Archives Conservation Program – introduction to conservation, deacidification, reformatting and digitization


Published on

Lecture presented by Fe Angela M. Verzosa at the Seminar-Workshop on the Rice Terraces Archival Project (Phase 1- Capacity Building) sponsored by the Cordillera/Northern Luzon Historical Archives, UP Baguio, and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, Bulwagang Juan Luna, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City, 2014 June 11

Published in: Education, Technology

Archives Conservation Program – introduction to conservation, deacidification, reformatting and digitization

  1. 1. Conservation Program by Fe Angela M. Verzosa A Rice Terraces Archival Project Seminar-workshop, UP Baguio, 9-11 June 2014
  2. 2. Preservation vs Conservation – ANY DIFFERENCE?
  3. 3. What’s the difference? Preservation is a branch of library and information science concerned with maintaining or restoring access to artifacts, documents and records through the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of decay and damage. Conservation refers to the treatment and repair of individual items to slow decay or restore them to a usable state. (Source: reservation_(library_and_arc hival_science)
  4. 4. PRESERVATION deals with the acquisition, organization, and distribution of resources (human, physical, monetary) to ensure adequate protection and access to historical and cultural information of enduring value for present and future generations of users. encompasses three aspects: planning, implementation, prevention
  5. 5. Conservation is the concentrated active care of damaged or fragile documents in any format. It involves invasive procedures, which alter the state of documents in order to stabilize or repair them.
  6. 6. CONSERVATION program that deals with the physical or chemical treatment of documents encompasses three functions: examination preservation restoration
  7. 7. conservation functions examination - procedure taken to determine the original makeup of an item and extent of its deterioration, alteration, and loss. preservation - action taken to retard/prevent deterioration or damage by control of their environment and/or treatment to maintain their original state, as far as possible. restoration - action taken to return a deterio- rated or damaged item to its original form.
  8. 8. Implementing a conservation program Surveys Management Support directive conservation committee conservation policy organizational structure budget Conservation Facilities Conservation Staff
  9. 9. Conservation surveys comprehensive - a recognized tool in collection management; it evaluates the condition of a collection as a whole and proposes solutions to improve conditions. environmental - assesses the suitablity of the building and its facilities for storage. condition - assesses the physical condition and state of repair of the library’s holdings.
  10. 10. Comprehensive surveys pre-survey planning - reviews a full range of documentation, mission statement, policies & procedures, construction records, floor plans, existing preservation program, insurance, etc. on-site visit- a walk-through examination of the building and its facilities. the report- a technical report summarizing all the findings and recommendations. institutional actions- implementing follow-up
  11. 11. Environmental Survey the building itself: roof and walls - leaks? insulation? dampness? environment in the building: temperature and humidity controls? lighting conditions? building security: locks? alarms? extinguishers? sprinkler system? storage areas and workrooms: pest control? ventilation? types of shelves?
  12. 12. Condition Survey best means of gathering data needed to evaluate treatment priorities survey instrument should be as extensive as possible survey form should be simple to fill out survey data may include the following:
  13. 13. Collection Location Date of survey Conducted by Box and folder no. Type of material Inclusive dates Format Media Type/Quality of storage containers Condition of collection: general appearance insect damage tears/abrasions harmful means of surface dirt/dust attachment (clips, pins) water/other stains enclosures (flowers, clip- discoloration pings, photos, etc) embrittlement other observations: evidence of mold/mildew __________________ Use of collection: Priority ranking of collection for treatment: _________ Recommended treatment: _____________________
  14. 14. Conservation priorities high-quality informational content significant current/projected use physical condition of original format cost-effectiveness of treatment
  15. 15. Implementing a conservation program Surveys Management Support directive conservation committee conservation policy organizational structure budget Conservation Facilities Conservation Staff
  16. 16. administrative order outlines priorities and goals short-term intermediate long-term provides a conservation policy statement designates responsibility for the conservation effort
  17. 17. Preservation Policy A policy for preservation cannot be prepared in isolation; it must form an integral part of the overall policy for collection or repository management. It must take full account of the aims and objectives of the organization, the needs of users and the place of the collection or repository within a local, regional, national or even international framework
  18. 18. Conservation Policy Statement must be written approved by the Conservation Committee adheres to basic principles in conservation contains manual of procedures that should serve as helpful guide and training aid lists specific “do’s and dont’s”
  19. 19. Conservation Policy Statement A document embracing a range of programmes to be applied to materials as appropriate. Includes: preventive measures to minimize the rate of deterioration Housekeeping - best practices to extend the life of the materials Training programmes for staff and users on correct handling of archival materials
  20. 20. Conservation Policy Statement security measures and contingency plans for disaster control and recovery protective measures, such as boxing, binding, and wrapping, to reduce wear and tear on materials a substitution programme for replacing valuable or very brittle originals with surrogates conservation treatments to repair damaged originals
  21. 21. administrative order outlines priorities and goals short-term intermediate long-term provides a conservation policy statement designates responsibility for the conservation effort
  22. 22. CONSERVATION: who is responsible? library manager archivist conservator personnel users Librarians/archivists: •keep them under best conditions •determine which require special facilities or handling •decide which merit conservation Conservator: advises the best treatment undertakes the repair/conservation Personnel: Handle library materials gently. Set a good example for users. Users: Handle materials gently. Safeguard materials for future users.
