Co-ordination• Animals must be able to sense and respond to the environment to survive. – temperature of their surroundings (avoid the hot sun) – be able to identify food – escape predatorsTwo systems are involved in co-ordination• Nervous System – operates via electrical impulses along nerve fibres• Endocrine Systems – operates by releasing special chemicals or hormones into the bloodstream from glands.
Main Components of the Nervous System• Brain – Keeps a check on internal organs and activities, such as the level of carbon dioxide or water in the blood – Receives information from senses – Creates response• Spinal Cord – Transmits impulses to and from the brain and controls many reflex actions.• Nerve (Neuron) – Sensory – Inter – Motor
Terms• Nerve – Carries electrical messages• Reflex Action – A quick, automatic response to a particular stimulus (knee jerk)• Autonomic Nervous System – controls internal body functions not under conscious control• Central nervous system (CNS) – brain and spinal cord• Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – the nerves branching from the CNS to all parts of the body.
Sense Organs• Animals have specialised senses to provide them with information about their environment.• The five senses are sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell
Sources of Stress Reaction to Stress• Predators • Muscular Tension• Lack of food and • Adrenaline Rush water • Increase Heartbeat• Captivity • Heightened• No suitable mates Awareness• Extreme change in environment
Endocrine System of a Dog• Group of specialised tissues (glands) that produce chemicals called hormones
2 types of GlandEndocrine Glands Exocrine GlandsDuctless Glands Have a Duct Secrete hormones Secretes hormones directly into the blood directly to site
Hormones• The pituitary is often called the ‘master gland’, as many of its hormones trigger other glands to release theirs• It produces – ADH to stimulate water reabsorption in the kidneys (anti-diuretic hormone) – TSH which stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxine (thyroid stimulating hormone) – FSH which controls the functions of the reproductive organs. (follicle stimulating hormone)
• The thyroid gland, in the neck produces thyroxine – stimulates metabolism• The pancreas produces insulin – stimulates cells to absorb glucose from the blood, and store it as glycogen• The adrenal gland produces adrenaline – helps the body cope with emergencies (the ‘flight or fight’ hormone)• The ovary produces oestrogen and progesterone – prepares the female for pregnancy• The testes produce testosterone – triggers sperm production and growth in the male
Comparison of the endocrine and nervous systems - 1 EndocrineCells involvedMessageCarried byMessage sent toReceived by
Comparison of the endocrine and nervous systems - 1 EndocrineCells involved GlandMessage Chemical (Hormone)Carried by BloodMessage sent to Cells throughout the bodyReceived by Target organ
Comparison of the endocrine and nervous systems - 1 Endocrine NervousCells involved Gland Sense receptorMessage Chemical Electrical(Impulse) (Hormone)Carried by Blood Nerve cellMessage sent to Cells throughout A specific cell or the body tissueReceived by Target organ Effector (muscle or gland)
Comparison of the endocrine and nervous systems -- 2 EndocrineSpeed of Usually slowtransmissionEffects Can be widespreadDuration long-lasting (hours)
Comparison of the endocrine and nervous systems -- 2 Endocrine NervousSpeed of Usually slow RapidtransmissionEffects Can be widespread Localised usuallyDuration long-lasting Usually brief (hours) (seconds)
Common Ailments of the Nervous System• Epilepsy – Convulsions and Fits – Removal of underlying cause or use anticonvulsant drugs• Ataxia – Irregular or unsteady gait – Physiotherapy
Common Ailments of the Endocrine System• Diabetes – Signs – very dilute urine, anorexia, diarrhoea – Drug therapy to treat• Hypothyroidism – Signs – clammy skin, weight gain, tired – Drug therapy to treat