BB Chapter Ten : Motivation and Personality

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BB Chapter Ten : Motivation and Personality

  1. 1. Chapter Ten: Motivation, Personality and Emotion 10-1
  2. 2. Chapter 10: Motivation, Personality and Emotion 1. The nature of motivation 2. Some theories of motivation 3. How marketers can appeal to consumers’ motives 4. The underlying aspects of the theories of personality 5. The relationship of personality to marketing 6. How emotions can be used in marketing strategies 10-2
  3. 3. The nature of motivation Motivation • The energising force that activates or triggers behaviour • Provides purpose, direction and drive to that behaviour 10-3
  4. 4. The Nature of Motivation Motivation is the reason for behavior. A motive is a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response. There are numerous theories of motivation, and many of them offer useful insights for the marketing manager. 10-4
  5. 5. Motivations • The inner reasons or driving forces behind human action as consumers are driven to address real needs. • Human motivations are oriented toward two key groups of behavior: – Homeostasis – the body naturally reacts in a way so as to maintain a constant, normal blood stream. – Self-improvement – changing one’s current state to a level that is more ideal. 10-5
  6. 6. Utilitarian and Hedonic Motivations Lead to Consumer Behaviors 10-6
  7. 7. Consumer Involvement Represents the Types: degree of personal – Product relevance a – Shopping consumer finds in – Situational pursuing value – Enduring from a given – Emotional consumption act. Involvement affects the degree of motivation in consumer buying behavior 10-7
  8. 8. The Nature of Motivation Two useful motivation theories: theories 1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • A macro theory designed to account for most human behavior in general terms. 2. McGuire’s Psychological Motives • A fairly detailed set of motives used to account for specific aspects of consumer behavior. 10-8
  9. 9. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 1. All humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction 2. Some motives are more basic or critical than others 3. The more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated 4. As the basic motives become satisfied, the more advanced motives come into play. 10-9
  10. 10. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1-10
  11. 11. An Illustration of Consumer Motivations According to Maslow’s Hierarchy
  12. 12. Application of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs to the Marketing of Cars Source: Kotler, Armstrong and da Silva (2006) Pearson Asia 10-12
  13. 13. The Nature of Learning and Memory Marketing Strategies and Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy 10-13
  14. 14. The Nature of Motivation McGuire developed a classification with16 categories Two criteria determine four categories: • Is the mode of motivation cognitive or affective? • Is the motive focused on preservation of the status quo or on growth? Four categories further subdivided: • Is this behavior actively initiated or in response to the environment? • Does this behavior help the individual achieve a new internal or a new external relationship to the environment? 10-14
  15. 15. McGuire’s psychological motives • Cognitive preservation motives • Cognitive growth motives • Affective growth motives • Affective preservation motives 10-15
  16. 16. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives 1. Cognitive Preservation Motives 1. Cognitive Preservation Motives Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Consistency (active, internal) Need for Attribution (active, external) Need for Attribution (active, external) Attribution Theory Attribution Theory Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need to Categorize (passive, internal) Need for Objectification (passive, external) Need for Objectification (passive, external) 10-16
  17. 17. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives 2. Cognitive Growth Motives 2. Cognitive Growth Motives Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Autonomy (active, internal) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Need for Stimulation (active, external) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Teleological Need (passive, internal) Utilitarian Need (passive, external) Utilitarian Need (passive, external) 10-17
  18. 18. The need for observable cues regarding the desired image sought 10-18
  19. 19. McGuire’s psychological motives: Cognitive motives (see table 10.2) 10-19
  20. 20. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives 3. Affective Preservation Motives 3. Affective Preservation Motives Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Tension Reduction (active, internal) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Expression (active, external) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Ego Defense (passive, internal) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) Need for Reinforcement (passive, external) 10-20
  21. 21. Appealing to the individual’s need for self-expression 10-21
  22. 22. Nature of Motivation McGuire’s Psychological Motives 4. Affective Growth Motives 4. Affective Growth Motives Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Assertion (active, internal) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Affiliation (active, external) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Identification (passive, internal) Need for Modeling (passive, external) Need for Modeling (passive, external) 10-22
  23. 23. Appealing to consumers’ need to enhance their self-esteem 10-23
  24. 24. Applications in Consumer Behavior The Mercedes-Benz ad provides an excellent example of targeting women high in need for assertion They are competitive achievers, seeking success, admiration, and dominance. Important to them are power, accomplishment, and esteem. Courtesy Mercedes Benz USA, Inc. 10-24
  25. 25. McGuire’s psychological motives: Affective motives 10-25
  26. 26. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Consumers do not buy products; instead they buy motive satisfaction or problem solutions. solutions Managers must discover the motives that their product and brands can satisfy and develop marketing mixes around these motives. Do marketers create needs? 10-26
