It is important, therefore, that every possible precaution is taken to prevent the occurrence of an avoidable disaster. If a disaster does occur, libraries need to be able to respond efficiently and rapidly, in order to limit the impact.
Use proper supplies and equipment. Only use equipment that is of good quality and in good condition. Consider safety first. Before moving an object, inspect equipment to ensure that the object and the handler will be safe during the move Do you need to move the object? Is moving the object absolutely necessary? If not, don’t move it What are the object’s structural characteristics and condition? Is it strong enough to withstand the move? What is the safest way to lift the item? How will you need to lift and carry the object to protect it from damage? Where is the object’s new location? Is it large enough to properly house the object? Is the environment appropriate? What route will you use? Is it clear of obstructions? Will the personal health and safety of the handler be at risk? Do you have the proper moving equipment to avoid physical strain? Do you need to wear a lab coat or dust mask?
Treat every museum object as if it were irreplaceable and the mostvaluable piece in the collection. Handle objects only when necessary. Move only one object at a time. Note: Small items can be moved together. Never hurry. Take no risks. Never smoke, eat, or drink while handling objects. Avoid wearing anything that might damage objects (for example, rings and other jewelry, watches, belt buckles, nametags, service badges). Use pencils, not pens, when working near objects. Keep hands clean, even when wearing gloves. Wear appropriate gloves. − Wear white cotton gloves when handling most objects.
Packing Flat Paper Objects Note: packaging materials do not have to be acid-free if they are not in direct contact with the objects and if the shipment will be unpacked right away. If the objects are framed and it is safe to do so, remove them from the frames. Then pack as follows: First Wrapping. Wrap each object in a clean smooth paper such as acid-free glassine or tissue paper. It is often desirable to place a stiff, non-acidic paper or cardboard behind especially fragile objects to support them. Second Wrapping. The objects should be placed between stiff boards and secured to one of the boards with envelope corners. The boards should be taped together and wrapped in a sturdy material such as Kraft paper. Objects of like size may be packaged together at this stage. You may be tempted to use a water resistant sheeting such as polyethylene. Use of non-breathing, impermeable material may not be wise. If the package is subjected to abrupt temperature drops, condensation can form inside the package. Shipping Containers: The Sandwich. Next, place the wrapped object(s) in the shipping container. Crating is especially recommended (see below). If a small number of sheets are involved, however, it is acceptable to sandwich them between two rigid sheets. Half inch plywood, Masonite®, or honeycomb board are recommended. For small objects, several layers of sturdy cardboard may be used. The cardboard must be rigid and dense enough to resist puncturing or bending. If layers of corrugated board are used, some conservators recommend placing each sheet with the grain perpendicular to that of adjoining layers for increased rigidity. In any sandwich, the boards should be 4&quot; larger than the object (2&quot; additional in each direction). To prevent slipping, the wrapped objects should be secured to one of the boards with strips of tape across the corners (if the objects have been well wrapped and will be unpacked right away, they will not be endangered by the tape. It is better to use crates for large objects. If they are sandwiched, very thick or dense boards must be used, and wooden cross pieces may be advisable. The sandwich package should be sealed at the edges with tape and wrapped with a sturdy material such as Kraft paper. All the seams on Registered Mail packages must be sealed with brown paper tape (no glossy, filamentreinforced or self-stick tapes are allowed by the Postal Service for registered packages). Crates. Crates afford more protection than sandwiches and are usually the better choice. They are necessary for books and other three-dimensional or heavy objects, for large numbers of artifacts, or for objects that need ample cushioning. Although waterproof containers can be made at great cost, ordinary wood crates are not waterproof or even water resistant. The most you ® ® ® ® Northeast Document Conservation Center — Packing and Shipping http://www.nedcc.org/resources/leaflets/4Storage_and_Handling/12Pa... 2 di 3 10/08/2010 12.26 can expect from the average well-made crate is physical protection. To ensure that the contents are not exposed to rain or other hazardous conditions, you must use a reliable carrier. Each object should be wrapped and packed so it does not slide around in the crate. Enclose a packing list of all objects as well as your name, address, phone number and any special instructions. Wood, especially plywood, is the material most commonly used for crating. If you make the crate yourself, use flat head screws. Nails are not as strong and are difficult to remove when unpacking. Removing nails may cause jarring of the contents and damage to the crate, which might otherwise be reused. Large crates should have handles or wood extensions that allow them to be lifted and moved easily. Crates with nothing to hold onto are apt to be dropped, pushed, or tumbled. Procedures for Special Kinds of Materials
Books. The principles for packing books for shipment are similar to those for sending flat objects. Books, however, tend to be heavier and have corners that are subject to crushing. They must be shipped in rigidly constructed crates or boxes rather than in padded book bags. Each volume in the box should be wrapped individually. The first wrapping material should be clean, smooth paper like acid-free tissue or glassine. If the volume is bound in a paper wrapper or a limp binding, acid-free boards should be cut to the size of the volume and placed on the outside of the front and back covers before the volume is wrapped a second time. The second wrapper should be a padding material that will both absorb shocks and buffer changes in temperature and RH. This second layer may be one of the cushioning materials listed in the Flat Paper section, bubble wrap, or flexible rolling corrugated wrap. The whole book, including spine, fore edge, top and bottom, should be covered. The volume can be wrapped a third time in sturdy paper. This package should be placed in a wood crate or rigidly constructed carton surrounded by cushioning material like Ethafoam, bubble wrap, or peanuts as described above. The number of volumes shipped in one carton should be determined by value, weight and size. If a carton containing several volumes is shipped, it should weigh no more than 20 pounds. Fragile or Delicate Objects. Special care must be taken with fragile objects. Those with friable (insecure) media such as pastels or charcoal drawings are especially vulnerable to vibrations, which occur during travel. Such materials should be hand-carried whenever possible. If pastels must be shipped, speak with a conservator first. It is essential that fragile objects be well cushioned (see above). Objects Framed Under Glass. If the object is framed with glass and cannot be safely removed from the frame, it is best not to ship it. If sending such an object is absolutely necessary, apply strips of masking tape to the glass. The tape may not keep the glass from cracking, but it will hold the glass in position so there is less danger of damaging the object. The tape should cover the entire surface of the glass in parallel strips that are both vertical and horizontal. To absorb shocks, framed pictures must be cushioned extremely well. Rolled Objects. Although paper artifacts should be shipped flat whenever possible, it is often more practical to roll very large sheet materials. To avoid crushing, such objects are best rolled around the outside of a wide-diameter tube, wrapped with cushioning material, and placed inside a very tough larger tube. A less desirable option is to wrap and cushion the rolled object and place it inside a tube. The object must be wrapped first so that it can be extracted from the tube by pulling on the wrapping rather than on the object itself. Tubes used for shipping should be at least four inches in diameter and strong enough to withstand being run over by a forklift (this does happen). Rolled Objects. Although paper artifacts should be shipped flat whenever possible, it is often more practical to roll very large sheet materials. To avoid crushing, such objects are best rolled around the outside of a wide-diameter tube, wrapped with cushioning material, and placed inside a very tough larger tube.
Cushioning. Padding helps absorb shocks and keeps objects from shifting. It may also provide thermal insulation and a humidity buffer. Cushioning materials are recommended especially for fragile objects or those with insecure media, and they are essential for objects that must be sent under glass. These materials are usually made of plastic. Polyethylene or polypropylene foams with brand names like Ethafoam , Volara , or Microfoam are especially popular with museums for packaging. Some polyethylene or polypropylene foam products are even suitable for long term storage. They come in sheets of various thickness or in blocks that can be cut to cradle and support three-dimensional objects. Polystyrene foams such as Styrofoam can also be used for cushioning but are not chemically stable enough for long term storage. Filling the crate with plastic &quot;peanuts&quot; also provides a cushion. As always, the objects should be wrapped first. Packing with &quot;bubble wrap&quot; is another option, but, because bubble wrap is a sheet that does not breathe, it should not be sealed around the object. In addition, bubble wrap can stain and should never be used in direct contact with a sheet of paper or a book cover.
. Repeated poor handling can quickly transform a new book into a worn one, and a worn book into an unusable object that requires costly repair, rebinding, or replacementHandling by staff and readers directly affects the useful life of library collections. Educating staff and readers in how to handle library material correctly and how to play a more active part in preserving collections for future generations is a key element of preservation. Handling library material with washed and clean hands helps to keep it in good condition. Dirty, sticky, grubby, greasy, unwashed hands leave unsightly and indelible marks on library material.
