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  1. 1. PERCEPTION <ul><li>ELEMENTS OF PERCEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>DYNAMICS OF PERCEPTION </li></ul>
  2. 2. Perception Perception is defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes, and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the world.
  3. 3. Perception cont. <ul><li>In other words Perception is defined as “how we see the world around us.” </li></ul><ul><li>Foreg: Two individuals may be exposed to the same stimuli under the same apparent conditions, but how each person recognizes, selects, organizes, and interprets these stimuli is a highly individual process based on each person’s own needs, values, and expectations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Elements of Perception <ul><li>The different elements of Perception are: </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><li>The absolute threshold </li></ul><ul><li>The differential threshold </li></ul><ul><li>Subliminal perception </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sensation <ul><li>Sensation is the immediate and direct response of the sensory organs to stimuli. Examples of stimuli i.e., sensory input include products, packages, brand names, advertisements, and commercials. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory receptors are the human organs that receive sensory inputs. These inputs play singly or in combination, in evaluation and use of most consumer products. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Absolute threshold <ul><li>The lowest level at which an individual can experience a sensation is called the absolute threshold. The point at which a person can detect a difference between “something” & “nothing” is that person’s absolute threshold for that stimulus. Foreg the distance at which a driver can note a specific billboard on a highway is that individual’s absolute threshold. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Absolute Threshold <ul><li>In the field of perception , the term adaption refers specifically to “getting used to” certain sensations. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory adaptation is a problem that concerns many national advertisers, which is why they try to change their advertisement campaigns regularly. They think that consumers will used to them that they no longer “see” them. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Differential Threshold <ul><li>The minimal difference that can be detected between two similar stimuli is called the differential threshold, or the just noticeable difference. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreg , if the price of a half gallon container of premium , freshly squeezed orange juice is $5.50, most consumers will probably not notice an increase of 25 cents. However if there is an increase of 50 cents or more a differential in price is noticed. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Subliminal perception <ul><li>People are also stimulated/motivated below their level of conscious awareness; that is, they can perceive stimuli without being consciously aware that they are doing so. This process is called subliminal perception because the stimulus is beneath the threshold. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dynamics of Perception
  11. 11. Perception is the result of two different kinds of inputs that interact to form the personal pictures One type of input is physical stimuli and the other type of input is provided by individuals themselves
  12. 12. Aspects of Perception <ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of stimuli </li></ul>
  13. 13. Perceptual Selection <ul><li>Consumers exercise a great deal of selectivity as to which aspects of the environment they perceive. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg – a woman in a supermarket. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nature of the stimulus <ul><li>Variables that affect the </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer’s perception </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of product </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Package Design </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Name </li></ul><ul><li>Advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Commercials </li></ul>
  15. 15. Expectations <ul><li>People expect to see what they expect to see and this is based on familiarity, previous experience or preconditioned set. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg- a student who has been told by his friends that a particular professor is interesting will probably perceive the professor in that manner when the class begins. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Motives <ul><li>One perceive the things they need or want </li></ul><ul><li>The stronger the need the greater the tendency to ignore unrelated stimuli in the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Eg – someone who is hungry is more likely to notice ads for food. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Selective Perception <ul><li>Four important concepts concerning perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Exposure </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Defense </li></ul><ul><li>4. Perceptual Blocking </li></ul>
  18. 18. Perceptual Organization <ul><li>People do not experience the numerous stimuli they select from the environment as separate and discrete sensations; rather, they tend to organize them into groups and perceive them as unified wholes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Gestalt Psychology <ul><li>Three of the most basic principles of perceptual organization are:- </li></ul><ul><li>Figure and Ground </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure and Ground <ul><li>The simplest visual illustration consists of a figure on a ground. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are organized by people on figure and ground relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg – Advertisers have to plan their advertisements carefully to make sure that the stimulus they want noted is seen as figure and not as a ground. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Grouping <ul><li>Individuals tend to group stimuli so that they form a unified picture or impression. </li></ul><ul><li>The perception of stimuli as groups, rather than as discrete of information,facilitates their memory and recall. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg – we recall and repeat our phone numbers in three segments- the area code,first three digits, and the last four digits. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Closure <ul><ul><li>Individuals have a need for closure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the pattern of stimuli to which they are exposed is incomplete, they tend to perceive it, as complete,that is they consciously or subconsciously fill in the missing pieces. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Perceptual Distortion <ul><li>Physical Appearance – Attractive models are more persuasive and have a more positive influence on customer attitude and behavior than average looking models. </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes – Stereotypes serve as expectations of what specific situations, people or events will be like and they are important determinants of how such stimuli are subsequently perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg – AKTEO watches </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>First Impression – First impression tend to be lasting, in forming such impression, the perceiver does not know which are relevant, important or predictive of later behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Jumping to Conclusions – Many people tend to jump conclusion before examining all the relevant evidence. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Halo Effect – The halo effect has been used to describe situation in which the evaluation of a single object and person on a multitude of dimensions is based on the evaluation of just one or a few dimensions. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>THANKS </li></ul>