Managerial Behavior and Effectiveness PPT

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Managerial Behavior and Effectiveness PPT

  1. 1. ENHANCING MANAGERIALENHANCING MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCEPERFORMANCE --Empowering yourself to become aEmpowering yourself to become a High Performance Manager (HPM)High Performance Manager (HPM)
  2. 2. BA6009 - MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOUR ANDBA6009 - MANAGERIAL BEHAVIOUR AND EFFECTIVENESSEFFECTIVENESS
  3. 3. Unit 1Unit 1
  4. 4. DEFINING THE MANAGERIAL JOBDEFINING THE MANAGERIAL JOB MANAGEMENTMANAGEMENT According to Peter Drucker, Management implies ‘Effectiveness’According to Peter Drucker, Management implies ‘Effectiveness’ and effectiveness involves a set of practices that can beand effectiveness involves a set of practices that can be learned. Such practices include:learned. Such practices include: •• Management of timeManagement of time •• Focusing on employees and customersFocusing on employees and customers •• Building on strengthsBuilding on strengths •• Identifying prioritiesIdentifying priorities •• Making effective decisionsMaking effective decisions
  5. 5. MANAGERIAL JOB-MANAGERIAL JOB- DESCRIPTIVE DIMENSIONSDESCRIPTIVE DIMENSIONS General Functions of a ManagerGeneral Functions of a Manager  PlanningPlanning  OrganizingOrganizing  LeadingLeading  ControllingControlling
  6. 6. Functional Dimensions: Henri FayolFunctional Dimensions: Henri Fayol The other activities of a business enterprise that managersThe other activities of a business enterprise that managers perform, according to Fayol, could be divided into sixperform, according to Fayol, could be divided into six categories:categories: TechnicalTechnical (Production, Manufacturing)(Production, Manufacturing) CommercialCommercial (Buying, Selling, Exchanging)(Buying, Selling, Exchanging) FinancialFinancial (Obtaining and using capital)(Obtaining and using capital) SecuritySecurity (Protecting of property and persons)(Protecting of property and persons) AccountingAccounting (Balance sheet, stock taking, statistics,(Balance sheet, stock taking, statistics, costing)costing) ManagerialManagerial (Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Co-(Planning, Organizing, Commanding, Co- coordinating, Control)coordinating, Control)
  7. 7. Henry Mintzberg Role DimensionsHenry Mintzberg Role Dimensions Mintzberg developed a model of the related roles ofMintzberg developed a model of the related roles of managers and he called themmanagers and he called them Ten Managerial Roles identified by MintzbergTen Managerial Roles identified by Mintzberg Interpersonal RolesInterpersonal Roles Figurehead roleFigurehead role LeaderLeader Liaison roleLiaison role Informational RolesInformational Roles MonitorMonitor Disseminator roleDisseminator role Spokes Person
  8. 8. Decisional RolesDecisional Roles Entrepreneurial roleEntrepreneurial role Disturbance handler roleDisturbance handler role Resource allocator roleResource allocator role Negotiator roleNegotiator role
  9. 9. Gender, Leadership and Managerial jobGender, Leadership and Managerial job dimensionsdimensions The four greatest myths are:The four greatest myths are: 1. Task-oriented skills are more important for1. Task-oriented skills are more important for leadership effectiveness than are person orientedleadership effectiveness than are person oriented skills.skills. 2. Male managers are more likely to possess task2. Male managers are more likely to possess task oriented abilities than are female managers; whereasoriented abilities than are female managers; whereas female managers are more likely to possess personfemale managers are more likely to possess person oriented skills than are male managers.oriented skills than are male managers.
  10. 10. 3. In order to maximize managerial effectiveness,3. In order to maximize managerial effectiveness, men should be given the jobs that require task-men should be given the jobs that require task- oriented abilities and women should be given theoriented abilities and women should be given the jobs that require interpersonal skills.jobs that require interpersonal skills. 4. If women want to rise to the top levels of4. If women want to rise to the top levels of management, they need to be more like men.management, they need to be more like men. MYTH#1: Task-oriented skills are more importantMYTH#1: Task-oriented skills are more important for leadership effectiveness than are person-for leadership effectiveness than are person- oriented skills.oriented skills.