In some cases, areas involved in a fire may require a week or longer before they are cool and safe enough to enter. Other areas may be under investigation when arson is suspected
Remain calm, reassuring. Alert staff to potential hazards. Look for loose or downed power lines. Avoid area. Report problems to local utility. Look for electrical system damage: sparks, broken/frayed wires, smell of burning insulation. Turn off electricity at main switch if you can without risk. Shut off water. If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing, open a window and immediately leave the building. Turn off gas at main valve if trained to do so. Call gas company at once. DO NOT REENTER THE BUILDING until declared safe by security or emergency management officials. Protect the collections from further damage.
The problems in a flood arise because a book is not simply paper, but is a complex composite object, composed of varying materials that react differently to water. Dry Paper has a normal water content equal to 5 - 7% of its weight. However, the water content can increase to as much as 30% and the paper still feel reasonably dry to the touch. Therefore, it can be very misleading to base your actions on whether something 'feels dry'. Leather, when wet will shrink severely and often undergo extreme darkening. Both of these effects ought to be considered irreversible. 4. Book cloth is fairly stable when wet. It neither expands nor shrinks dramatically. Because other components of the book, such as the boards, do expand when wet, this stability can result in board warpage. Dyes in many book cloths will run, Many cloths are sized with starch
Paper absorbs water at different rates depending on the age, condition, and composition of the material. Generally speaking, manuscripts and books dated earlier than 1840 will absorb water to an average of 80 percent of their original weight. Some may absorb as much as 200% of their original weight. Since there is a greater concentration of proteinaceous material and receptivity to water in such early books and papers, they are especially vulnerable to mold when damp. Modern books, other than those with the most brittle paper, will absorb an average of up to 60 percent of their original weight. The major part of all damage to bound volumes caused by swelling from the effects of water will take place within the first four hours or so after they have been immersed Paper has a normal hygroscopic capacity for absorbing water. However, paper made before the middle of the nineteenth century has an even greater capacity for the absorption of water thanks to the greater amount of water-soluble sizing used in that early period. For example, books of this period will absorb up to an average of 80 % percent of their original weight. Furthermore, paper of this period used for books or manuscripts is highly vulnerable to microbiological infection. However, such paper will survive total immersion in water for longer periods than paper made after the mid-nineteenth century. Books made after this time were treated with water-resisting sizes; they absorb an average of 60 percent of their weight. So, in estimating the original weight of a collection, if each book weighs about four pounds (1.81 kilograms) when dry and there are, for example, about 20,000 of each period one must plan for the removal of 64,000 pounds (29,000 kilograms) of water from the earlier period and 48,000 pounds (21,773 kilograms) from the later . As to swelling of books, the mayor part of damage takes place within the first eight hours after soaking. And since the text block and book covers swell more than the covering material, the tensions produced causes the spine to become concave and the fore-edge convex. The straining forces the case of the book to become partially or completely detached
Visual clues are good indicators of water content. i. Swelling, cockling (undulation of sheets), darkened colour of paper or cloth and deformation of binding all indicate absorption. The longer the books have been exposed to water, the more pronounced these indicators will be. ii. Swelling, especially, is an indicator of length of exposure. As the book sits in water, it continues to absorb water and the various parts swell at different rates. The textblock will swell the most and push out against the less expansive case and the sewing thread, which may even shrink. This results in a tendency for the spine to assume a concave configuration and the longer the book sits the more concave it becomes. Some books, when they have been sitting in a pool of water for a few days swell to such an extent that the spine forms a tight backwards circle and the front board actually comes around to touch the rear board. Some tightly shelved books may swell to such a degree that they 'walk' themselves off the shelves. In most cases the swelling will reach a maximum after a few days
When a bundle of documents or a book has been soaked and permitted to dry under favorable conditions, it will begin to lose its water content from the outside surface. Capillary action permits the interior water to move outwards and carry with it all varieties of water-soluble materials such as dyes, pigments, adhesives, and acids. In a concentration of these materials, the acids and adhesives in particular, will cause the edges of the text block to become embrittled and edges stick together. If these text blocks are left in this condition after drying, serious degradation of the cellulose in the paper will be speeded up (8). Books on coated paper present special problems. Coatings are usually applied to paper in order to obtain uniformity of surface, to enhance opacity, smoothness, and gloss. The basic components of coatings contain pigments such China clay or a solubilized protein (10). Waters (8) notes that in the presence of water, starch-based coatings and some casein mixtures may revert from dry adhesive to gel and then back to the solid on drying. When these adhesive mixtures are in a fluid state, any pressure will cause the coatings to weld together and create a permanent bond during the drying cycle.
In case of wetted hand-written documents or bound volumes where inks have been used, the archivist and librarians face the problem of feathering or migration of those inks. In the two principal categories of inks, those made from carbon pose no problem since this organic material is not soluble: its binding medium (glue or gum), even when long decayed, leaves the carbon particles embedded in the paper fibers. However, there are inks that may look carbon but are, in fact, quite soluble. In the second principal category are the so-called iron inks which are compounded from gallotannic acid in the presence of iron in a binding medium. Where carbon remains on the surface, iron inks soak into the paper so that the insoluble iron compounds formed when the ink matures are held as an integral part of the paper surface. In those cases where mature iron inks become a rusty brown or yellowish color it is not safe to assume that all inks of these tones are of iron and therefore insoluble. These same colors can appear with inks made of sepia or beechwood root which are impermanent (11) Through all times inks have been made according to a multitude of recipes, and as a result vary in substance appearance, and permanence. Some more modern inks are made &quot;permanent&quot; for fountain pens by using iron sulphate and tannic acid. However, the dyes used for toning will feather in water. Some inks used for writing hav little more than a dilute aqueous solution of one or more synthetic dyestuffs. Other &quot;permanent'' inks like those made of iron compounds will run or feather in water until they are matured or, said in another manner, properly oxidized As for colored inks, most of them are soluble with or without aging. While most holdings in archives and libraries are of non colored paper, the majority of the more modern material even if it appears to be white, contains coloring matter added to improve appearance. For toning or coloring there are two mayor classes of colorants used: colored pigments and water soluble dyes. Of these the latter are the most used. The word ''soluble&quot; means that a dye is soluble in water and colors the fibers from a solution in water. Such colors are impermanent and will run when wetted
Gallo describes a number of schizomycetes (bacterial) actually low in number, and about 100 species of fungis which, under favorable conditions, attack and infest the organic matter in paper. Although the spores of the fungi and the schizomyceti are present in the raw materials used for the manufacturing of paper waiting for conditions favorable for development, the infection of documents is more attributable to the spores ever present in the air or dust. Spores need air to develop; a book or a bundle of manuscripts totally immersed in water are immune from attack. And since the spores of the fungi cause more frequent and greater damage than bacteria, this study will focus on the former. The microbial spores of the fungal plant, of which the most common is called mold, need the following elements order to reproduce: humidity, a relatively warm temperature, and a nutrient. The first, humidity, is present in abundance when water floods an archives or library. And a temperature higher than normal is present if the season is warm (the problem is less acute if it is cold), if ventilation is poor, if the air conditioning system breaks down, or if there is heat present generated by an extinguished fire. The third element, the nutrient, is essential because the fungal plant, which has no chlorophyll to convert carbon dioxide to carbohydrates for tissue growth, must get carbohydrates directly from organic matter. Unfortunately, there is plenty of nutrition available in the cellulose paper, the protein in parchment and leather, along with the nutrients in animal and starch adhesives used to size, glue and paste. Kowalik (7) adds that microorganisms not only have cellulose at their disposition but also other substances such lignin, hemicelluloses, pectins, waxes, tannin, and mineral constituents. Furthermore, paper may contain resino fillers, dyestuffs, added during the productive cycles, and various impurities which may also form a part of the microbial diet. In any case, if the temperature is in the 18° to 36°C (65° to 96.8 °F) range and the relative humidity above 65 percent, chances are that mold infection will appear on wetted books and documents in about 72 hours after flooding takes place This, however, is not a hard and fast rule. Waters (8) reports a case where mold developed rampantly of the water-soaked spines of rare books to a thickness of 1/4 to 1/2 inch (6 to 12.7 millimeters) some 52 hours from the onset of a disaster. As a matter of fact, during long-term storage fungi will grow, although slowly, at a rel humidity as low as 60 percent. And the National Library of Wales (9) experienced mold infection on a number of items where the relative humidity was not only well below 70 precept, but in some cases as low as 50 percent .
