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The prevention of conflict damage to archive and library materials


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Presentation about the prevention of conflict damage to libraries and archives.

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The prevention of conflict damage to archive and library materials

  1. 1. First Aid to Paper, Photos,First Aid to Paper, Photos, Archive & Library materialsArchive & Library materials Alessandro SidotiAlessandro Sidoti ICCROMICCROM -- NationalNational LibraryLibrary ofof FlorenceFlorence OctoberOctober 22nd 201022nd 2010 ICCROMICCROM -- First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of ConflictFirst Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Conflict
  2. 2. ProtectionProtection ofof LibrariesLibraries andand archivesarchives duedue toto thethe weaknessweakness ofof paperpaper cancan bebe extremelyextremely difficultdifficult duringduring conflictsconflicts LibrariesLibraries andand especiallyespecially ArchivesArchives cancan becomebecome targetstargets tryingtrying toto hidehide thethe informationinformation theythey preservedpreserved
  3. 3. AsAs aa resultresult of minorof minor protectionprotection andand alsoalso higherhigher riskrisk ofof humanhuman causedcaused damagedamage,, duringduring conflictconflict the rate ofthe rate of disasterdisaster relatedrelated damagedamage isis extremelyextremely highhigh
  4. 4. DisastersDisasters FireFire,, floodflood, war,, war, mouldmould andand insectinsect infestationinfestation can devastatecan devastate collectionscollections. No. No mattermatter howhow minor theminor the incidentincident, material, material willwill bebe affectedaffected permanentlypermanently in some some way. MoreoverMoreover,, salvagingsalvaging isis extremelyextremely costlycostly inin termsterms of time and money.of time and money. ThenThen isis importantimportant toto havehave aa writtenwritten plan inplan in orderorder toto limitlimit the impact ofthe impact of damagedamage toto collectionscollections..
  5. 5. ResponseResponse andand recoveryrecovery ResponseResponse FirstFirst aidaid operationsoperations CanCan bebe donedone byby volunteersvolunteers NeedNeed of minimal trainingof minimal training RecoveryRecovery NotNot suitablesuitable forfor volunteersvolunteers NeedNeed ofof specificspecific trainingtraining
  6. 6. In order to prevent damage it can be convenient to move collections in safer areas Choose appropriate new locations before starting to move collections
  7. 7. TransportTransport Plan your move Think about the object Do you need to move the object ? Think about the new location What route will you use?
  8. 8. Plan your move Use proper supplies and equipment. Only use equipment that is of good quality and in good condition. Consider safety first. Before moving an object, inspect equipment to ensure that the object and the handler will be safe during the move
  9. 9. Think about the object Do you need to move the object? Is moving the object absolutely necessary? If not, don’t move it What are the object’s structural characteristics and condition? Is it strong enough to withstand the move? What is the safest way to lift the item? How will you need to lift and carry the object to protect it from damage?
  10. 10. ThinkThink aboutabout the new locationthe new location Where is the object’s new location? Is it large enough to properly house the object? Is the environment appropriate? What route will you use? Is it clear of obstructions? Will the personal health and safety of the handler be at risk? Do you have the proper moving equipment to avoid physical strain? Do you need to wear a lab coat or dust mask?
  11. 11. PackingPacking ShortShort termterm packagingpackaging materialsmaterials dodo notnot havehave toto bebe acidacid--freefree WrapWrap eacheach objectobject in ain a cleanclean smoothsmooth paperpaper UseUse ofof nonnon--breathingbreathing,, impermeableimpermeable materialmaterial maymay notnot bebe wisewise condensationcondensation cancan formform inside the packageinside the package ForFor FlatFlat PaperPaper ObjectsObjects useuse SandwichSandwich betweenbetween boardsboards
  12. 12. PackingPacking BooksBooks mustmust bebe shippedshipped inin rigidlyrigidly constructedconstructed cratescrates oror boxesboxes ratherrather thanthan inin paddedpadded bookbook bagsbags CartonCarton shouldshould weighweigh no moreno more thanthan 1010 kgskgs.. isis bestbest notnot toto shipship ObjectsObjects FramedFramed UnderUnder GlassGlass IfIf necessarynecessary RollRoll ObjectsObjects aroundaround thethe outsideoutside of aof a widewide--diameterdiameter tube,tube, wrappedwrapped withwith cushioningcushioning material, andmaterial, and placedplaced inside ainside a veryvery toughtough largerlarger
  13. 13. CushioningCushioning PaddingPadding helpshelps absorbabsorb shocksshocks andand keepskeeps objectsobjects fromfrom shiftingshifting.. ItIt maymay alsoalso provideprovide thermalthermal insulationinsulation and aand a humidityhumidity bufferbuffer SomeSome plasticsplastics areare notnot chemicallychemically stablestable enoughenough forfor longlong termterm storagestorage..