  11. 11. MYTH#2: Male managers are more likely toMYTH#2: Male managers are more likely to possess task-oriented abilities than are femalepossess task-oriented abilities than are female mangers, whereas female managers are moremangers, whereas female managers are more likely to possess person-oriented skills than arelikely to possess person-oriented skills than are male managers.male managers. MYTH#3: In order to maximize managerialMYTH#3: In order to maximize managerial effectiveness, men should be given the jobs thateffectiveness, men should be given the jobs that require task-oriented abilities and women shouldrequire task-oriented abilities and women should be given the jobs that requirebe given the jobs that require interpersonal skills.interpersonal skills. MYTH#4: If women want to rise to the top levelsMYTH#4: If women want to rise to the top levels of management, they need to be more like men.of management, they need to be more like men. Benefits of Androgynous ManagementBenefits of Androgynous Management
  12. 12. Luthans description of effective andLuthans description of effective and successful managers:successful managers: Fred Luthans and his associates studied more than 450 managers. WhatFred Luthans and his associates studied more than 450 managers. What they found was that these managers all engaged in four managerialthey found was that these managers all engaged in four managerial activities.activities. Traditional ManagementTraditional Management:: Decision-making, planning, and controlling.Decision-making, planning, and controlling. Communication:Communication: Exchanging routine information and processing paperExchanging routine information and processing paper workwork Human resource Management:Human resource Management: Motivating, disciplining, managingMotivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing and trainingconflict, staffing and training.. Networking:Networking: Socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders.Socializing, politicking, and interacting with outsiders. VARIOUS OTHER JOB CRITERIA DIMENSIONSVARIOUS OTHER JOB CRITERIA DIMENSIONS Some other functions that managers perform are Communication,Some other functions that managers perform are Communication, Listening, Oral Presentation, Written Communication and many more.Listening, Oral Presentation, Written Communication and many more.
  13. 13. Delegation as an important function of Manager:Delegation as an important function of Manager: There are several advantages resulting from effectiveThere are several advantages resulting from effective delegation:delegation: In order to delegate, the manager should have the following:In order to delegate, the manager should have the following: Receptiveness –Receptiveness – Willingness to delegate – welcomes the ideasWillingness to delegate – welcomes the ideas of subordinateof subordinate Willingness to allow them to make decisionsWillingness to allow them to make decisions Willingness to let others make mistakesWillingness to let others make mistakes Willingness to trust subordinatesWillingness to trust subordinates Should delegate only if they have means of getting feedbackShould delegate only if they have means of getting feedback Reward effective delegation.Reward effective delegation.
  14. 14. Social Responsibilities of Managers and Ethics toSocial Responsibilities of Managers and Ethics to be followed:be followed:  Responsibility towards shareholdersResponsibility towards shareholders  Responsibility towards consumersResponsibility towards consumers  Responsibility towards employeesResponsibility towards employees  Responsibility towards creditorsResponsibility towards creditors  Responsibility towards the governmentResponsibility towards the government  Responsibility towards suppliersResponsibility towards suppliers  Responsibility towards competitorsResponsibility towards competitors  Responsibility towards general publicResponsibility towards general public Example:Example: Tata group of companies took up social project as part of its corporate policy.Tata group of companies took up social project as part of its corporate policy. Tata Steel Rural Development Society adopted 32 clusters of village aroundTata Steel Rural Development Society adopted 32 clusters of village around Jamshedpur initially. Today it serves more than 800 villages in eight districts of Bihar,Jamshedpur initially. Today it serves more than 800 villages in eight districts of Bihar, Orissa and M.P.Orissa and M.P.