The first visible evidence of mold infection is a white powdery mass that will appear on the surface of a document or a book. Sometimes you need a raking light to detect it. Even a slight trace is a warning that temperature and humidity are above the limits for safety. At this point, the fungal plant has grown hyphae (root-like organs) into the stratum of the nutrient in order to get food for its development. as the plant metabolizes the substances required for its growth, it secretes citric, oxalic, lactic, and other organic acids which damage the material on which the moould is feeding. At the same time, the plant secretes pigments of green, blue, brown, black, red, and yellow color which deposited on the host. These stains are practically impossible to remove; they can obliterate the text of a manuscript or book. When mold attacks paper other complex things happen: the strength supplied by the sizing in paper diminishes; when cellulose suffers the attack, the structure of the paper is damaged to the point that it will become soft or so fragile that it will actually break. Gallo (6) points out that in some cases fungi can exercise a mechanical action on paper: their hyphae may filtrate between fibers of the paper without actually entering them, or the fruit bodies of the fungi, which are covered in bristles, infiltrate between one feat and another; in both cases the pages of a book or documents in a bundle are welded together
Mold 1, mold 2
Reduce the humidity: As noted above, moisture initiates mold growth. Reducing the humidity is essential to stopping the mold growth. Do not turn up the heat: This will not help to dry out collections and storage areas. Additional heat in the presence of moisture will cause the mold to grow faster. If collections are wet, dry or freeze them: Mold will normally grow on wet materials in about 48 hours (sometimes sooner). If you know you cannot get the affected material dry within 48 hours, it is best to freeze it. This will not kill the mold, but it will stop further growth until you have a chance to dry and clean the material. Consider the health risks
If there are no toxic molds present, collections can be salvaged in-house, but everyone working with the affected materials must wear disposable plastic gloves and clothing, and use a protective mask when working with moldy objects. Isolate the affected items. Quarantine items by removing them to a clean area with relative humidity below 45%, separate from the rest of the collection. Items should be transferred in sealed plastic bags to avoid transfer of mold to other items during the move, but they should not remain in the bags once in the clean area, since this will create a micro-environment that can foster further mold growth. Collections may also be dried outside in the sun (sunlight or ultraviolet light can cause some molds to become dormant). The outside humidity must be low. Be aware that the sun causes fading and other damage to paper-based collections, however. Materials should be monitored closely and left outside no more than an hour or so
every effort should be made to reduce high humidities and temper atures and vent the areas as soon as the water has receded or been pumped out. Water-soaked materials must be kept as cool as possible by every means available and be provided with good air circulation until they can be stabilized As long as books are tightly shelved, mold may develop only on the outer edges of the bindings. Thus no attempt should be made, in these conditions, to separate books and fan them open. A different problem exists for damp books printed on coated stock, since if they are allowed to begin to dry out in this condition, the leaves will quickly become permanently fused together.
Eliminate the source of water. Turn off the heat. If possible turn air conditioning on and leave it on around the clock. Turn on fans and dehumidifiers. The aim is to keep the air as cold and dry as possible and to keep it moving. This will discourage the development of mold. Vacuum out (with wet-dry vacuums) any standing water. If there are carpets or curtains that are holding water, they may need to be removed. Be aware of potential electrical hazards. It is often necessary to turn off the main power and run the fans from generators to avoid fire or danger to personnel
Perhaps the most important and difficult decision to make after an assessment of damage has been made, is whether to remove the wettest materials first or to concentrate on those that are only partially wet or damp. A balance must be struck between the reduction of moisture content in the affected areas and the time involved for the safe removal of the majority of the collections in the best condition.
Once access to the collection is gained, the external appearance of each volume and group of volumes is a useful indication of the degree of water damage. Those volumes found, usually in heaps, in the aisles will naturally be the most damaged. Shelves which have expanded under the pressure of swollen paper and bindings will usually contain a mixture of evenly wet as well as unevenly wet material. The proportion of evenly wet material in these situations is usually less than those that are unevenly wet. This is because books, originally shelved closely packed together, will not easily be completely saturated especially if the paper is slow to absorb If paper is unevenly wet, it will not dry without distortion. Misshapen volumes with concave spines and convex fore-edges can be immediately identified as belonging to the category of very wet. The aisles between stacks and main passageways will probably be strewn with sodden materials. These must be removed first, separately, by human chain, in the exact condition in which they are found
Focus first protection efforts and salvage work on: Vital institutional information; employee and accounting records, accession lists, shelflist and database backups. Items on loan from individuals or other institutions. Collections that most directly support the institution's mission. Collections that are unique, most used, most vital for research, most representative of subject areas, least replaceable or most valuable. Items most prone to continue damage if untreated. Materials most likely to be successfully salvaged.
It is preferable that, where possible, the packing on site should be carried out in such a manner as to segregate very wet material from that which is partially wet and those that are damp from exposure to high humidity conditions This will not only result in cost savings during the drying operation but will help to avoid over drying of the least wet material. Leather and vellum books, especially those of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, can usually be restored successfully if they are dried under very carefully controlled procedures. Such materials are usually classified as rare and should be treated accordingly by not mixing them with less rare materials during preparations for salvage, stabilization and drying.
are the most vulnerable to complete loss and should not be permitted to begin drying until each volume can be dealt with under carefully controlled conditions. The period between removal and freezing is critical. It may be necessary to re-wet them with clean cold water until they can be frozen There are a number of factors which will determine the likelihood of coated paper sticking together: The type of coated paper (Paprican once informed me that there are over 100 different types, according to the degree of loading); The amount of water (i.e. whether the book pages were damp or totally saturated); . The time elapsed between the event and the response - sometimes if reaction is immediate it is possible to physically separate each page and isolate it (by interleaving) before it has a chance to dry out and fuse to adjacent pages; The method of drying; Pressure.
During recovery, the contents of each box should be carefully inspected and the box replaced if it is water saturated.
High priority should be given to salvaging the catalog and other records of the collection. Salvage operations should avoid any action that might remove or deface identifying marks and labels. There will be a need to identify and segregate materials which are very wet from partially wet; mold contaminated from uncontaminated; rare and sensitive items from the less rare and sensitive etc. box coding system is indispensable.
At least one person should be assigned specific responsibility for making an inventory at each location where the materials are taken from the shelves and boxed. This person might also be given charge of supervising the boxing and boxcoding process.
The materials selected for freezing are taken to the area where cleaning, if required, will take place, or to the work tables for wrapping. Extreme care must be taken in handling the wet materials in order to reduce the risk of damage with its consequent high cost of repairs and restoration. No attempt should be made to separate one or more documents from a soaked pile. If for some urgent reason a document has to be removed, cut a sheet of plastic a bit larger than the document to be removed Place the plastic over the soaked document and with a fine tool (spatula, knife) lift one corner so that adheres to the plastic sheet. Lift gently; the surface tension of the water will cause the document to stay with the plastic. To release, place both on an absorbent paper with face of document down; with tool hold corner of document down and lift the plastic sheet with care. If an archival box is soaked replace it in situ with a fresh one if safe to do so. This will prevent the contents from spilling out. Soaked books should not be opened or closed. To do so will cause severe strain on the structure of the book and damage to such elements as hinges and spines. A soaked book should be taken to the work area as is. Soaked covers should not be removed; they help support the text block and lessen the risk of damage
Do not attempt to open a fully wet book. The pages of a wet book cling together quite aggressively and an attempt to open it often results in serious tears. Moreover damage to the binding can also occur. There are exceptions to this rule. If the book is only damp, it is usually safe to open it, though it is rarely necessary unless it is to be air dried. In most situations, it is also unwise to close a wet book that has been lying open, When paper is wet, it loses this slipperiness and clings to adjacent sheets. If you close a book in this condition, severe distortion and tearing can result. There are rare exceptions to this rule. Do not permit anyone to open wet books; to separate single sheets; to remove covers when materials are water-soaked; or to disturb wet file boxes, prints, drawings, and photographs. Such handling can result in extensive and often irreparable damage to materials that otherwise might be salvaged. Reducing the cost of future restoration must be one of the top priorities of the salvage operation.
If the books are underwater or soaking wet, pick up each one with both hands and place it in a non-paper container (milk crate, wire basket, etc.) so it can be transported safely to an area where you can dry it. Keep the book closed while you move it; wet books are very fragile. Remember: the wetter the book, the heavier it is and the more likely to be damaged by rough handling.