  27. 27. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketers do create demand! demand Demand is the willingness to buy a particular product or service. It is caused by a need or motive, but it is not the motive. 10-27
  28. 28. Discovering purchase motives Latent motives Manifest motives 10-28
  29. 29. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Discovering Purchase Motives Manifest motives are motives that are known and freely admitted. Latent motives are either unknown to the consumer or are such that he/she is reluctant to admit them. Projective techniques are designed to provide information on latent motives. 10-29
  30. 30. Impact of Magazine covers ?? 10-30
  31. 31. Latent and manifest motives in a purchase situation 10-31
  32. 32. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategies Based on Multiple Motives Communication Strategy 1 Product advertising must communicate multiple benefits 3 2 Indirect appeals are Direct appeals are often frequently used for latent effective for manifest motives motives Latent Manifest Motives Motives 10-32
  33. 33. Motivation research techniques • Association techniques – Word association – Successive word association • Completion techniques – Sentence completion – Story completion • Construction techniques – Cartoon techniques – Third-person techniques – Picture techniques 10-33
  34. 34. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Motivation Research Techniques 10-34
  35. 35. Motivation Theory and Marketing Strategy Marketing Strategies Based on Motivation Conflict Three types of motivational conflict: 1. Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict • A choice between two attractive alternatives 2. Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict • A choice with both positive and negative consequences 3. Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational Conflict • A choice involving only undesirable outcomes 10-35
  36. 36. Approach-avoidance motivational conflict in advertising 10-36
  37. 37. Personality Personality is an individual’s characteristic response tendencies across similar situations. While motivations are the energizing and directing force that makes consumer behavior purposeful and goal directed, the personality of the consumer guides and directs the behavior chosen to accomplish goals in different situations. 10-37
  38. 38. Personality Qualities • Unique to an individual • Can be conceptualized as a combination of specific traits or characteristics • Traits are relatively stable and interact with situations to influence behavior • Specific behaviors can vary across time 10-38
  39. 39. Five-Factor Model 10-39
  40. 40. Personality • Individual personality theories • Social learning theories • A combined approach 10-40
  41. 41. Personality • Individual personality theories – Sigmund Freud – Neo-Freudians – Trait theory 10-41
  42. 42. Psychoanalytic Approach (Freud) Basic instinctive needs, animal like, strong sexual Id Id connotations How society expects us to behave- norms and values Superego Superego The balancing centre- to Ego Ego achieve rational behavior acceptable to society 10-42
  43. 43. Personality Trait theories examine personality as an individual difference, allowing marketers to segment consumers on these differences. Trait theories assume 1. All individuals have internal characteristics or traits related to action tendencies, and 2. There are consistent and measurable differences between individuals on those characteristics. 10-43
  44. 44. Important Traits Studied Value consciousness Value consciousness Materialism Materialism Innovativeness Innovativeness Complaint proneness Complaint proneness Competitiveness Competitiveness 10-44
  45. 45. Examples of Other Traits in Consumer Research 10-45
  46. 46. Personality 1. Multi-trait Approach • The Five-Factor Model is the most commonly used by marketers and identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. 2. Single Trait Approach • Consumer Ethnocentrism • Need for Cognition • Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness 10-46
  47. 47. Personality Multitrait Approach Multitrait personality theory identifies several traits that in combination capture a substantial portion of the personality of the individual. The Five-Factor Model is commonly used by marketers, which identifies five basic traits that are formed by genetics and early learning. 10-47
  48. 48. The five-factor model of personality Core trait Manifestation Extroversion Prefer to be in a group than alone, talkative, bold Instability Moody, temperamental, touchy Agreeableness Sympathetic, kind, polite Openness to Imaginative, appreciative of art, find novel experience solutions Conscientiousness Careful, precise, efficient 10-48
  49. 49. Personality Single Trait Approach Single trait theories emphasize one trait as being particularly relevant. They do not suggest that other traits are nonexistent or unimportant. Rather, they study a single trait for its relevance to a set of behaviors. 10-49
  50. 50. Personality Examples of Single-Trait Theories Neuroticism Vanity Trait Locus of Sensation Anxiety Control Seeking Compulsive Materialism Affect Self- Buying Intensity Monitoring 10-50
  51. 51. Personality Three additional traits: 1. Consumer Ethnocentrism • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products. 2. Need for Cognition (NFC) • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking. 3. Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness • Reflects an individual difference in consumers’ propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods. 10-51
  52. 52. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Other times, Sometimes consumers use consumers choose products to bolster products that fit their an area of their personality. personality where they feel weak. 10-52
  53. 53. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Brand image is what people think of and feel when they hear or see a brand name. Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire. 10-53
  54. 54. Dimensions of brand personality 10-54
  55. 55. Brand Personality Dimensions 10-55
  56. 56. Communicating brand personality through advertising 10-56