  15. 15. TIME DIMENSIONS IN MANAGERIAL JOBTIME DIMENSIONS IN MANAGERIAL JOB Time ManagementTime Management The objective of time management is to increase and optimize the use ofThe objective of time management is to increase and optimize the use of your discretionary time. Time Management actually relates to:your discretionary time. Time Management actually relates to:  Getting the best out of your timeGetting the best out of your time  Time management is the same as managing your lifeTime management is the same as managing your life  Life managementLife management  Time managementTime management  Now managementNow management  PrioritizationPrioritization  Managing your mindManaging your mind  AwarenessAwareness
  16. 16. Major areas that help in the management of timeMajor areas that help in the management of time There are five major areas, which are imperative to improving theThere are five major areas, which are imperative to improving the management of time:management of time:  Habitual use of timeHabitual use of time Managers should generally spend an average day as given below:Managers should generally spend an average day as given below: Pay off timePay off time - 50% of average day- 50% of average day Investment timeInvestment time - 25% of average day- 25% of average day Organization timeOrganization time - 15% of average day- 15% of average day Wasted timeWasted time - 10% of average day- 10% of average day  Goal settingGoal setting SS – Specific– Specific MM- Measurable- Measurable AA – Achievable– Achievable RR – Realistic– Realistic TT – Timed– Timed
  17. 17.  PrioritiesPriorities  CommunicationCommunication  ProcrastinationProcrastination Procrastination is a major stumbling block for almostProcrastination is a major stumbling block for almost everyone seeking to improve his use of time. Thereeveryone seeking to improve his use of time. There are three causes, which lead to procrastination:are three causes, which lead to procrastination: •• UnpleasantnessUnpleasantness •• Difficult projectsDifficult projects •• IndecisionIndecision
  18. 18. Principles of Time ManagementPrinciples of Time Management •• Establish goals, both long-term and short-termEstablish goals, both long-term and short-term •• Principles of brevityPrinciples of brevity •• Principles of habitPrinciples of habit •• Principles of proper planningPrinciples of proper planning •• Principles of prioritizationPrinciples of prioritization •• Principles of effectivenessPrinciples of effectiveness •• Principles of equal distributionPrinciples of equal distribution •• Time estimatesTime estimates •• Delegation of authorityDelegation of authority •• Management exceptionManagement exception •• Proper implementationProper implementation •• Follow upFollow up
  19. 19. Some of the time wastersSome of the time wasters Time wasters can be classified as internal time wasters andTime wasters can be classified as internal time wasters and external time wasters.external time wasters. Internal time wasters:Internal time wasters: •• Poor communication-written and verbalPoor communication-written and verbal •• ProcrastinationProcrastination •• Inability to say ‘No’Inability to say ‘No’ •• Poor prioritizingPoor prioritizing •• Inadequate planningInadequate planning •• Failure to delegateFailure to delegate
  20. 20. External time wasters:External time wasters: •• VisitorsVisitors •• MeetingsMeetings •• Papers and correspondencePapers and correspondence •• TelephoneTelephone •• Procedures and systemsProcedures and systems •• TravelTravel •• SubordinatesSubordinates
  21. 21. The other time wasters could be with regard toThe other time wasters could be with regard to planning and process itself.planning and process itself.  Planning:Planning: •• Lack of clarity on objectivesLack of clarity on objectives •• Shifting prioritiesShifting priorities •• Unrealistic time estimatesUnrealistic time estimates  Process:Process: •• Lack of clarity about the job requirements.Lack of clarity about the job requirements. •• Poor crisis managementPoor crisis management •• Inability to concentrateInability to concentrate •• Ineffective delegationIneffective delegation
  22. 22. Pruning Time Wasters:.Pruning Time Wasters:. VisitorsVisitors MeetingsMeetings Papers and correspondencePapers and correspondence TelephoneTelephone TravelTravel InformationInformation Selective readingSelective reading There are four Ds to be kept in mind for managing our workThere are four Ds to be kept in mind for managing our work effectively with regard to time. They are:effectively with regard to time. They are: D – DumpD – Dump D – DelayD – Delay D – DelegateD – Delegate D – DoD – Do
  23. 23. Effective Time Management Techniques based onEffective Time Management Techniques based on task orientation:task orientation: Four kinds of tasksFour kinds of tasks Two-dimensional view of tasks to be completedTwo-dimensional view of tasks to be completed The Three Laws of Time and Effort ManagementThe Three Laws of Time and Effort Management 1.1. The Law for Planning our timeThe Law for Planning our time 2.2. The Law for applying our effortThe Law for applying our effort 3.3. The Law for Investing our TalentThe Law for Investing our Talent High Consideration and Low Structure High Structure and High Consideration Low Structure and Low Consideration High Structure and Low Consideration
  24. 24. Work measurement with relevance to time dimensionWork measurement with relevance to time dimension Steps toward successful work measurement- organizing the work areaSteps toward successful work measurement- organizing the work area  Thoroughly Inform Executives and Employees of theThoroughly Inform Executives and Employees of the objectivesobjectives  Review and analyze their operationsReview and analyze their operations  Develop and discuss work simplificationDevelop and discuss work simplification  Instruct the employee and install the improved methodsInstruct the employee and install the improved methods  Compile and code the operations listCompile and code the operations list  Study and measure operationsStudy and measure operations  Install activity and attendance reportingInstall activity and attendance reporting  Report and counsel management of the problem areasReport and counsel management of the problem areas  Plan and improve performancePlan and improve performance  Improve and control operational activitiesImprove and control operational activities
  25. 25. Benefits of work measurement process areBenefits of work measurement process are •• Reduced effort and fatigue;Reduced effort and fatigue; •• Improved workstations;Improved workstations; •• Workload redistribution because of imbalance, unimportance or workWorkload redistribution because of imbalance, unimportance or work below the employee’s skills;below the employee’s skills; •• Job stability;Job stability; •• Performance recognition;Performance recognition; Delegation and Time managementDelegation and Time management What is delegation?What is delegation? There are several advantages resulting from effective delegation:There are several advantages resulting from effective delegation: What To Delegate?What To Delegate?