If the wettest materials were removed first the drier material will usually be above the first four or five shelves and packed closely together. On no account should this third category be separated or spaced out during the earlier salvage efforts. Closely packed materials will not readily develop mold internally
Before freezing, it may seem tempting to wash away accumulated debris particularly if this is the result of a river flood, but this is rarely advisable or safe because of lack of time, skilled workers and a pure water supply, and the quantity of material to be handled. (Aqueous washing to remove smoke damage should never be attempted The washing of materials containing water-soluble components, such as inks, watercolors, tempera or dyes should not be attempted under any circumstances. At the very least, bound volumes should be wrapped with a single fold of freezer paper, or silicone paper, if it is likely that their covers will stick together during the freezing process
Before freezing, it would be helpful to remove soilage from the water-damaged materials. Many times this is not possible because facilities are not available, or because of the urgency of the situation. In any event, if soiled books are kept firmly shut they can be dipped in running water (flowing slowly) and the soil gently sponged away. A pile of documents with soiled surfaces cannot undergo the same method of treatment. One way to remove soilage is to play a gentle stream of water over the pile through a soft rubber or plastic tube than can be pinched for control of flow. The safest time to clean materials is after they have been dried. However some books did benefit from partial cleaning inthe wet state. If adequate assistance is available, mud deposits on books which will not be further damaged by water may be washed off in clean, running water. Closed books may be held, one at a time, under water and the excess mud removed with a hose connected to a fine spray head. Similar washing should not be attempted with opened volumes, manuscripts, art on paper, or photographs. Rubbing and brushing should be avoided, No effort should be made to remove mud which continues to cling after sponging under water. This is much better done when the books are dry. Finally, excess water can be squeezed from books with hands pressure; mechanical presses should never be used.
The choice of packing containers should be carefully considered. Although corrugated board boxes are cheaper to purchase, locate and store on site than plastic type milk crates, they may restrict the rate and efficiency of drying and also be prone to collapse when filled with wet material. containers should not be larger than approximately one cubic foot
Wrapping and packing Wrapping supports wet materials; it keeps a bundle of documents or books from freezing one to the other Wrap books singly; documents in stacks as thick as a book. I! the freezer is nearby, place items there as each is ready. If at a distance, use cardboard boxes or milk crates for transport. Do not wait for large pile The sooner stability takes place, the less risk of mold. (Note: Some conservators feel that with large quantities of soaked materials, complete wrapping is unnecessary; separation of items with freezer paper works well Each volume should be very simply wrapped in freezer wrap. Whenever possible, books should be packed in a single row with the spine down. If that is not possible, then they may be packed flat. In this case it is important that a large book never be placed on top of a smaller one, never try to save box space by adding a second row of books; In many cases it will be desirable to insert a sheet of non-woven polyester web in between the boards and the textblock to facilitate the movement of water vapour from the book to the air. Books that have been swollen open should not be closed. Instead they should be packed in their own carton. Similarly, books that have stuck together should not be separated, but wrapped as a unit and packed together
The packing team should have approximately the same number of people as the team which passes the damaged material to them. This will avoid bottlenecks and stacking materials on the floor awaiting packing. Hopefully, a decision will have been made as to which material to remove first: the wettest or the ones in the best condition. As stated earlier, if the majority is only damp and in relatively sound condition, these could be removed first and more rapidly than other materials
Although faster freezing and drying will result if boxes are not packed tightly, the contents will distort during the drying operation. To achieve the best drying results for books, they should be packed closely together so that drying is done under some restraining pressure. Pack books spine-down or flat and avoid placing larger volumes on top of smaller ones
Packed materials must not be allowed to remain on or near the site for more than a few hours, since such delay will further increase the possibility of mold development All work surfaces should be covered with polyethylene sheeting.
The problems associated with water damage to archival and library materials - absorption and swelling, mold infection, blocking or adherence of leaves, migration of inks and dyes get worse with the passage of time; salvage becomes more difficult, costs may go up. Future repairs and restoration may become more complicated, more expensive and time consuming. In short, time is a problem if it is not available. However, there is a way to extend it by unlimited amount: you do it with a process called stabilization by freezing.
Advantages Halts mold attack Without the conditions required for the reproduction and development of the spores, mold infection ceases with freezing. True, the mold spores are not destroyed by freezing; they remain in a dormant state until a more favorable environment is available. But the fact remains that the infection is effectively checked and its pernicious damage cannot take place. Stabilizes soluble inks and dyes Freezing has the additional advantage of stabilizing inks, dyes, dyestuffs, colorants, etc. used for manuscripts, maps, sketches, drawings, and such, that are soluble in water. Later, when freeze-drying takes place, migration feathering of inks or dyes can be restrained since the liquid stage is by-passed. Prevents adhesion of leaves The problem of blocking or adhesion of leaves to each other is primarily confined to books and periodicals printed on stock that uses a coating pigment with a binder of casein and starch, two highly water-soluble substances. If wetted material of coated stock is permitted to dry it will turn a book to a clay-like brick. Restoration is impossible. At the moment the only known salvage method considered practical, especially where large quantities water-damaged material are involved, is freezing whilewet then freeze-drying. Permits orderly, unhurried planning The freeze stabilization of water-damaged archival and library materials lifts a tremendous load from the shoulders of those who have suffered a disaster. Stabilization permits time to confer with experts on the selection of drying methods. There is time to assess damage, to see what can be discarded, replaced, microfilmed; time to determine what repairs or restoration might be required; time to rehabilitate a damaged storage area, or to find an alternate location.
Freezing is not a drying method, nor can it be expected to kill mold spores, but it is highly effective in controlling mold growth by inducing a dormant state in the spores. The effect upon freezing water soaked volumes which have lost their shape or have had their binding structures damaged by immersion, will be to slightly increase the thickness of volumes by the physical action of ice crystals, but this additional increase in thickness has been found to contribute no significant problems to already damaged books.
The most effective method found to date, and the most generally accepted by conservators for the stabilization of water-damaged archival and library materials is freezing at low temperatures. A level of about -30 °C (-20 recommended; the frozen materials remain in cold storage. Quick freezing, such as the so-called blast freezing method used to produce the formation of the smallest ice crystals possible. Slow freezing produces large,needlelike crystals.
Air drying is the oldest and most common method of dealing with wet books and records. It can be employed for one item or many, but it is most suitable for small numbers of damp or slightly wet books and documents. Because it requires no special equipment, it is often believed to be an inexpensive method of drying. But it is extremely labor intensive, it can occupy a great deal of space, and it usually results in badly distorted bindings and textblocks. It is seldom successful for drying bound volumes with coated paper. The rehabilitation costs after air drying tend to be extensive because most bound material requires rebinding. Single sheets are often distorted requiring flattening and rehousing. It is not unusual for mold to develop during extensive air-drying operations. Another hidden cost of air drying is the extra amount of shelf space required for collections. Depending upon how quickly wet materials are stabilized, the minimum amount of additional space required after drying will be 20%-30%.
Picking a work area The work area should be such that air-drying will be encouraged and mold infection discouraged. Much depends on the weather; summer or winter, humid and hot, cold and dry. Bower and Brandt (37) describe an operation where prevailing variables were used to produce a very satisfactory environment for air-drying a number of soaked files. These, still in their cabinets, were moved into the basement of a heated building. The winter weather outside ranged between 7 and -28 °C (19.4° and -18 °F). The heat in the building's basement were lowered as much as possible; the relative humidity reached 30 percent. In summer, particularly it hot and humid, the task may be more difficult. Ii the work area bale air that can has a temperature of about 18 °C (64.4 °F) and a relative humidity of 50 to 60 percent, mold growth can be held in check. Ii air conditioning is not available, open windows and dove to encourage circulation and get rid of stagnant air; use electric fans to assist. It the humidity remains at high level, the use of dehumidifier may be in order. These are available at appliance outlets and, in some cases, can be leased. When dehumidifiers are used, close doors and windows; use electric fans for circulation. (Note: An inexpensive hand-held instrument, the sling psychrometer, will give sufficiently accurate readings of temperature relative humidity to eliminate guesswork). The working area will need several tables for the operation; working surfaces should have protective plastic sheeting Have sufficient electrical outlets for fans, air driers, dehumidifiers, and other equipment Use heavy duty, well-insulated cable extension cords
. a. Materials. Large tables or, if necessary large areas of floor. White, unprinted paper towels (generic are best, because you will need a lot). Fans. Towels or blotting paper. b. Line the table with towels, paper towels or blotting paper. These will absorb water dripping from the books and prevent their sitting in standing pools. c. Place a sheet of paper towel between the leaves every 20 pages or so. The paper should not be placed all the way into the fold, because this will lead to a buildup at the spine This will provide an exposed area of interleaving paper while still allowing the book to stand safely. This interleaving paper serves as wick to draw water out of the book. Water will vaporate at the exposed edges of the interleaving, and, as it does so, water from the interior of the book will move, by capillary action through the interleaving toward the exposed edges place the books in such a position that they help to prop each other up. Frequently either the tail or the head of the book has absorbed more water (depending upon the source of the water). If so, turn the book so that the least weight is placed on the swollen area. Place fans such that they keep air moving gently over all of the volumes without blowing them over. Sometimes this can be best accomplished by using large powerful fans and placing them at a considerable distance from the table. The fans must be left on around the clock until the drying is complete. If possible, air conditioning should also be left on continually. As the interleaving papers become saturated with water, replace them with fresh interleaving. Try to place them between different pages
It is important to make the right decision about which books must begin drying lying flat and which can be dried standing up. Large books or volumes that are not self-supporting should always be dried lying flat. open covers slightly for support; do not fan out. As the book dries it can be opened a bit more for additional area exposure to air If the volume is very wet, place it flat on a clean table or bench that is covered with absorbent material. Carefully place sheets of absorbent material (paper towels, blotters or uninked newsprint) between sections of pages. Do not use so many blotting sheets that the binding becomes distorted. Change the sheets as they become wet. To speed drying, change the location of the blotters each time they are replaced. Be gentle: wet paper is very fragile. If the volume is damp or only partially wet, stand it upright on its driest edge with its pages fanned open. If you are using fans to keep the air circulating, make sure the spines or covers are facing the breeze. If needed, insert blotting materials as described above. Once the book is dry but feels cool to the touch, close it and place it on its side with a slight weight on it. Check regularly for mold growth. Some books are printed on coated paper, which
Normally, a book contains about seven percent moisture. It is never totally dry even when reposing on a shelf for a long period. Documents comport themselves in the same way. However, neither would respond to pressing with so little moisture. On the other hand, when thawed books and documents are air-dried to the point where they feel &quot;dry&quot; to the touch, they usually have more than the amount of moisture required for response to pressing. Documents with wrinkles, cockling, or creases can be flattered by pressing between boards with a light weight on top. Press several at a time; separate each with silicone paper (wax paper will do). As to books place each on its side on a flat surface; with thumbs on the front edge press inward gently to form a rounded back. Place book between pressing boards with light weight on top. Do not stack books for pressing.