  23. 23. Organizational Structure C o n s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t ( s ) C o n s e r v a t i o n S c i e n t i s t ( s ) c o n s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i c i a n ( s ) P r e s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r / C u r a t o r C o n s e r v a t i o n C o m m i t t e e
  24. 24. Conservation Committee knowledge of nature of collections knowledge of conservation, or enthusiasm, interest, willingness to learn conservation skills formal appointment authority to gather information, plan the program, review facilities and environment, execute the program
  25. 25. Preservation Officer/Conservator Responsible for formulation, implementation, and evaluation/review of preservation/conservation program monitoring the preservation and conservation needs of new acquisitions to the archive, and conserving damaged or fragile documents already in the collection supervising preservation and conservation projects, training new staff, and updating or refreshing the preservation skills of existing staff. implementation and review of disaster control plan
  26. 26. Conservation Staff restoration work must be done only by trained personnel staff training is an ongoing responsibility training and orientation must be directed toward staff at all levels the number of staff involved will depend on the size and type of the institution, and on the extent of conservation program
  27. 27. Budget must be a line item in the institutional budget at least 15-20 % of total budget expenses should include archival storage materials extermination services subscription to literature on conservation expanded projects such as establishment of conservation laboratory, microfilming, etc.
  28. 28. Conservation Facilities air conditioning dehumidifier fumigation chamber or vacuum fumigators vacuum / freeze-drying chamber
  29. 29. Conservation Supplies Japanese tissue paper, matboard Mylar polyester sheets blotter paper soft brushes cleaning pads hygrometer (RH instrument tool) polyethylene-lined kraft paper
  30. 30. Principles in Conservation rule of reversibility - no procedure or treatment should be undertaken that cannot later be undone. compatibility of problem and solution - the chosen treatment to be applied should not be greater or weaker than the problem. It may be best to do nothing at all if no acceptable treatment solution is compatible to the problem.
  31. 31. more principles ... rule on restoration - how far reconstruc- tion may be undertaken without losing or diminishing the integrity of the item or document. documentation - maintaining a complete and accurate record of all treatments. narrative description checklist of work done photographic record (before, during, and after)
  32. 32. Do not use any measure, treatment, or program that: cannot be reversed if necessary cannot be used properly will not last a long time is harmful to people changes the physical property of material dissolves or damages any part of the material
  33. 33. Causes of Damage/Deterioration acid – internal factors affecting quality of paper light - ultraviolet rays in sunlight and fluorescent light cause chemical changes in the paper and accelerate the process of fading temperature and humidity - accelerates the growth of mold and the internal decomposition of paper air pollution - causing discoloration, embrittlement and disintegration of the paper fibers Insects and rodents
  34. 34. Causes of Damage/Deterioration Water damage is a fairly common cause and one that should be anticipated in most disaster prevention/ planning programs Photocopying frequently damages bound volumes Shelving - Leaning books cause undue strain on the spine, and tightly packed books are harmed with shelving and removal. Book drops Wear and tear from use
  35. 35. retarding deterioration temperature and humidity control filtration screens against dirt and air pollutants filters against ultraviolet and infrared rays deacidification acid-free/rust-free storage facilities careful handling good housekeeping (and pest control)