  26. 26. Dale McConky, suggests the following items to be delegatedDale McConky, suggests the following items to be delegated to subordinates:to subordinates: •• Matters that keep repeating themselvesMatters that keep repeating themselves •• Minor decisions most frequently madeMinor decisions most frequently made •• Parts of the job the supervisor is least qualified to handleParts of the job the supervisor is least qualified to handle •• Parts of the job that make the superior over specialized.Parts of the job that make the superior over specialized. The reasons why they do not delegate are:The reasons why they do not delegate are: •• Lack of confidence in subordinatesLack of confidence in subordinates •• Lack of self-confidenceLack of self-confidence •• Poor definition of dutiesPoor definition of duties •• Aversion to risk takingAversion to risk taking •• Fear of subordinates as competitors.Fear of subordinates as competitors. •• An inflated self-imageAn inflated self-image
  27. 27. Certain tips to managers on time management:Certain tips to managers on time management:  Start your day without a plan of action.Start your day without a plan of action.  Get out of balance in your life.Get out of balance in your life.  Work with a messy desk or work area.Work with a messy desk or work area.  Don’t get enough sleep.Don’t get enough sleep.  Don’t take a lunch break.Don’t take a lunch break. Some behavioral negativities of our own nature that prohibit usSome behavioral negativities of our own nature that prohibit us from maintaining timings and schedules are:from maintaining timings and schedules are:
  28. 28. MANAGERIAL MODELMANAGERIAL MODEL Person Process ProductPerson Process Product Heuristic Model Of Managerial Behavior & PerformanceHeuristic Model Of Managerial Behavior & Performance Organizational Environment Individual Characteristics •Intelligence •Aptitude •Knowledge •Temperament •Preference •Expectation •Ability Feedback •Motivation •Opportunity Transformation Process •Managerial Job dimension •General functions & Specialized functions Organizational results •Profit maximization •Organizational efficiency •High Productivity •Employee Satisfaction Feedback •Customer satisfaction
  29. 29. The personThe person  Qualities includeQualities include  Ability to sustain defeatAbility to sustain defeat AlertAlert  AmbitiousAmbitious AssertiveAssertive  Capable of good judgmentCapable of good judgment ConfidentConfident  CompetitiveCompetitive CreativeCreative  DecisiveDecisive DedicatedDedicated  DefensiveDefensive DynamismDynamism  Emotional stabilityEmotional stability EnergeticEnergetic  ExtrovertExtrovert Fear of failureFear of failure  Group orientedGroup oriented HonestHonest  IntelligentIntelligent Mentally strongMentally strong  OptimisticOptimistic PragmaticPragmatic  PredictablePredictable RealisticRealistic  Self-controlledSelf-controlled TolerantTolerant
  30. 30.  The processThe process •• Answers how managers manage successfullyAnswers how managers manage successfully •• Manage work instead of peopleManage work instead of people •• Plan and organize effectivelyPlan and organize effectively •• Set goals realisticallySet goals realistically •• Decisions based on consensus but accept responsibilityDecisions based on consensus but accept responsibility •• Delegate frequently and effectivelyDelegate frequently and effectively •• Rely on others to help solve problemsRely on others to help solve problems •• Communicate preciselyCommunicate precisely •• Cooperate with othersCooperate with others •• Display consistent and dependable behaviorDisplay consistent and dependable behavior •• Win with graceWin with grace •• Express hostility tactfullyExpress hostility tactfully
  31. 31.  ProductProduct These reflect on outcome of effective managing and include:These reflect on outcome of effective managing and include: •• Organizational efficiencyOrganizational efficiency •• High productivityHigh productivity •• Profit maximizationProfit maximization •• Organizational stabilityOrganizational stability •• Employee welfareEmployee welfare •• Social welfareSocial welfare MODEL OF MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESSMODEL OF MANAGERIAL EFFECTIVENESS  Heuristic ModelHeuristic Model  Heroic Models of the managerHeroic Models of the manager  Manager as Master TechnicianManager as Master Technician  Manager as ConductorManager as Conductor  Manager as a developerManager as a developer