The results of this initial test proved that freeze drying inevitably led to the risk of 'freeze burn' with consequent blocking of the gelatine size at the periphery of the leaves. In many cases wet book after wet book could be returned to the shelf with nothing but light water staining. On average, it took about three to four days to dry, clean and stabilise very wet items. Of the seventy severely affected books approaching fifty per cent were recovered to a condition where they could simply be returned to the shelf, The use of vacuum packing technology allowed us to avoid some of the phenomenon frequently observed in freeze drying e.g. shrinkage of leather and other covering materials, serious distortion of the boards, strain upon the sewing structure leading to disintegration and freeze burn at the fringes of the leaves. The very wet leather has been dried out with no shrinkage - Vacuum packing offers the option that the book can be removed from the drying process at any stage, Using vacuum packing it was possible to take soaking wet coated stock journals with heavy colour printing, and separate them at different stages of the drying process. The explanation for this is, as yet, unknown but was clearly observed in a number of tests Books transferred from a blast freezing unit after flooding have also been dried successfully using the vacuum pack drying technique. However, it should be pointed out that frozen books dried in this way do become wet as they thaw and dry It is important to monitor the vacuum packed books on a regular basis, because movement of the bags and any rough handling can cause a leak to occur. Regular changing of the absorbent material will be required as very wet books are dried, but there is no reason why clean blotting paper cannot be dried and re-used. At The simplicity of the technology and its comparative portability provides an opportunity to deal with situations which hitherto appeared too daunting for the conservator or librarian to deal with on site. In the case of rare collections the fact that much can be achieved &quot;at home&quot; has considerable implications for security and insurance
This process calls for sophisticated equipment and is especially suitable for large numbers of wet books and records as well as for water-soluble inks and for coated paper. Frozen books and records are placed in a vacuum chamber. The vacuum is pulled, a source of heat introduced, and the collections, dried at temperatures below 32 degrees F, remain frozen. The physical process known as sublimation takes place--i.e., ice crystals vaporize without melting. This means that there is no additional wetting, swelling, or distortion beyond that incurred before the frozen materials were placed in the chamber. If materials have been stabilized quickly after becoming wet, very little extra shelf or storage space will be required when they are dry. 10% additional shelf space is a sound estimate to use for planning. Rare and unique materials can be dried successfully by vacuum freeze drying, but leathers and vellums may not survive. and mud, dirt and/or soot are lifted to the surface, making cleaning less time-consuming
Freeze-drying is a salvage process; salvage in the sense that its purpose is to save water-damaged archival and library materials from destruction. This is done by freezing to stabilize, then sublimate to dry. It will return to pristine condition any books or documents which were in a damaged state at the moment they were frozen for subsequent drying. Freeze-drying will not press out cockled or wrinkled sheets and pages, straighten out warped covers. These will be locked in that position on drying. It will not release the pages of a book printed on coated stock if blocking has set in before freezing. It will not remove discoloration, tide marks, or stains that were there at the start. Freeze-drying will not press out vellum or leather. And as pointed out, it will not destroy mold spores. In short, apart from the end purpose of the process, frozen materials come out of the vacuum chamber in just about the same condition as they entered. At the end of the drying cycle some will look surprisingly good others will be scheduled for minor repairs. Some may have to bear the high cost of restoration; some may have to be discarded or replaced. In any case, the fault is not in the freeze-dry process. It is still the most effective method known for the physical, chemical and biological stabilization of water-damaged archival and library materials, especially when large quantities are involved and time is of the essence
Remember that in freeze-drying the materials are frozen first, then sublimated in a freeze-dry chamber, in vacuum-drying the materials are placed in the chamber in a wet condition for drying by evaporation. In general terms, the tendency seems to favor vacuum-drying for office records when there is no imminent danger of mould attack and a chamber is available immediately. On the other hand, for books and their special structure, freezing followed by sublimation is the preferred method. Books printed on coated stock cannot be salvaged by the evaporation process; sublimation in a freeze-dry chamber is the only way
The choice of packing containers should be carefully considered. Although corrugated board boxes are cheaper to purchase, locate and store on site than plastic type milk crates, they may restrict the rate and efficiency of drying and also be prone to collapse when filled with wet material. containers should not be larger than approximately one cubic foot
Particulate pollutants such as soot, dirt and dust, abrade, soil, and disfigure materials. Dust and dirt that have absorbed gaseous pollutants from the air and settled on library material become sites for harmful chemical reactions. Particulates can also aid mould growth. Modern library material such as magnetic and optical media are very sensitive to dust and dirt.
Without exception, whenever any of these signs is noticed, library staff should gather live samples, insect remains, frass/droppings, etc. for future identification leading to proper treatment of the infestation. Signs of Insect Infestation Live insects most likely found inside and between books and papers or within cracks and crevices of shelves (particularly wooden shelves). Insect remains, including whole carcasses, body parts and cast-skins, most likely found on window sills, within the spine of a book, or along the bottoms of books, as well as within cracks and crevices of shelves. Frass/Droppings, including black (roach) pellets, &quot;poppy-seed&quot; (termite) pellets, &quot;saw-dust&quot; (dermested or powder-post beetle) pellets, and suspicious piles of fine dust or powder. Frass varies widely in color. Wings ranging in size (from 0.5 mm upwards) and color (from clear to dark brown). (Fresh) Holes/Tunnels in materials. A &quot;fresh&quot; hole is one which both continues from one page through the next page(s) and is accompanied by frass/droppings if not also live insects.