  36. 36. Conservation Guidelines light control pest control temperature and humidity control acidity control handling of materials by staff handling of materials by users
  37. 37. Conservation Guidelines store materials in acid-free containers remove paper clips, staple wires, pins, string, tape, etc. while processing (use plastic clips, fasteners, etc instead) use metal shelving at least 4- 5 inches above floor level Acid:
  38. 38. Conservation Guidelines store materials away from light keep lights off or low install ultraviolet filters avoid using original items in displays and exhibits monitor light levels regularly (50 to 150 lux) Light control:
  39. 39. Conservation guidelines temperature of 20 to 25 0 C or 60-65 0 F wide fluctuations should be avoided low RH (below 20%) leads to dessication and embrittlement of paper high RH (over 60%) accelerates chemical and biological deterioration recommended level is 50 % temperature & humidity:
  40. 40. Conservation guidelines check incoming materials for signs of infestation separate infested materials for treatment never eat/drink in storage/research areas keep archives/library clean and uncluttered set traps/poison baits to catch rodents contact services of an exterminator insects and rodents:
  41. 41. Conservation Guidelines handle materials as little as possible never use ink or adhesive tape do not write on any part of the material except to make notations using soft pencil substitute copies for originals do not overpack in boxes or in shelves handling of materials:
  42. 42. Conservation Treatments Fumigation Dry cleaning, washing and bleaching Deacidification Mending, reinforcement, and support using Japanese paper lamination encapsulation
  43. 43. Deacidification Treatment Mass deacidification – along with micro- film and lamination - was developed during the early- and mid-20th century to retard deterioration of paper due to acidity. William J. Barrow invented an aqueous process to neutralize acid in paper while depositing an alkaline buffer that would retard the rate of decay.
  44. 44. Deacidification Methods BookKeeper process is a non-aqueous, liquid phase process that uses magnesium oxide. CSC Book Saver uses carbonated magnesium propylate Papersave process uses magnesium titanium alkoxide (available in Swiss, Leipzig models) Wei T'o process uses methoxy magnesium methyl carbonate (for single item deacidification) ALL available as hand-held sprays
  45. 45. Deacidification Methods Barrow’s method
  46. 46. Mass Deacidification
  47. 47. BCP - Bückeburg Conservation Procedure Deacidification Methods
  48. 48. Deacidification Methods PaperSave Swiss
  49. 49. CBCL: 2 (Leipzig, Germany) Deacidification Methods
  50. 50. Deacidification process… Source: ZFB:2 Mass Deacidification ZFB 2 mass deacidification process using calcium carbonate
  51. 51. When to deacidify? Which method select paper in relatively good condition, usually with solid bindings and text blocks (when dealing with bound materials). use is crucial. Items that are heavily used are excellent candidates for deacidification. importance—if an item is a crucial part of an important collection, deacidifcation is the best choice even if the item is not in pristine condition. Again, the long-term importance of the item and its potential use to scholars in the future are significant considerations.
  52. 52. Pressing mended documents using flat iron…
  53. 53. Book-binding process
  54. 54. Reinforcing / binding process
  55. 55. Lamination process…
  56. 56. Lamination was popular from the 1930s through the 1970s, but has since fallen out of favor. Lamination changes the appearance of the document, causing damage and irreparable distortions. The current equivalent of (or alternative to) lamination is encapsulation, which protects deacidified papers within a sealed plastic sleeve. Lamination process…
  57. 57. Encapsulation Unlike lamination, encapsulation is completely and easily reversible. Encapsulated pages can be bound without significant damage to individual pages and can be a viable alternative for valuable and delicate materials.
