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1
Potential Health Impacts of Natural Gas
Extraction Using High Volume, Slickwater
Hydraulic Fracturing from Long Laterals...
2
• This material was developed by the Mid-Atlantic Center
for Children’s Health & the Environment and funded
under the co...
3
• The listener should be able to
– Describe difference between children and adults
relevant to unconventional gas extrac...
4
CHILDREN
5
• Have longer “shelf life”
– Vulnerable periods of development
• Eat more, drink more, breath more per unit
body weight ...
6
• Preconception  Embryo Fetus  Infant
 Toddler  School age child 
Adolescent
Growth & Development
7
• Exposures preconception and in utero 
birth defects or later problems
• Timing of exposure also important when
occurs...
8
Differences Between Children & Adults
Lungs
• Continued
branching of the
bronchial tree
• Continued
development of
alveo...
9
Differences Between Children & Adults
Endocrine System
• Puberty is the
functional maturation
of the hypothalamic–
pitui...
10
Unconventional Gas Extraction
11
Unconventional Gas Extraction:
A National & Global Issue
Shale Gas Plays - Global
http://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/w...
12
Shale Gas/Conventional Gas
13
Horizontal vs. Vertical Fracturing
14
• Pad construction (usually < 1 month)
• Drill set-up (usually < 1 week)
• Drilling (usually 1-2 months, but may be
rep...
15
Multiple Drill Pads
Before Washington County, PA After
Let’s be honest, this is not pristine wilderness either
16
The Need for Multiple Drill Pads
17
Drilling in Shale Needs Long Laterals from
Multiple Drill Pads.
18
Drill Pad Set-up
Drill Rig
Waste-water
impoundment
Pre-fab
office
trailers
•Diesel generators
•Water-recycle
containers...
19
Drill Pad Close to Homes
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/10/101022-
energy-marcellus-shale-gas-overview/
H...
20
Overall Process
21
Natural Gas Extraction Using High Volume, Slickwater
Hydraulic Fracturing from Long Laterals
UsedwithpermissionfromProP...
22
Air pollution
23
Air Pollution – Before and During Natural Gas
Extraction
• Diesel trucks
deliver
equipment,
water
• Diesel
generators
•...
24
• Trucked-in water: 5,000,000 gal@ 3,000
gal/trk = 1667 truckloads
• Trucked-in proppant: 1,500,000 lbs @ 2000
lbs/trk ...
25
Another Source of Air Pollution:
Containment Pond with Misters
Misters Size of
Contain-
ment
Pond
Voyles Residence
Hane...
26
Air Pollution from Natural Gas Extraction
• Natural gas
– CH4
– BETX - Benzene,
toluene,
ethylbenzene, and
xylene
– H2S...
27
Air Pollution from Gas Extraction
• Precursors of ozone
(O3)
• Particulate matter
• Methane (CH4)
– Potent GHG
• VOCs
•...
28
Ground-level Ozone (O3) Formation
http://aura.gsfc.nasa.gov/outreach/garden_faq.html
29
Ground-Level
Ozone (O3)
Health Effects
(not all of these are noticeable)
Particulate Matter
x
Coughing, irritation of t...
30
• Neural tube defects
– Lupo et al.. 2011. Maternal Exposure to Ambient
Levels of Benzene and Neural Tube Defects among...
31
• Hill’s Study
– Compare birth outcomes among women living
near wells drill and sites permitted but not drilled
– Babie...
32
• McKenzie Study
– Birth Outcomes
– Concerns
• Toluene and xylene teratogen
• Benzene mutagen and carcinogen
– Look at ...
33
Water pollution
34
Water Pollution
• Materials pumped into
the well – contents of
fracking fluid
• Naturally Occurring
Materials brought b...
35
Contents of Fracking Fluid
Chemical Components Appearing Most Often in Hydraulic Fracturing
Products Used Between 2005 ...
36
Contents of Fracking Fluid
AdaptedFrom:ChemicalsUsedinHydraulicFracturing
UnitedStatesHouseofRepresentatives
Committeeo...
37
• Tap water in Dimock, PA documented to
contain methane
• Tap water in Parker County, TX documented
to contain methane
...
38
Methane Contamination of Drinking Water
Osborn et al 2011 Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well...
39
Potential Source of Ground and Surface Water
Pollution: Containment Pond
Size of
House
Size of
Contain-
ment
Pond
Down ...
40
Climate Change
41
• Methane Is a Much More Potent
Greenhouse Gas than Carbon Dioxide
• It Is Vented and Leaked….
– During initial frack f...
