“Those influences or consideration which provide the impulse to buy, induce action or determine choice in the purchase of good or services”.
Psychological FactorsThese motives are influenced by the following elements Motivation Socio-economic background Learning Personality Belief and Attitude Social Group Culture Perception
A person has many needs at any given time. Some needs are biogenic, they arise fromphysiological states of tension such as hunger, thirst,discomfort. Other needs are psychogenic, they arise frompsychological state of tension such as belongingness,loneliness, need of recognition, esteem.
It involves changes in an individual behavior arising from experience. Most human behavior is learned. ProcessDrive Stimuli Cue Response Reinforcement Generalization Discrimination
Drive is a strong internal stimulus impelling action.Cue or Minus stimuli that determine when, where and how a person response.Eg: Suppose you buy an IBM Computer. If your experience is rewarding, your response to computer and IBM will be positively reinforced. Later on when you want to buy a printer you may assume that because IBM makes good computer, IBM also makes good printer. In other words you generalize your response to similar stimuli. A counter tendency to generalization is discrimination. Discrimination means that the person has learn to recognize difference in set of similar stimuli and can adjust response accordingly.
Belief may be defined as descriptive thoughtthat the person hold in particular things.An Attitude is a person’s enduring favorable orunfavorable evaluations, emotional feelingsand action tendencies towards some object oridea.
Culture is nothing but belief, idea, tradition,habits, customs. Buying motives are very oftencontrolled by cultural attachments and sentiments. For example, certain section of the societyremains as vegetarian. They attach important tocultural value.
Socio-economic Background From the marketing point of view thisaspect is a highly powerful element thatsupport purchasing divisions. Income andClass are two factors involved here. For Instance the buying habits of individualworkers will be totally difference from that ofthe agricultural labors. Similarly the pattern ofthe purchase by a rich man and a poor wouldbe opposite in nature. Their expenditurepattern also will be different.
Personality“ The sum totality of all traits possessed by an individual is known as personality”. One individual is difference from the other not only in physical respect but also in their behavior. There are so many theories are developed to explain the personality and its influence on behavior of people. Normally people are divided in to two classes. 1. Extrovert 2. Introvert But how far the personality features would be associated with buying patterns is yet to be established.
Psychologist are of opinion that groupbehavior has influence on individual behavior.Group may be formal or informal groups maybe organized on friendship, age, sex, commoninterest etc. Certain prestige product arebought not based on individual need butsimply to get an individual indentified withgroup.
“The way in which people look at things”. It may be defined as a process by which individual organize and interpret their sensory impression in order to give meaning to their environment. Perceptual Process Perceptual through putsPerceptual Inputs Perceptual outputs Stimuli Receiving -> Selecting ->Organizing ->Interpreting Action
Perceptual Inputs: The stimuli is nothing but environmental subject, events, incidents. People can be consider as the perceptual inputs.Perceptual throughputs: The actual transformation of these inputs through the perceptual mechanism of selection, organization and interpretation can be treated as the through puts.Perceptual Out put: The Resultant opinions, feelings, attitude, anger, sorrow, happy etc which ultimately influence our behavior can be viewed as the perceptual out put.
How the perception influence or affects the buying motives. There are 3 different dimension that affect human being perception. They are1. Selective Attention2. Selective Distortion3. Selection Retention
: People are exposed to a tremendousamount of daily stimuli. For example the average person maybe exposed to over 150 advertisements a day.Because a person can not possibly attend to allof these. Most stimuli will be screened out.This process is called as Selective attention. People are more likely to notice stimulithat relate to current need.
: People do not selectively payattention to difference stimuli. They alsoselectively distort them. This selectivedistortion happens because people add theirown value and beliefs to the message.
People will forget much that they learnbut they retain the information which supposetheir attitude and belief because of selectiveretention. Ex: Mr. X is likely to remember goodpoints about Hero Honda and forget good pointsabout Bajaj & TVS.