  32. 32. EFFECTIVENESS CAN BE LEARNEDEFFECTIVENESS CAN BE LEARNED Objectives of Effective ManagerObjectives of Effective Manager EFFECTIVE MANAGER AS AN OPTIMIZER:EFFECTIVE MANAGER AS AN OPTIMIZER: To optimize is to increase productivity for which the following fourTo optimize is to increase productivity for which the following four components should be given atmost attention by the managers.components should be given atmost attention by the managers. •• MentoringMentoring •• FeedbackFeedback •• CounselingCounseling •• DisciplineDiscipline APART FROM THE ABOVE MENTIONED COMPONENTS,APART FROM THE ABOVE MENTIONED COMPONENTS, ANY MANAGERS IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE, SHOULD BEANY MANAGERS IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE, SHOULD BE ABLE TOABLE TO
  33. 33. EFFECTIVE JOB BEHAVIOR WOULD BE FURTHEREFFECTIVE JOB BEHAVIOR WOULD BE FURTHER POSSIBLE WITH THE ADOPTION OF CERTAIN SKILLSPOSSIBLE WITH THE ADOPTION OF CERTAIN SKILLS •• Technical skillsTechnical skills •• Human skillsHuman skills •• Conceptual skillsConceptual skills •• Designing skillsDesigning skills •• Communication skillsCommunication skills •• Interpersonal skillsInterpersonal skills •• Understanding perception, self concept, and expressing emotionsUnderstanding perception, self concept, and expressing emotions •• Nonverbal and verbal skillsNonverbal and verbal skills •• Conflict management skillsConflict management skills •• Problem solving skillsProblem solving skills •• Political skillsPolitical skills •• Listening skills and feedback skills to build high performanceListening skills and feedback skills to build high performance
  34. 34. TEN STEPS TO BECOME AN EFFECTIVE MANAGERTEN STEPS TO BECOME AN EFFECTIVE MANAGER 1.1. What are the goals and objectives of the organization? Do your teamWhat are the goals and objectives of the organization? Do your team members know what they are supposed to accomplish?members know what they are supposed to accomplish? 2.2. What is your role in attaining these goals and objectives? What areWhat is your role in attaining these goals and objectives? What are your team member’s roles?your team member’s roles? 3.3. What tools or resources will you have to work with in order to fulfillWhat tools or resources will you have to work with in order to fulfill your role?your role? 4.4. What procedures and rules will you have to follow?What procedures and rules will you have to follow? 5.5. How much authority do you have? How much do your team membersHow much authority do you have? How much do your team members have?have? 6.6. What are your relationships inside and outside of your department orWhat are your relationships inside and outside of your department or organization?organization? 7.7. What criteria will be used to measure your performance?What criteria will be used to measure your performance? 8.8. Will you receive feedback on how you are doing? Where, when, andWill you receive feedback on how you are doing? Where, when, and how?how? 9.9. Where and from whom can you or your team members receive help andWhere and from whom can you or your team members receive help and support when it is needed?support when it is needed? 10.10. What rewards or recognition will you receive?What rewards or recognition will you receive?
  35. 35. FUNCTIONAL AND LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN MANAGERIALFUNCTIONAL AND LEVEL DIFFERENCES IN MANAGERIAL JOB BEHAVIOURJOB BEHAVIOUR  Top-level ManagementTop-level Management  Middle level ManagersMiddle level Managers  First level ManagersFirst level Managers SKILLS REQUIRED BY THE MANAGERS AT EACH LEVELSKILLS REQUIRED BY THE MANAGERS AT EACH LEVEL  Technical – at supervisory roleTechnical – at supervisory role  Human – middle levelHuman – middle level  Conceptual – top levelConceptual – top level Top Managerial Level- Its significanceTop Managerial Level- Its significance Change: What is it?Change: What is it? •• Change is the normChange is the norm •• Change is unavoidableChange is unavoidable •• Task of the organization is to lead change.Task of the organization is to lead change.
  36. 36. 1. Change Policies1. Change Policies a. Abandon yesterdaya. Abandon yesterday b. Organized Improvementb. Organized Improvement c. Exploiting Successc. Exploiting Success 2. Piloting2. Piloting 3. Changes And Continuity3. Changes And Continuity 4. Making The Future4. Making The Future

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