  57. 57. Communicating brand personality through advertising (cont.) 10-57
  58. 58. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality Three important advertising tactics: 1. Celebrity Endorsers 2. User Imagery 3. Executional Factors 10-58
  59. 59. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality Celebrity endorsers are often a useful way to personify a brand. The characteristics and meaning of the celebrity can transfer to the brand. 10-59
  60. 60. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality User imagery involves showing a typical user along with images of the types of activities they engage in while using the brand. User imagery helps to define who the typical user is in terms of their traits, activities, and emotions. 10-60
  61. 61. The Use of Personality in Marketing Practice Communicating Brand Personality Executional factors go beyond the core message to include “how” it is communicated, such as the • “tone” of the ad (serious vs. quirky) • appeal used (fear vs. humor) • logo and typeface characteristics (scripted font may signal sophistication) • pace of the ad • media outlet chosen 10-61
  62. 62. Emotion Emotion is the identifiable specific feeling, and affect is the liking/disliking aspect of the specific feeling. Emotions are strong, relatively uncontrolled feelings that affect behavior. They are strongly linked to needs, motivation, and personality. Unmet needs create motivation which is related to the arousal component of emotion. Personality also plays a role, e.g., some people are more emotional than others, a consumer trait referred to as affect intensity. intensity 10-62
  63. 63. Emotions • Psychobiological reactions to appraisals. – Psychobiological because they involve psychological processing and physical responses. – Create visceral responses – certain feeling states are tied to behavior in a very direct way. 10-63
  64. 64. Visceral Responses to Emotions by Consumers 10-64
  65. 65. Emotion Terminology • Mood – a transient (temporary and changing) and general affective state. – Mood-congruent judgments – the value of a target is influenced in a consistent way by one’s mood. • Affect – represents the feelings a consumer has about a particular product or activity. 10-65
  66. 66. Emotions What is this consumer feeling? 10-66
  67. 67. A simple example of a research instrument used to test moods 10-67
  68. 68. The nature of emotions 10-68
  69. 69. Emotion Dimensions of Emotion (see Table 10.6 on page 319) Pleasure Arousal Dominance 10-69
  70. 70. Emotion Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Pleasure Duty Moral, virtuous, dutiful Faith Reverent, worshipful, spiritual Pride Proud, superior, worthy Affection Loving, affectionate, friendly Innocence Innocent, pure, blameless Gratitude Grateful, thankful, appreciative Serenity Restful, serene, comfortable, soothed Desire Desirous, wishful, craving, hopeful Joy Joyful, happy, delighted Competence Confident, in control, competent Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago. 10-70
  71. 71. Emotion Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Arousal Interest Attentive, curious Hypoactivation Bored, drowsy, sluggish Activation Aroused, active, excited Surprise Surprised, annoyed, astonished Déjà vu Unimpressed, uninformed, ,unexcited Involvement Involved, informed, enlightened, benefited Distraction Distracted, preoccupied, inattentive Surgency Playful, entertained, lighthearted Contempt Scornful, contemptuous, disdainful Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago. 10-71
  72. 72. Emotion Emotional Dimensions, Emotions, and Emotional Indicators Dimension Emotion Indicator/Feeling Dominance Conflict Tense, frustrated, conflictful Guilt Guilty, remorseful, regretful Helplessness Powerless, helpless, dominated Sadness Sad, distressed, sorrowful, dejected Fear Fearful, afraid, anxious Shame Ashamed, embarrassed, humiliated Anger Angry, initiated, enraged, mad Hyperactivation Panicked, confused, overstimulated Disgust Disgusted, revolted, annoyed, full of loathing Skepticism Skeptical, suspicious, distrustful Source: Adapted with permission from M. B. Holbrook and R. Batra, “Assessing the Role of Emotions on Consumer Response to Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, December 1987, pp. 404-20. Copyright © 1987 by the University of Chicago. 10-72
  73. 73. Schema-Based Affect Emotions become stored as Emotions become stored as part of the meaning for a part of the meaning for a category. category. 10-73
  74. 74. Examples of Schema-Based Affect 10-74
  75. 75. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Marketers have always used emotions to guide the following on an intuitive level: • product positioning • sales presentations, and • advertising However, deliberate, systematic study of the relevance of emotions in marketing strategy is relatively new. 10-75
  76. 76. Types of emotional states 10-76
  77. 77. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion Arousal as a Product Benefit • Consumers actively seek products whose primary or secondary benefit is emotion arousal. Emotion Reduction as a Product Benefit • Marketers design or position many products to prevent or reduce the arousal of unpleasant emotions. 10-77
  78. 78. Emotions and marketing strategy • Emotion arousal as a product benefit – Sad movies – Disney World • Emotion reduction as a product benefit – Retail therapy – Flowers 10-78
  79. 79. Emotional arousal as a product benefit 10-79
  80. 80. Emotions and Marketing Strategy Emotion in Advertising Emotional content in ads can enhance attention, attraction, and maintenance capabilities. Emotional messages may be processed more thoroughly due to their enhanced level of arousal. Emotional ads may enhance liking of the ad itself. Repeated exposure to positive-emotion-eliciting ads may increase brand preference through classical conditioning. Emotion may operate via high-involvement processes especially if emotion is decision relevant. 10-80
  81. 81. Illustration of Emotion Aiding Learning (associating feeling good with buying the brand) 10-81
  82. 82. Ads that arouse emotions 10-82
  83. 83. Ads that arouse emotions: pets and smiling faces 10-83

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