  58. 58. Mending with Japanese tissue
  59. 59. Basic Repair Procedures relaxing and flattening documents removal of paper fasteners (pins, clips) / adhesives appropriate means of attachment surface cleaning of paper records testing for ink solubility ph-testing for acidity mending with Japanese paper
  60. 60. Treatment options conditions actions damagedfragile and endangered fragile and endangeredfrequently used pest-infested  in-house treatment  lab conservation  fumigation  deacidification  lamination  encapsulation • reformatting or surrogating - photocopying - digitization
  61. 61. Surrogating or Reformatting Surrogating is the creation of copies of original documents in various forms, to be used in place of damaged or fragile originals, or originals which may become damaged or fragile through frequent use, and which continue to be preserved under the appropriate storage conditions. Ex: facsimile , photocopy, scanned images Reformatting is the creation of new formats of the original documents to assure their continued access and preservation. Ex: microfilming and digitization
  62. 62. Surrogating/Reformatting •Provision of surrogates - microfilm, microfiche, photocopy, digital copy •Where surrogating is required, both the original document and the surrogate copy must be preserved •Where surrogates are available, original documents will only be produced in cases where researchers can prove a genuine need to consult the originals
  63. 63. where the copying process is deemed to pose a risk of harm to the originals, no photocopying will be allowed. Reprographics will also be restricted to the staff only – users are not allowed to perform this function. Flash photography will not be allowed. Only surrogate copies will be allowed for loan/exhibition. Surrogating/Reformatting
  64. 64. Digitization usually refers to the conversion of printed text or images into binary signals using some kind of scanning device that enables the result to be displayed on a computer screen. has been endorsed as an accepted preservation reformatting option for a range of materials.
  65. 65. Digitization The inherent tension between the nature of digital information and preservation Digitization creates new resources that need to be preserved Long-term maintenance is needed to ensure that digital master files remain accessible, authentic, and intact
  66. 66. Issues and Concerns Can digitization be considered a preservation strategy? “Digitization is not preservation – at least not yet”(Smith, 1999) “Digitization is NOT preservation”(Gertz, 2007)• “Digitization can provide a form of insurance for preserving content, even though digital surrogates cannot replace physical originals” (Lynch, 2006)
  67. 67. Digital media is not as durable as paper and other analog materials Uncertainty about long-term access and retrieval of digitized data Integrity and authenticity of digital objects Loss of data and data corruption Stability of digital format, digital storage Technological obsolescence Systems for access and retrieval of digital collections Issues and Concerns
  68. 68. Digitization for preservation Digitization can be considered a viable preservation strategy if: Original materials are fragile, damaged, or recorded on unstable analog media There is no other preservation method available It is part of a comprehensive approach to access and preservation
  69. 69. Digital Preservation Digital preservation is the series of actions and interventions required to ensure continued and reliable access to authentic digital objects for as long as they are deemed to be of value. This encompasses not just technical activities, but also all of the strategic and organizational considerations that relate to the survival and management of digital material.
  70. 70. Conservation Guidelines  light control  pest control  temperature and humidity control  acidity control handling of materials by staff handling of materials by users
  71. 71. How to handle archival materials ?
  72. 72. Handling of archival materials do not leave users unattended only issue a limited number of docu- ments or folders, or one box at a time do not allow material to be taken out from reading room do not allow materials to be rearranged only staff should take charge of photocopying examine materials after use
  73. 73. Keep manuscripts/records in acid-free folders and boxes. Remove only one folder at a time.
  74. 74. Maintain the order or arrangement of documents in each folder.
  75. 75. Never remove manuscript pages from folders.
  76. 76. Wear gloves when handling photographs.
  77. 77. Always use a pencil, never a pen or marker.
  78. 78. Do not rest your hand, arm, or place any object on a book or manuscript.
  79. 79. Keep folders and pages flat on table, do not hold in hands.
  80. 80. Keep volumes flat on table, do not hold in hands.
  81. 81. Use a book cradle and special weights, if they are provided.
  82. 82. When leaving for a short time, close the volume, folder or box.
  83. 83. Notify staff if any materials are damaged or out of sequence. Do not attempt to re- arrange them yourself.
  84. 84. Food and drink are not permitted because they can damage collections and attract vermin and insects.
  85. 85. Tips in implementing conservation program... examine the environment improve the environment examine the materials / establish priorities for treatment separate materials for in-house treatment from those requiring professional care establish a work room for remedial treatment supervise in-house repairs and restoration work with a professional conservator keep informed
  86. 86. Legal and ethical Issues •Intellectual Property Rights •Reproduction rights of Libraries and Archives in Copyright laws •Legal constraints in use of reprographic and digital copies • Access and security issues •Privacy and Confidentiality issues •Keeping the integrity of originals
  87. 87. Conservation videos Conservation of Jefferson Papers at U. of Virginia watch?v=CArraKc81Kw Basics of Paper Conservation atch?v=dcb3JwPjDjA
  88. 88. Acknowledgement/Credits and references: Library Preservation at Harvard Library of Congress Preservation New York University Libraries Preservation History
  89. 89. Contact Questions?