42
STRESS
43
• During drilling and fracking – 24/7 industrial
operation with noise and lights
• Noise from trucks and diesel-powered...
44
• Know that sleep disruption effects
concentration, school performance, safety
on the job and on the road
• Growing bod...
45
CONCLUSIONS
47
Potential or Documented Exposures
• Diesel exhaust from trucks,
motors and generators
• Chemicals in drilling mud
• Che...
48
• No data to document that there are
widespread, adverse human health
consequences occurring as a result of Natural
Gas...
49
• Drilling and energy companies must demonstrate that
the drilling and gas recovery can be done in a way that
minimizes...
50
PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SPECIALTY
UNITS (PEHSUs)
51
• A resource for pediatricians, public health
officials, school personnel, parents and
others to get questions answered...
52
• Lead poisoning
• Pesticide exposures
• Sick building problems
• Water pollution
• Air pollution
• Job related exposur...
53
PEHSU Regions
54
• www.pehsu.net
Additional Information About PEHSUs
55
QUESTIONS?
Mid-Atlantic Center
for Children’s Health & the Environment
202-471-4829
1-866-622-2431
macche@childrensnati...
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Session 2: How Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Effects Children

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Session 2: How Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction Effects Children

  1. 1. 1 Potential Health Impacts of Natural Gas Extraction Using High Volume, Slickwater Hydraulic Fracturing from Long Laterals (Fracking) Jerome A. Paulson, MD, FAAP Professor of Pediatrics & Professor of Environmental & Occupational Health George Washington University Medical Director for National & Global Affairs, Child Health Advocacy Institute & Director, Mid-Atlantic Center for Children’s Health & the Environment Children’s National Health System
  2. 2. 2 • This material was developed by the Mid-Atlantic Center for Children’s Health & the Environment and funded under the cooperative agreement award number 1U61TS000118-03 from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). • Acknowledgement: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supports the PEHSU by providing funds to ATSDR under Inter-Agency Agreement number DW-75- 92301301-0. Neither EPA nor ATSDR endorse the purchase of any commercial products or services mentioned in PEHSU publications. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - • Dr Paulson has provided factual information to lawyers regarding the potential health impact of natural gas extraction with hydraulic fracturing. Sources of Funding Potential Conflict of Interest
  3. 3. 3 • The listener should be able to – Describe difference between children and adults relevant to unconventional gas extraction – Describe the process of Natural Gas Extraction Using High Volume, Slickwater Hydraulic Fracturing from Long Laterals from Clustered Multi-Well Pads (AKA Unconventional Gas Extraction) – Describe some of the toxicants associated with unconventional gas extraction. – List the potential health hazards associated with natural gas extraction with hydraulic fracturing Objectives
  4. 4. 4 CHILDREN
  5. 5. 5 • Have longer “shelf life” – Vulnerable periods of development • Eat more, drink more, breath more per unit body weight than adult • Different metabolism than adults Children Are Not Little Adults
  6. 6. 6 • Preconception  Embryo Fetus  Infant  Toddler  School age child  Adolescent Growth & Development
  7. 7. 7 • Exposures preconception and in utero  birth defects or later problems • Timing of exposure also important when occurs after birth – Lead poisoning – outcome, in part, function of age at exposure – Some carcinogens – pesticides, ionizing radiation, UV light • Very little research on critical periods during adolescence in spite of many changes during that time frame Growth & Development
  8. 8. 8 Differences Between Children & Adults Lungs • Continued branching of the bronchial tree • Continued development of alveoli
  9. 9. 9 Differences Between Children & Adults Endocrine System • Puberty is the functional maturation of the hypothalamic– pituitary–gonadal axis • Tanner stages • Different pace in females and males Golub MS 2000. Environ Health Perspect 108:355–362
  10. 10. 10 Unconventional Gas Extraction
  11. 11. 11 Unconventional Gas Extraction: A National & Global Issue Shale Gas Plays - Global http://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/http://www.eia.gov/oil_gas/rpd/shale_gas.pdf
  12. 12. 12 Shale Gas/Conventional Gas
  13. 13. 13 Horizontal vs. Vertical Fracturing
  14. 14. 14 • Pad construction (usually < 1 month) • Drill set-up (usually < 1 week) • Drilling (usually 1-2 months, but may be repeated) • Hydraulic Fracturing or Fracking (usually 1-2 weeks including flowback, but repeated) • Natural gas extraction (years?) • Well decommissioning • Land restoration Unconventional Gas Extraction
  15. 15. 15 Multiple Drill Pads Before Washington County, PA After Let’s be honest, this is not pristine wilderness either
  16. 16. 16 The Need for Multiple Drill Pads
  17. 17. 17 Drilling in Shale Needs Long Laterals from Multiple Drill Pads.