they can cause fires by gnawing through electrical insulation; they will pare their teeth on library furniture and fittings;
It is important to realize that the success of any large drying system depends on the ability of the system to stop the development of mold during and after the drying process. Be aware of the risks in accepting material returned from commercial drying processes unless there is a guarantee that none will be returned damp or wet. If mold develops after return, it may not be possible to detect it, if the material remains boxed. If care was taken to segregate mold-contaminated from non-contaminated items during recovery, boxing and freezing, this will help determine if the drying was carried out properly. If mold develops in the non-contaminated material, the chances are that either the drying was not done correctly or that drying was not complete. Unless a drying company can guarantee in writing that no material will be returned boxed if it has a water content exceeding 7% by weight, there is a high possibility that some boxes will contain damp material that will add to the risks of post drying mold development, All books and paper file records should be unboxed and placed on open shelving in a well ventilated, air-conditioned rehabilitation area, well separated from the main collections. The rehabilitation area makes it easier to assess the condition of the dried materials, as well as to identify those that can be replaced and those that must be cleaned and restored
In preparing the rehabilitation area, provide about twice the number of shelves as would be needed for normal book requirements. This will compensate for the effects of distorted and expanded books and provide sufficient air space to allow the material to regain their moisture equilibrium content which, depending upon circumstances, may take a week or two. It is desirable to maintain the collection in the rehabilitation area for a period of at least six months. It is highly desirable but usually not practical to leave volumes in the rehabilitation area for an added six months in an environment that duplicates normal stack conditions No materials should be returned to the main library shelves without very careful inspection, and preferably not before all necessary cleaning and restoration has been completed
Seek the advice and help of book and paper conservators with experience in salvaging water-damaged materials as soon as possible. Turn off heat and create free circulation of air. Keep fans and air-conditioning on day and night and use dehumidifiers and insure a constant flow of air is necessary to reduce the threat of mold. Brief each worker carefully before salvage operations begin, Do not allow workers to attempt restoration of any items on site. Carry out all cleaning operations, whether outside the building or in controlled environment rooms, by washing gently with fresh, cold running water and soft cellulose sponges to aid in the release of mud and filth. Use sponges in a dabbing motion; do not rub. These instructions do not apply to materials with water-soluble components. Such materials should be frozen as quickly as possible
Frequent changing of interleaving material is much more effective than allowing large numbers of sheets to remain in place for extended periods
Books and records that are slightly to extensively wet may be dried in a vacuum thermal drying chamber into which they are placed either wet or frozen. The vacuum is drawn, heat is introduced, materials stay wet while they dry. acceptable method of drying wet records that have no long-term value
Material Priority Handling Precautions Packing Method Drying Method Paper Documents & Manuscripts Stable media Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Don't separate single sheets. Interleave between folders and pack in milk crates or cartons. Air, vacuum, or freeze dry. Soluble inks (felt pens, colored pens, ball point pens) Immediately freeze or dry. Do not blot. Interleave between folders and pack in milk crates or cartons. Air or freeze dry. Maps & Plans Stable media Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Use extra caution if folded or rolled. Pack in map drawers, bread trays, flat boxes, on heavy cardboard or poly covered plywood. Air or freeze dry. Soluble media Maps and plans by photoreproductive processes Hand colored maps Immediately freeze or dry. Do not blot. Interleave between folders and pack as above. Air or freeze dry. Drafting linens Immediately freeze or dry. Avoid pressure - inks can smear away. Pack like maps in containers lined with plastic. Air or freeze dry. Air dry by separating sheets and interleaving. Maps on coated papers Immediately freeze or dry. Pack like maps in containers lined with plastic. Freeze drying preferred. Books Books and pamphlets Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Do not open or close, do not separate covers. Separate with freezer paper, pack spine down in milk crate or cardboard box 1 layer deep. Air, vacuum, or freeze dry. Leather and vellum bindings Immediately dry; or freeze if many books. Do not open or close, do not separate covers. Separate with freezer paper, pack spine down in milk crate or cardboard box 1 layer deep. Air dry. Books and periodicals with coated papers Immediately freeze or dry. Do not open or close, do not separate covers. Keep wet; pack spine down in containers lined Freeze drying preferred. Air dry by fanning pages Salvage at a Glance--WN May 1997 http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/waac/wn/wn19/wn19-2/wn19-207.html 2 di 6 24/08/2007 22:49 with garbage bags. and interleaving. Parchment & Vellum Manuscripts Immediately freeze or dry. Interleave between folders. Pack oversize materials flat. Air or freeze dry. Do not freeze dry gilded or illuminated manuscripts. Works of Art on Paper Prints and drawings with stable media Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Don't separate single sheets. Interleave between folders and pack in milk crates or cartons. Air, vacuum, or freeze dry. Oversize prints and drawings Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Use extra caution if folded or rolled. Pack in map drawers, bread trays, flat boxes, on heavy cardboard or poly covered plywood. Damp - air or freeze dry. Wet - freeze drying preferred. Framed prints and drawings Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Handle with care - glass. Unframe if possible, then pack as above. Once unframed and unmatted, air or freeze dry. Soluble Media Watercolors, soluble inks, and hand colored prints Immediately freeze or dry. Do not blot. Interleave between folders and pack in milk crates or cartons. Air or freeze dry. Coated papers (e.g., posters) Immediately freeze or dry. Keep wet in containers lined with garbage bags. Freeze drying preferred. Air dry by separating pages and interleaving. Paintings Immediately dry. Drain and carry horizontally. Face up without touching paint layer Air dry. See Instructions. Computer Media Tapes Immediately rinse off tapes soaked by dirty water. Dry within 48 hours if paper boxes and labels; otherwise, tapes can stay wet for several days. Do not freeze. Do not touch magnetic media with bare hands. Handle open reel tapes by hubs or reel. Keep tapes wet in plastic bags. Pack vertically in plastic crate or tub. Air dry or test vacuum drying without heat. Floppy Disks Immediately pack. Do not freeze. Do not touch disk surface with bare hands. Keep wet. Pack vertically in plastic bags or tubs of cold water. Air dry. Compact Discs & CD ROMs Salvage at a Glance--WN May 1997 http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/waac/wn/wn19/wn19-2/wn19-207.html 3 di 6 24/08/2007 22:49 Immediately dry discs. Dry paper enclosures within 48 hours. Do not scratch the surface. Pack vertically in crates or cardboard cartons. Air dry. Sound and Video Recordings Sound and Videotapes Immediately rinse off tapes soaked by dirty water. Dry within 48 hours if paper boxes and labels; otherwise, tapes can stay wet for several days. Do not freeze. Do not touch magnetic media with bare hands. Keep tapes wet in plastic bags. Pack vertically in plastic crate or tub. Air dry or test vacuum drying without heat. Shellac and Acetate Discs Immediately dry. Dry enclosures within 48 hours. Discs are very fragile. Hold discs by their edges. Avoid shocks. Pack vertically in ethafoam-padded crates. Air dry, preferably with a record cleaning machine. Vinyl Discs Dry within 48 hours. Freezing is untested; if it is necessary, freeze at above -18° C (0° F). Freeze or dry enclosures within 48 hours. Hold discs by their edges. Avoid shocks. Pack vertically in ethafoam-padded crates. Air dry, preferably with a record cleaning machine. Black & White Prints Albumen prints Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Do not touch binder with bare hands. Interleave between groups of photographs. Air dry; thaw and air dry. Matte and glossy collodion prints Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Avoid abrasion. Do not touch binder with bare hands. Air dry; thaw and air dry; or freeze dry. Silver gelatin printing out and developing out papers Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Do not touch emulsion with bare hands. Keep wet. Pack in plastic bags inside boxes. Order of preference: 1) Air dry, 2) thaw and air dry, 3) freeze dry. Do not vacuum dry. Carbon prints and Woodburytypes Immediately freeze or dry. Handle carefully - swelling of binder. Horizontally. Air dry or thaw and air dry. Salvage at a Glance--WN May 1997 http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/waac/wn/wn19/wn19-2/wn19-207.html 4 di 6 24/08/2007 22:49 Photomechanical prints (e.g., collotypes, photogravures) Cyanotypes Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Do not separate single sheets. Interleave every 2&quot; and pack in boxes or crates. Air dry or freeze dry. Color Photographs Dye transfer prints Package to prevent damage - recovery rate is poor. Immediately dry. Do not touch emulsion. Transport horizontally. Air dry face up. Chromogenic prints and negatives Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Do not touch binder with bare hands. Keep wet. Pack in plastic bags inside boxes. Order of preference: 1) Air dry, 2) thaw and air dry, 3) freeze dry. Do not vacuum dry. Cased Photographs Ambrotypes Pannotypes Recovery rate is low. Immediately dry. Handle with care - glass supports and extremely fragile binder. Horizontally in a padded container. Air dry face up. Never freeze. Daguerreotypes Immediately dry. Handle with care - fragile surface, cover glass. Horizontally in a padded container. Air dry face up. Never freeze. Tintypes Immediately dry. Handle with care - fragile binder. Horizontally. Air dry. Never freeze. Negatives Wet collodion glass plates Recovery rate is low. Immediately dry. Handle with care - glass supports and fragile binder. Horizontally in a padded container. Air dry face up. Never freeze. Gelatin dry plate glass negatives Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Handle with care - glass. Keep wet. Pack in plastic bags, vertically in a padded container. Air drying preferred; or thaw and air dry; freeze dry. Deteriorated nitrates with soluble binders Immediately freeze or dry. Recovery rate may be low. Do not blot. Horizontally. Air dry; thaw and air dry; test freeze drying. Deteriorated acetates Immediately freeze or dry. Recovery rate is low. Handle carefully - swelling of emulsion. Horizontally. Air dry; thaw and air dry; test freeze drying. Polyester based film, nitrates and acetates in good condition Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Do not touch emulsion with bare hands. Keep wet. Pack in small plastic bags inside boxes. Order of preference: 1) Air dry, 2) thaw and air dry, 3) freeze dry. Do not vacuum dry. Salvage at a Glance--WN May 1997 http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/waac/wn/wn19/wn19-2/wn19-207.html 5 di 6 24/08/2007 22:49 Transparencies Lantern slides, silver gelatin Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Handle with care - loose binding tapes and glass. Vertically in a padded container. Air drying preferred; thaw, and air dry. Color Transparencies Additive color transparencies (most are glass) Autochromes, Agfacolor, Dufaycolor Package to prevent damage - recovery rate is very poor. Immediately dry. Handle with care - loose binding tapes and glass. Horizontally in a padded container. Air dry. Never Freeze Chromogenic color transparencies Mounted color slides and sheet films Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Handle by mounts or edges. Keep wet. Pack in plastic bags inside box. Order of preference: 1) Air dry in mounts if possible, 2) thaw and air dry, 3) freeze dry. Do not vacuum dry. Motion Pictures Rewash and dry within 48 hours. Keep wet. Pack in plastic pails or cardboard cartons lined with garbage bags. Arrange with a film processor to rewash and dry. Microforms Microfilm rolls Rewash and dry within 48 hours. Do not remove from boxes; hold carton together with rubber bands. Keep wet. Pack (in blocks of 5) in a cardboard box lined with garbage bags. Arrange with a microfilm processor to rewash and dry. Aperture cards Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Keep wet. Pack in plastic bags inside boxes. Air dry, or thaw and air dry. Jacketed microfilm Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Keep wet. Pack in plastic bags inside pail or box. Air dry, or freeze, thaw and air dry. Diazo and vesicular microfiche Freeze or dry within 48 hours. Interleave between envelopes and pack in milk crates or cartons. Air dry, or freeze, thaw and air dry.