  14. 14. Carts and Trays Minimize Handling TransportTransport largelarge numbersnumbers ofof booksbooks onon trolleystrolleys or inor in cratescrates onon dolleysdolleys
  15. 15. TransportTransport •• CarryCarry onlyonly whatwhat youyou cancan comfortablycomfortably holdhold inin bothboth handshands
  16. 16. Safe Handling TechniquesSafe Handling Techniques HandlingHandling damagedamage toto booksbooks,, mapsmaps,, photographsphotographs, etc., etc. isis cumulativecumulative HandlingHandling librarylibrary materialmaterial withwith washedwashed andand cleanclean handshands helpshelps toto keepkeep itit inin goodgood conditioncondition
  17. 17. BooksBooks shouldshould notnot bebe pulledpulled off theoff the shelvesshelves byby thethe headcapheadcap……
  18. 18. EmergencyEmergency inin librarieslibraries areare frequentlyfrequently waterwater relatedrelated
  19. 19. WaterWater damagedamage FloodsFloods FloodsFloods cancan bebe ofof variousvarious sizesize RiversRivers MinorMinor floodsfloods PipesPipes burstingbursting
  20. 20. FireFire FiresFires After firstAfter first damagedamage causedcaused byby firefire,, laterlater damagedamage isis usuallyusually causedcaused byby the waterthe water usedused toto extinguishextinguish itit
  21. 21. SafetySafety first!first! RemainRemain calmcalm,, reassuringreassuring.. AlertAlert staffstaff toto potentialpotential hazardshazards.. LookLook forfor looseloose oror downeddowned powerpower lineslines.. LookLook forfor electricalelectrical systemsystem damagedamage:: Turn offTurn off electricityelectricity atat mainmain switchswitch.. ShutShut off water. IfIf youyou smellsmell gas, open a window andgas, open a window and immediatelyimmediately leaveleave the building.the building. Turn off gas atTurn off gas at mainmain valvevalve DoDo notnot reenterreenter the buildingthe building untiluntil declareddeclared safesafe.. ProtectProtect thethe collectionscollections fromfrom furtherfurther damagedamage..
  22. 22. WhatWhat happenshappens toto paperspapers andand booksbooks whenwhen wetwet ?? BooksBooks andand documentsdocuments areare hygrosopichygrosopic materialsmaterials IncreaseIncrease inin sizesize andand weightweight BooksBooks are compositeare composite structuresstructures,, theirtheir componentscomponents expandexpand//contractcontract toto differentdifferent ratesrates
  23. 23. AbsorptionAbsorption andand swellingswelling PaperPaper absorbsabsorbs water atwater at differentdifferent ratesrates AntiqueAntique booksbooks absorbabsorb upup toto anan 80 %80 % ModernModern booksbooks toto 60 %60 % AntiqueAntique booksbooks vulnerablevulnerable toto moldmold DamageDamage byby swellingswelling inin the first 4the first 4--88 hourshours
  24. 24. WetWet documentsdocuments are fragileare fragile BookBook relatedrelated materialsmaterials areare polymerspolymers,, hydrogenhydrogen bondsbonds weakenweaken whenwhen wetwet andand polymerpolymer chainschains easilyeasily breakbreak
  25. 25. MoldMold growthgrowth IfIf notnot treatedtreated in thein the first 48first 48 hourshours MoldMold growthgrowth becomesbecomes a higha high riskrisk temperaturetemperature higherhigher thanthan normalnormal PoorPoor ventilationventilation
  26. 26. BasicBasic PrinciplesPrinciples ofof SalvageSalvage IfIf therethere are noare no toxictoxic moldsmolds wearwear disposabledisposable plasticplastic glovesgloves andand clothingclothing, and, and useuse aa protectiveprotective maskmask Isolate theIsolate the affectedaffected itemsitems transfer intransfer in sealedsealed plasticplastic bagsbags BooksBooks shouldshould notnot remainremain in thein the bagsbags maymay alsoalso bebe drieddried outsideoutside in thein the sunsun
  27. 27. CollectionsCollections gotgot wetwet WhatWhat shallshall I do ?I do ?