  18. 18. 18 Drill Pad Set-up Drill Rig Waste-water impoundment Pre-fab office trailers •Diesel generators •Water-recycle containers •Sand/Chemical storage http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2010/07/24/business/GAS1.html {
  19. 19. 19 Drill Pad Close to Homes http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/10/101022- energy-marcellus-shale-gas-overview/ Homes Pad Site Drill Rig
  20. 20. 20 Overall Process
  21. 21. 21 Natural Gas Extraction Using High Volume, Slickwater Hydraulic Fracturing from Long Laterals UsedwithpermissionfromProPublica http://www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic-fracturing-national
  22. 22. 22 Air pollution
  23. 23. 23 Air Pollution – Before and During Natural Gas Extraction • Diesel trucks deliver equipment, water • Diesel generators • Diesel exhaust – generate O3, particulate pollution
  24. 24. 24 • Trucked-in water: 5,000,000 gal@ 3,000 gal/trk = 1667 truckloads • Trucked-in proppant: 1,500,000 lbs @ 2000 lbs/trk = 750 truckloads • X 1 to 10 frack episodes per well Diesel Trucks Estimate from EPA ORD http://yosemite.epa.gov/sab/sabproduct.nsf/5DEE6115FCA43661852576FD006B8460/$File/EPA+Presentation+Materials+4-6- 10+for+EEC+Apr+7-8+2010+Meeting.pdf
  25. 25. 25 Another Source of Air Pollution: Containment Pond with Misters Misters Size of Contain- ment Pond Voyles Residence Haney Residence Yeager Impoundment June 3, 2011 Photo: Robert Donnan
  26. 26. 26 Air Pollution from Natural Gas Extraction • Natural gas – CH4 – BETX - Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene – H2S • Atmospheric release from well, compressor, storage tanks, pumps, pipes • Flaring
  27. 27. 27 Air Pollution from Gas Extraction • Precursors of ozone (O3) • Particulate matter • Methane (CH4) – Potent GHG • VOCs • Radon • Other air toxics
  28. 28. 28 Ground-level Ozone (O3) Formation http://aura.gsfc.nasa.gov/outreach/garden_faq.html
  29. 29. 29 Ground-Level Ozone (O3) Health Effects (not all of these are noticeable) Particulate Matter x Coughing, irritation of the airways, discomfort in the chest or when breathing x Premature aging of the lungs x Faster or more shallow breathing x x Aggravation of asthma, emphysema, and other respiratory diseases x x Increased risk of respiratory infections x Premature death (primarily among older adults and those with existing heart and lung disease) x Health Risks of Ground Level O3 and Particulate Matter Pollution http://www.cleanairtrust.org/ozone.html
  30. 30. 30 • Neural tube defects – Lupo et al.. 2011. Maternal Exposure to Ambient Levels of Benzene and Neural Tube Defects among Offspring: Texas, 1999–2004. Environ Health Perspect 119:397-402 • Decreased birth parameters – Slama R, et al. 2009. Maternal Personal Exposure to Airborne Benzene and Intrauterine Growth. Environ Health Perspect 117:1313-1321 • Childhood leukemia – Whitworth KW, et al. 2008. Childhood Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Incidence and Hazardous Air Pollutants in Southeast Texas, 1995– 2004. Environ Health Perspect 116:1576-1580. Associations with Prenatal Exposure to Airborne Benzene
  31. 31. 31 • Hill’s Study – Compare birth outcomes among women living near wells drill and sites permitted but not drilled – Babies born to mothers living closer to wells drilled more likely to be SGA Association with Living Close to Unconventional Gas Extraction Sites Hill EL Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Infant Health – Evidence from Pennsylvania Cornell Univ. Working Paper 2012-12 07-2012
  32. 32. 32 • McKenzie Study – Birth Outcomes – Concerns • Toluene and xylene teratogen • Benzene mutagen and carcinogen – Look at the association of the pregnant woman’s proximity to well and birth certificate and birth defects surveillance • 125,000 infants born 96-09 • Rural only • Exposed – any well w/in 10 mile • Index of exposure by looking at distance of wells w/in the 10 mi limit – Divide into 3 groups • Unexposed – no wells w/in 10 mi – OR for heart defects 1.3 for high exposure with dose-response from low to high – OR for neural tube defect 2.0 for high exposure with no dose response – OR for oral cleft – not relationship – OR for preterm birth – nonsignificant but slight trend for improved outcome with more exposure – OR for LBW – not significant Association with Living Close to Unconventional Gas Extraction Sites McKenzie LM, et al. (2014) Birth Outcomes and Maternal Residential Proximity to Natural Gas Development in Rural Colorado. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(4): 412-417.