Is freeze-drying expensive? Yes and no. Freeze-drying becomes expensive when the vacuum chamber used for drying is large and sophisticated, and the amount of water-damaged materials is small. If the quantity is relatively large, freeze-drying becomes inexpensive when you calculate in terms of time, personnel, space, materials and sap- plies required to the dry the materials by traditional methods. Freeze-drying in a smaller vacuum chamber is, of course less costly although capacity is limited and drying takes longer. In either case, if it appears that your materials will require expensive restoration, but can be replaced by some other format, there is little to gain by freeze-drying. What about the cost of vacuum-drying? Vacuum-drying is somewhat less expensive than freeze-drying; one reason is that you do not freeze wetted materials beforehand; the chamber is less sophisticated. However, what is gained in economy is lost in freeze-drying supplies: stabilization, time, the advantages of sublimation over evaporation. The conditions of costs that apply to freeze-drying - large quantities of materials in large chambers are less expensive - also apply to vacuum drying. Can wet (non-frozen) materials be freeze-dried, and conversely, can frozen materials be vacuum-dried? Yes, to both parts of the question. However, when wet (non-frozen) materials are placed in a freeze-dry chamber, as the initial water &quot;rushes&quot; off, they will freeze. When this happens there is a possibility that bound books may come apart and heavy calendered paper puff or split. It is best to freeze the wet materials first. In regard to frozen materials placed in a vacuum-dry chamber, during the drying cycle the ice will melt, become liquid, and carry the risk of possible migration of colors, stains, and inks
It would be desirable, but not it requires a loss of precious time and risk of mold infection to organize crews and setup cleaning arrangements. However, there will be occasions when there is no choice but to go ahead with some cleaning. Each case will have to be Judged by its own merits. What is the best way to wrap wet materials for freezing? The primary reason for wrapping wet materials is to keep them from freezing into large, unwieldy blocks of ice Some people use freezer paper on books or bundles as if it were arm sling; no need to fold over. In other cases, if the wet materials are placed in boxes or crates, a few at a time, and will not be removed for either the freezing and freeze-dry operation, there is no need to wrap or separate with freezer paper. At what temperature should water-damaged materials be frozen and stored? Freezing and storage temperatures which have been used vary from about -20 °C (-4 °F) in a cheat freezer for a few soaked books to -30°C (-22 °F) in cold storage for larger quantities of wetted materials. Waters (5) recommends a freezing temperature of -20 °F (-29°C); lower temperatures will do no harm. In Stanford University's recovery operation, that temperature was used in a cold storage facility (63). Wet books and documents undoubtedly swell and expend with freezing. doesn't that cause damage? Saturated materials do swell even more on freezing but this additional thickness does not add to the damage already caused by water. In studies conducted by the Research and Testing Office of the Library of Congress, there was no evidence found that freezing causes damage of cellulosic and proteinaceous materials (5
Methods for determining the level of dryness vary. When heating strips are used, temperature probes are inserted in several of the frozen materials ant the temperature is plotted. As the dry state of the materials is reached temperature curve moves to the temperature of the heater strips (63). Another method is to plot weight lose. The frozen item is weighed before it is placed in the vacuum chamber; at several intervals of time during the drying cycle the test sample is weighed. A state of dryness is reached when the weight lose reaches a plateau (36). The Aquaboy, a book probe manufactured by K.P.Mundiger, Wartenburg, West Germany, is a useful instrument for measuring water content of paper. This probe has two metal prongs, resembling a tuning fork, that are placed net on the exposed page of a book; the book is then closed. A dial on an instrument to which the prongs are attached registers the absolute humidity inside the book (35). A reading of five to seven percent indicates n moisture content. Note that this percentage is Dot &quot;relative humidify&quot; as some people think. In technical Jargon, the moisture content of paper is called &quot;absolutes humidity&quot; which is the actual weight of water vapor in a unit moist air in grams per cubic centimeter. And a final method, though not very accurate, is to open the chamber from time to time and touch the materials test for dryness. Is there a risk of overdrying and, as a consequence, run the risk of damage to the materials? Yes, to both parts of the question. Books that come out of a vacuum chamber in this condition, which is usually the case, must not be opened and closed because the pages and structure is so fragile. Documents must also handled with care The solution to this problem is to get some moisture back into the paper. This can be done by placing the dry materials in a room with normal conditions of relative humidity; about 55 to 60 percent. It can take up to three or four weeks for the paper to equilibrate with the atmosphere. One research center solves the overdrying problem with a series of humidity chambers of varying humidity temperatures for the introduction of moisture into the books. Pressure. is applied to reach the approximate water content they had originally (13). Paper is like a sponge. Water content under normal conditions is between five and seven percent by weight However, this level varies proportionally with the amount of relative humidity in the air. For example, at 80 percent relative humidity, paper absorbs between 9 and 14 percent water (leather absorbs 18 to 20 percent); a percent the various parts of a book can vary 6 to 9.5 percent of water content (6
Both can be stabilized by freezing then vacuum freeze-dried. However, at some point, particularly with rare valuable items, the advice of an experienced conservator should be sought. This is especially important with parchment is concerned since this material is altered structurally when wet. The best moment for seeking advice may be after stabilization of the materials, but Dot after the freeze-dry cycle. Only an expert should carry out recovery work. In relation to the question, French conservation scientist conducted some freeze-drying tests under laboratory conditions on paper, leather, and parchment. These were immersed in water, frozen, then freeze-dried in laboratory vacuum chamber. One of the observations made was that freezing can be used as a method of storage for the three materials. The results of freeze-drying each material follows: The technique is wholly indicated drying paper. [Paper can be freeze-dried without great risk. On the other hand, parchment poses distinct problems since water causes internal changes that result in thickening and a decrease in elasticity. The scientists point out that these changes are reversible. After freeze-drying, the parchment sampler were placed in the hands of expert restorers at the Bibliotheque Nationale who used moisture and pressing to recuperate suppleness, colour and thickness (64). In the freeze-drying process, heat is sometimes applied to the frozen materials. first of all, why is it done and doesn't the heat harm the materials? Heat is applied to the frozen materials in order to Hasten the sublimation of the ice; it is normally done when quantities of materials must be dried. The temperatures applied by flexible rubber heaters on shelves in the chamber are not excessively high. In one case (32), the temperature starts out at 32 °F (O °C) on books and will not get warmer than 80 to 85 °F (26.5 to 29.4 °C). In another case (14), with frozen materials heated by aluminum foil heaters, the book temperature was never higher than 100°F (37.8°C). One research center uses 40 °C (104°F) as the maximum shelf temperature for documents
The reply must be qualified. In the first place, the materials that come out of the chamber might be overdried require rehydrations to a normal level before they can be handled safely. Secondly, some materials may have gone into the chamber in a damaged condition; they will come out the same way and require repairs or restoration Thirdly, the stacks where the materials were water-damaged may not be in any condition to receive them and may need rehabilitation. An ideal situation would be to take the materials to a place where they can return to normal humidity content where they can be pressed, repaired, or restored, and be under constant vigilance for mold infection (some book and documents come out of the chamber partially dry). Would it not be less costly to replace water-damaged materials than freeze-dry? Generally, yes. It books, for example, have been soaked in water to the point where they hare swelled, split component parts, warped their boards, it would be much cheaper to replace, if such can be done, than to restore
The prevention of conflict damage to archive and library materials
First Aid to Paper, Photos,First Aid to Paper, Photos,
Archive & Library materialsArchive & Library materials
Alessandro SidotiAlessandro Sidoti
ICCROMICCROM -- NationalNational LibraryLibrary ofof FlorenceFlorence
OctoberOctober 22nd 201022nd 2010
ICCROMICCROM -- First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of ConflictFirst Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict
AsAs aa resultresult of minorof minor
protectionprotection andand alsoalso higherhigher
riskrisk ofof humanhuman causedcaused
damagedamage,, duringduring conflictconflict
the rate ofthe rate of disasterdisaster relatedrelated
damagedamage isis extremelyextremely highhigh
FireFire,, floodflood, war,, war, mouldmould andand insectinsect
infestationinfestation can devastatecan devastate collectionscollections. No. No
mattermatter howhow minor theminor the incidentincident, material, material
willwill bebe affectedaffected permanentlypermanently in some way.in some way.