  28. 28. ProtectProtect collectionscollections fromfrom furtherfurther damagedamage
  29. 29. StabilizingStabilizing thethe environmentenvironment reduce highreduce high humiditieshumidities andand temperaturestemperatures ventvent thethe areasareas tightlytightly shelvedshelved booksbooks maymay developdevelop moldmold onlyonly onon outerouter edgesedges CoatedCoated stockstock isis aa differentdifferent problemproblem
  30. 30. FirstFirst operationsoperations Eliminate the sourceEliminate the source of water.of water. Turn off theTurn off the heatheat turn airturn air conditioningconditioning on andon and leaveleave itit onon Turn onTurn on fansfans andand dehumidifiersdehumidifiers VacuumVacuum outout anyany standing waterstanding water
  31. 31. selectionselection NotNot allall materialsmaterials cancan bebe drieddried thethe samesame wayway CarefulCareful selectionselection mustmust bebe carriedcarried outout beforebefore freezingfreezing
  32. 32. selectionselection partiallypartially wetwet booksbooks andand documentsdocuments fromfrom soakingsoaking wetwet coatedcoated paperspapers photographicphotographic reproductionsreproductions manuscriptsmanuscripts andand paintedpainted materialsmaterials LeatherLeather andand vellumvellum booksbooks rare materialrare material
  33. 33. CoatedCoated paperspapers mostmost vulnerablevulnerable toto complete losscomplete loss ShouldShould notnot bebe permittedpermitted toto beginbegin dryingdrying ShortShort periodperiod betweenbetween removalremoval andand freezingfreezing MayMay bebe necessarynecessary toto rere--wetwet
  34. 34. RemovalRemoval fromfrom waterwater--damageddamaged areaarea PriorityPriority toto thethe catalogcatalog DoDo notnot removeremove labelslabels SeparateSeparate veryvery wetwet fromfrom partiallypartially wetwet ContaminatedContaminated fromfrom uncontaminateduncontaminated NecessityNecessity of boxof box codingcoding systemsystem
  35. 35. OneOne personperson oneone inventoryinventory onon eacheach locationlocation wherewhere thethe materialmaterial isis takentaken fromfrom ShouldShould supervisesupervise boxingboxing andand boxbox-- codingcoding
  36. 36. HandlingHandling wetwet materialsmaterials ExtremeExtreme carecare mustmust bebe takentaken in handling thein handling the wetwet materialsmaterials.. IfIf archivalarchival boxbox isis soakedsoaked replacereplace itit in situin situ SoakedSoaked booksbooks shouldshould notnot bebe openedopened oror closedclosed SoakedSoaked coverscovers shouldshould notnot bebe removedremoved
  37. 37. HandlingHandling wetwet materialsmaterials IfIf booksbooks areare underwaterunderwater oror soakingsoaking wetwet,, pick uppick up eacheach oneone withwith bothboth handshands KeepKeep the bookthe book closedclosed whilewhile youyou movemove itit RememberRemember: the: the wetterwetter the book, thethe book, the heavierheavier itit isis and the moreand the more likelylikely toto bebe damageddamaged
  38. 38. CleaningCleaning andand washingwashing WashingWashing NeedNeed of timeof time SkilledSkilled workersworkers Pure waterPure water supplysupply DoDo notnot washwash smokesmoke damagedamage DoDo notnot waskwask waterwater solublesoluble componentscomponents
  39. 39. RemovalRemoval andand PackingPacking CorrugatedCorrugated boxesboxes areare cheapercheaper CanCan collapsecollapse whenwhen filledfilled withwith wetwet materialmaterial PlasticPlastic cratescrates ContainersContainers notnot largerlarger thanthan 11 cubiccubic footfoot
  40. 40. WrappingWrapping WrappingWrapping supportssupports wetwet materialsmaterials WrapWrap booksbooks singlysingly documentsdocuments inin stacksstacks asas thickthick asas a booka book useuse cardboardcardboard boxesboxes or milkor milk cratescrates DoDo notnot waitwait forfor largelarge pilepile withwith largelarge quantitiesquantities separationseparation ofof itemsitems withwith freezer paperfreezer paper worksworks wellwell
  41. 41. TransportTransport WetWet booksbooks shouldshould bebe movedmoved inin boxesboxes ““spine downspine down”” BooksBooks shouldshould bebe separatedseparated byby siliconesilicone paperspapers OrOr byby humanhuman chainchain
