><ul><li>Expressive needs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Some General Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Broad theories of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow’s hierarchy of needs </li></ul>
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  7. 7. McClelland’s Theory of Learned Needs <ul><li>Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness </li></ul>
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (meat powder) elicits Conditioned Stimulus (bell ringing) Conditioned Response (salivation) Unconditioned Response (salivation) paired with elicits
  9. 9. Classical Conditioning US Michael Jordan elicits CS Nike CR Admiration UR Admiration paired with elicits
  10. 10. Operant Conditioning <ul><li>The process in which the frequency of occurrence of a bit of behavior is modified by the consequences of the behavior. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary reinforcers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis of contingencies of reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Operant Conditioning (continued) <ul><li>Schedules of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Shaping consumer responses </li></ul>
  12. 12. Vicarious Learning <ul><li>People foresee the probable consequences of their behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>People learn by watching the actions of others and the consequences of these actions (i.e. vicarious learning). </li></ul><ul><li>People have the ability to regulate their own behavior. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Factors Increasing a Model’s Effectiveness <ul><li>The model is physically attractive. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is credible. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is similar to the observer. </li></ul><ul><li>The model is shown overcoming difficulties and then succeeding. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Midrange Theories of Motivation <ul><li>Opponent-Process Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum Stimulation Levels </li></ul><ul><li>The Desire to Maintain Behavioral Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>The Motivation to Avoid Risk </li></ul><ul><li>The Motivation to Attribute Causality </li></ul>
  15. 15. I. Opponent-Process Theory <ul><ul><li>The immediate positive or negative emotional reaction is felt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A second emotional reaction occurs that has a feeling opposite to that initially experienced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The combination of the two emotional reactions results in the overall feeling experienced by the consumer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priming </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. II. Optimum Stimulation Level <ul><li>A person’s preferred amount of physiological activation or arousal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation may vary from very low levels (e.g. sleep) to very high levels (e.g. severe panic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals are motivated to maintain an optimum level of stimulation and will take action to correct the level when it becomes to high or too low. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety seeking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation for hedonic experiences </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. III. The Desire to Maintain Behavioral Freedom <ul><li>Psychological reactance </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of threats can lead to reactance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impersonal threats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three conditions lead to reactance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers believe they have a choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice is threatened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The choice is important </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. IV. The Motivation to Avoid Risk <ul><li>Perceived risk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative outcomes of a decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability these outcomes will occur </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 7 Types of Consumer Risks. <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity Loss </li></ul>
  20. 20. Factors Influencing Perception of Risk <ul><li>Individual characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Situation/nature of task </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of product or service </li></ul><ul><li>How consumers process information </li></ul>
  21. 21. Six risk-reduction strategies are: <ul><ul><li>Be brand loyal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy through brand image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy through store image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek out information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy the most expensive brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buy the least expensive brand </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. V. The Motivation to Attribute Causality <ul><ul><li>Internal attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External attribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental attribution error </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Augmentation-Discounting Model <ul><ul><li>Discounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Augmenting </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Managerial Implications of Motivation <ul><li>Positioning and Differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Mix </li></ul><ul><li>Segmentation </li></ul>