MoreoverMoreover,, salvagingsalvaging isis extremelyextremely costlycostly inin
termsterms of time and money.of time and money. ThenThen isis
importantimportant toto havehave aa writtenwritten plan inplan in orderorder
toto limitlimit the impact ofthe impact of damagedamage toto
In order to prevent
damage it can be
move collections in
before starting to
Plan your move
Think about the object
Do you need to move the object ?
Think about the new location
What route will you use?
Plan your move
Use proper supplies and equipment.
Only use equipment that is of good quality
and in good condition.
Consider safety first.
Before moving an object, inspect equipment
to ensure that the object and the handler will
be safe during the move
Think about the object
Do you need to move the object? Is
moving the object absolutely necessary? If
not, don’t move it
What are the object’s structural
characteristics and condition? Is it strong
enough to withstand the move?
What is the safest way to lift the item?
How will you need to lift and carry the object to
protect it from damage?
ThinkThink aboutabout the new locationthe new location
Where is the object’s new location? Is it
large enough to properly house the object? Is
the environment appropriate?
What route will you use? Is it clear of
Will the personal health and safety of the
handler be at risk? Do you have the proper
moving equipment to avoid physical strain? Do
you need to wear a lab coat or dust mask?
ShortShort termterm packagingpackaging materialsmaterials dodo notnot
havehave toto bebe acidacid--freefree
WrapWrap eacheach objectobject in ain a cleanclean smoothsmooth paperpaper
UseUse ofof nonnon--breathingbreathing,, impermeableimpermeable
materialmaterial maymay notnot bebe wisewise
condensationcondensation cancan formform inside the packageinside the package
ForFor FlatFlat PaperPaper ObjectsObjects useuse SandwichSandwich
BooksBooks mustmust bebe shippedshipped inin rigidlyrigidly constructedconstructed
cratescrates oror boxesboxes ratherrather thanthan inin paddedpadded bookbook bagsbags
CartonCarton shouldshould weighweigh no moreno more thanthan 1010 kgskgs..
isis bestbest notnot toto shipship ObjectsObjects FramedFramed UnderUnder
IfIf necessarynecessary RollRoll ObjectsObjects aroundaround thethe outsideoutside
of aof a widewide--diameterdiameter tube,tube, wrappedwrapped withwith
cushioningcushioning material, andmaterial, and placedplaced inside ainside a veryvery
toughtough largerlarger tube.tube.
After firstAfter first damagedamage causedcaused byby firefire,, laterlater
damagedamage isis usuallyusually causedcaused byby the waterthe water
usedused toto extinguishextinguish itit
RemainRemain calmcalm,, reassuringreassuring.. AlertAlert staffstaff toto potentialpotential hazardshazards..
LookLook forfor looseloose oror downeddowned powerpower lineslines..
LookLook forfor electricalelectrical systemsystem damagedamage::
Turn offTurn off electricityelectricity atat mainmain switchswitch..
ShutShut off water.off water.
IfIf youyou smellsmell gas, open a window andgas, open a window and immediatelyimmediately leaveleave
the building.the building.
Turn off gas atTurn off gas at mainmain valvevalve
DoDo notnot reenterreenter the buildingthe building untiluntil declareddeclared safesafe..
ProtectProtect thethe collectionscollections fromfrom furtherfurther damagedamage..
IfIf notnot treatedtreated in thein the
first 48first 48 hourshours
MoldMold growthgrowth becomesbecomes
a higha high riskrisk
BasicBasic PrinciplesPrinciples ofof SalvageSalvage
IfIf therethere are noare no toxictoxic moldsmolds
wearwear disposabledisposable plasticplastic glovesgloves andand
clothingclothing, and, and useuse aa protectiveprotective maskmask
Isolate theIsolate the affectedaffected itemsitems
transfer intransfer in sealedsealed plasticplastic bagsbags
BooksBooks shouldshould notnot remainremain in thein the bagsbags
maymay alsoalso bebe drieddried outsideoutside in thein the sunsun
CollectionsCollections gotgot wetwet
WhatWhat shallshall I do ?I do ?
Eliminate the sourceEliminate the source
of water.of water.
Turn off theTurn off the heatheat
turn airturn air conditioningconditioning
on andon and leaveleave itit onon
Turn onTurn on fansfans andand
VacuumVacuum outout anyany
standing waterstanding water
HandlingHandling wetwet materialsmaterials
IfIf booksbooks areare underwaterunderwater oror soakingsoaking wetwet,,
pick uppick up eacheach oneone withwith bothboth handshands
KeepKeep the bookthe book closedclosed whilewhile youyou movemove itit
RememberRemember: the: the wetterwetter the book, thethe book, the
heavierheavier itit isis and the moreand the more likelylikely toto bebe
CleaningCleaning andand washingwashing
NeedNeed of timeof time
Pure waterPure water supplysupply
DoDo notnot washwash smokesmoke damagedamage
DoDo notnot waskwask waterwater solublesoluble componentscomponents
PackPack tightlytightly toto
Pack spine down inPack spine down in
AvoidAvoid placingplacing largerlarger
volumesvolumes on top ofon top of
ChoosingChoosing dryingdrying techniquestechniques
AmountAmount ofof wetwet materialmaterial
DegreeDegree ofof wetnesswetness
AntiqueAntique oror notnot
AvailabilityAvailability of a new copy on the marketof a new copy on the market
freezefreeze--dryingdrying oror vacuumvacuum--dryingdrying??
inin freezefreeze--dryingdrying thethe materialsmaterials areare frozenfrozen..
sublimatedsublimated in ain a freezefreeze--drydry chamberchamber
inin vacuumvacuum--dryingdrying thethe materialsmaterials are in aare in a
RodentsRodents andand birdsbirds
RodentsRodents andand birdsbirds cancan alsoalso harmharm
collectionscollections:: ratsrats andand micemice willwill destroydestroy
booksbooks inin orderorder toto obtainobtain paperpaper forfor theirtheir
rodentrodent andand birdbird droppingsdroppings are corrosiveare corrosive
and canand can leaveleave permanentpermanent stainsstains
BirdBird nestsnests areare alsoalso a majora major sourcesource of foodof food
SummarySummary ofof emergencyemergency
Turn offTurn off heatheat
createcreate freefree circulationcirculation of airof air
KeepKeep fansfans andand airair--conditioningconditioning on day and nighton day and night
BriefBrief eacheach workerworker beforebefore salvagesalvage
DoDo notnot allowallow workersworkers toto attemptattempt restorationrestoration
cleaningcleaning operationsoperations inin controlledcontrolled roomsrooms
dodo notnot applyapply toto specialspecial materialsmaterials
open aopen a wetwet oror burntburnt bookbook
removeremove mudmud byby spongingsponging
removeremove coverscovers fromfrom booksbooks
hanghang booksbooks fromfrom lineslines
presspress booksbooks whenwhen theythey are waterare water soakedsoaked
writewrite onon wetwet//burntburnt paperpaper
useuse coloredcolored paper ofpaper of anyany kindkind toto drydry booksbooks
changechange interleavinginterleaving materialmaterial frequentlyfrequently