  42. 42. TransportTransport PackPack tightlytightly toto preventprevent distortionsdistortions Pack spine down inPack spine down in oneone rowrow OrOr flatflat AvoidAvoid placingplacing largerlarger volumesvolumes on top ofon top of smallersmaller onesones
  43. 43. TransportTransport DoDo notnot allowallow packedpacked materialmaterial remainremain onon sitesite riskrisk ofof moldmold developmentdevelopment Cover workCover work surfacessurfaces withwith polyethylenepolyethylene
  44. 44. TransportTransport
  45. 45. TimeTime ProblemsProblems getget worseworse withwith timetime SalvageSalvage moremore difficultdifficult CostsCosts go upgo up StabilizationStabilization byby freezingfreezing
  46. 46. freezingfreezing WhyWhy toto freezefreeze ?? notnot everythingeverything cancan bebe frozenfrozen FreezingFreezing cancan bebe damagingdamaging HaltsHalts moldmold attackattack StabilizesStabilizes solublesoluble inksinks andand dyesdyes PreventsPrevents adhesionadhesion ofof leavesleaves PermitsPermits orderlyorderly,, unhurriedunhurried planningplanning conferconfer withwith expertsexperts assessassess damagedamage whatwhat cancan bebe discardeddiscarded,, replacedreplaced findfind anan alternate locationalternate location
  47. 47. ChoosingChoosing dryingdrying techniquestechniques AmountAmount ofof wetwet materialmaterial DegreeDegree ofof wetnesswetness AntiqueAntique oror notnot AvailabilityAvailability of a new copy on the marketof a new copy on the market SpecialSpecial circumstancescircumstances
  48. 48. ChoosingChoosing dryingdrying techniquestechniques AirAir dryingdrying SuitableSuitable forfor smallsmall emergencyemergency NotNot forfor specialspecial materialsmaterials VacuumVacuum packingpacking SuitableSuitable forfor smallsmall--mediummedium emergencyemergency SuitableSuitable forfor antiqueantique materialsmaterials FreezeFreeze dryingdrying SuitableSuitable forfor largelarge emergencyemergency NotNot forfor allall materialsmaterials
  49. 49. AirAir DryingDrying MostMost suitablesuitable forfor smallsmall numbersnumbers ofof dampdamp booksbooks.. NoNo needneed of specialof special equipmentequipment ExtremelyExtremely laborlabor intensiveintensive GreatGreat deal of spacedeal of space DistortionsDistortions NotNot forfor coatedcoated paperpaper HigherHigher rehabilitationrehabilitation costscosts MoldMold notnot unusualunusual ExtraExtra amountamount ofof shelfshelf space 20%space 20%--30%.30%.
  50. 50. DoDo notnot interleaveinterleave tootoo muchmuch !!
  51. 51. VacuumVacuum packingpacking WetWet booksbooks areare putput intointo a plastic baga plastic bag withwith dry paperdry paper avoidavoid shrinkageshrinkage ofof leatherleather andand otherother coveringcovering materialsmaterials avoidavoid distortiondistortion of theof the boardsboards,, strainstrain uponupon thethe sewingsewing book canbook can bebe removedremoved fromfrom thethe dryingdrying processprocess atat anyany stagestage frozenfrozen booksbooks drieddried inin thisthis way doway do becomebecome wetwet asas theythey thawthaw and dryand dry monitor themonitor the vacuumvacuum packedpacked booksbooks cancan bebe achievedachieved "at home""at home"
  52. 52. VacuumVacuum FreezeFreeze DryingDrying sophisticatedsophisticated equipmentequipment suitablesuitable forfor largelarge numbersnumbers waterwater--solublesoluble inksinks andand forfor coatedcoated paperpaper vacuumvacuum chamberchamber collectionscollections remainremain frozenfrozen SublimationSublimation: ice: ice vaporizevaporize withoutwithout meltingmelting nono additionaladditional wettingwetting,, swellingswelling, or, or distortiondistortion veryvery little extralittle extra shelfshelf spacespace leathersleathers andand vellumsvellums maymay notnot survivesurvive mudmud,, dirtdirt liftedlifted toto thethe surfacesurface
  53. 53. freezefreeze--dryingdrying oror vacuumvacuum--dryingdrying?? inin freezefreeze--dryingdrying thethe materialsmaterials areare frozenfrozen.. sublimatedsublimated in ain a freezefreeze--drydry chamberchamber inin vacuumvacuum--dryingdrying thethe materialsmaterials are in aare in a wetwet conditioncondition
  54. 54. FloodFlood examplesexamples FlorenceFlorence 19661966 floodflood, the, the nationalnational librarylibrary PraguePrague 20022002 Baghdad NLABaghdad NLA Verona SocietVerona Societàà letterarialetteraria
  55. 55. FireFire damagedamage
  56. 56. REMOVAL AND PACKINGREMOVAL AND PACKING BeforeBefore removingremoving watchwatch outout forfor reignitionreignition UseUse cartscarts,, cratescrates,, trolleystrolleys oror boxesboxes asas supportsupport
  57. 57. HandlingHandling burntburnt materialsmaterials ExtremeExtreme carecare mustmust bebe takentaken in handlingin handling burntburnt materialsmaterials BurntBurnt booksbooks shouldshould notnot bebe openedopened oror closedclosed SootSoot cancan easilyeasily sneaksneak inin objectsobjects IfIf possiblepossible removeremove sootsoot withoutwithout removingremoving objectsobjects fromfrom shelvesshelves Time canTime can makemake removalremoval ofof sootsoot harderharder
  58. 58. CleaningCleaning andand washingwashing NeedNeed of timeof time ProtectionProtection ofof workersworkers UseUse onlyonly vacuumsvacuums withwith HEPAHEPA filtersfilters VacuumingVacuuming WhenWhen vacuumingvacuuming dodo notnot touchtouch thethe objectobject withwith thethe hosehose UseUse smokesmoke offoff spongessponges toto removeremove sootsoot
  59. 59. EarthquakeEarthquake damagedamage StructuralStructural damagedamage LeadsLeads toto firefire andand waterwater damagedamage NeedNeed ofof cleaningcleaning beforebefore packingpacking andand removalremoval
  60. 60. SootSoot dirtdirt andand dustdust ParticulateParticulate pollutantspollutants suchsuch asas sootsoot,, dirtdirt andand dustdust,, abrade,abrade, soilsoil, and, and disfiguredisfigure materialsmaterials.. DustDust andand dirtdirt thatthat havehave absorbedabsorbed gaseousgaseous pollutantspollutants fromfrom the air andthe air and settledsettled onon librarylibrary materialmaterial becomebecome sitessites forfor harmfulharmful chemicalchemical reactionsreactions.. ParticulatesParticulates cancan alsoalso aidaid mouldmould growthgrowth.. ModernModern librarylibrary materialmaterial suchsuch asas magneticmagnetic andand opticaloptical media aremedia are veryvery sensitivesensitive toto dustdust andand dirtdirt..
  61. 61. UseUse vacuumvacuum cleanerscleaners equippedequipped withwith HEPAHEPA filtersfilters
  62. 62. PestsPests PestsPests InsectsInsects feedfeed onon organicorganic substancessubstances suchsuch asas paperpaper,, gluesglues, gelatine, gelatine sizingsizing,, leatherleather,, andand bookclothbookcloth.. TheyThey preferprefer warmwarm, dark,, dark, dampdamp,, dirtydirty, and, and poorlypoorly ventilatedventilated conditionsconditions.. TheirTheir damagedamage isis usuallyusually irreversibleirreversible –– texttext andand imagesimages lostlost byby insectsinsects eatingeating andand boringboring throughthrough paperpaper andand photographsphotographs cannotcannot bebe replacedreplaced..
  63. 63. PestsPests
  64. 64. RodentsRodents andand birdsbirds RodentsRodents andand birdsbirds cancan alsoalso harmharm collectionscollections:: ratsrats andand micemice willwill destroydestroy booksbooks inin orderorder toto obtainobtain paperpaper forfor theirtheir nestsnests rodentrodent andand birdbird droppingsdroppings are corrosiveare corrosive and canand can leaveleave permanentpermanent stainsstains BirdBird nestsnests areare alsoalso a majora major sourcesource of foodof food forfor insectsinsects..
  65. 65. SummarySummary ofof emergencyemergency proceduresprocedures SeekSeek adviceadvice.. Turn offTurn off heatheat createcreate freefree circulationcirculation of airof air KeepKeep fansfans andand airair--conditioningconditioning on day and nighton day and night BriefBrief eacheach workerworker beforebefore salvagesalvage DoDo notnot allowallow workersworkers toto attemptattempt restorationrestoration cleaningcleaning operationsoperations inin controlledcontrolled roomsrooms dodo notnot applyapply toto specialspecial materialsmaterials
  66. 66. DoDo notnot:: open aopen a wetwet oror burntburnt bookbook removeremove mudmud byby spongingsponging removeremove coverscovers fromfrom booksbooks hanghang booksbooks fromfrom lineslines presspress booksbooks whenwhen theythey are waterare water soakedsoaked writewrite onon wetwet//burntburnt paperpaper useuse coloredcolored paper ofpaper of anyany kindkind toto drydry booksbooks changechange interleavinginterleaving materialmaterial frequentlyfrequently