  33. 33. 33 Water pollution
  34. 34. 34 Water Pollution • Materials pumped into the well – contents of fracking fluid • Naturally Occurring Materials brought back with fracking fluid – Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials – NORMS – Salts • Pollutants presumed to migrate to ground water • Unintended releases – storm water runoff or overflow, spills, accidental release
  35. 35. 35 Contents of Fracking Fluid Chemical Components Appearing Most Often in Hydraulic Fracturing Products Used Between 2005 and 2009 Chemical Component No. of Products Containing Chemical Methanol (Methyl alcohol) 342 Isopropanol (Isopropyl alcohol, Propan-2-ol) 274 Crystalline silica - quartz (SiO2) 207 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2-butoxyethanol) 126 Ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol) 119 Hydrotreated light petroleum distillates 89 Sodium hydroxide (Caustic soda) 80 From:ChemicalsUsedinHydraulicFracturing UnitedStatesHouseofRepresentatives CommitteeonEnergyandCommerce MinorityStaff April2011 http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Hy draulic%20Fracturing%20Report%204.18.11.pdf
  36. 36. 36 Contents of Fracking Fluid AdaptedFrom:ChemicalsUsedinHydraulicFracturing UnitedStatesHouseofRepresentatives CommitteeonEnergyandCommerce MinorityStaff April2011 http://democrats.energycommerce.house.gov/sites/default/files/documents/Hydr aulic%20Fracturing%20Report%204.18.11.pdf Partial list of Chemical Components of Concern: Carcinogens, SDWA-Regulated Chemicals, and Hazardous Air Pollutants Chemical Component Chemical Category No of Products Methanol (Methyl alcohol) HAP 342 Ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol) HAP 119 Diesel Carcinogen, SDWA, HAP 51 Naphthalene Carcinogen, HAP 44 Xylene SDWA, HAP 44 Hydrogen chloride (Hydrochloric acid) HAP 42 Toluene SDWA, HAP 29 Ethylbenzene SDWA, HAP 28 Diethanolamine (2,2-iminodiethanol) HAP 14 Formaldehyde Carcinogen, HAP 12 Sulfuric acid Carcinogen 9
  37. 37. 37 • Tap water in Dimock, PA documented to contain methane • Tap water in Parker County, TX documented to contain methane Migration of Pollutants to Groundwater
  38. 38. 38 Methane Contamination of Drinking Water Osborn et al 2011 Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing PNAS 108:8172-6 • Tested 60 water wells • Compared wells based on distance to gas wells • Fingerprinting of the methane
  39. 39. 39 Potential Source of Ground and Surface Water Pollution: Containment Pond Size of House Size of Contain- ment Pond Down Hill Voyles Residence Haney Residence Yeager Impoundment June 3, 2011 Photo: Robert Donnan
  40. 40. 40 Climate Change
  41. 41. 41 • Methane Is a Much More Potent Greenhouse Gas than Carbon Dioxide • It Is Vented and Leaked…. – During initial frack fluid flow-back period (several million ft3/day X several days) – Routinely and continuously at the well site – During liquid unloading – During gas processing – During transmission, storage, and distribution Climate Change A. R. Ingraffea, Ph.D., P.E. Cornell University and Physicians, Scientists, and Engineers for Sustainable and Healthy Energy, Inc.
  42. 42. 42 STRESS
  43. 43. 43 • During drilling and fracking – 24/7 industrial operation with noise and lights • Noise from trucks and diesel-powered equipment • Noise from flaring • Odors • Community disruption Noise & Light Pollution
  44. 44. 44 • Know that sleep disruption effects concentration, school performance, safety on the job and on the road • Growing body of evidence that stress adversely affects the cardiovascular, immune and other systems Outcomes from Stress
  45. 45. 45 CONCLUSIONS
  46. 46. 47 Potential or Documented Exposures • Diesel exhaust from trucks, motors and generators • Chemicals in drilling mud • Chemicals in the fracturing fluid • Chemicals in flow-back fluid from underground • Release of gas from well- head, pipes, condensers, etc. Via Air Via Water
  47. 47. 48 • No data to document that there are widespread, adverse human health consequences occurring as a result of Natural Gas Extraction Using High Volume, Slickwater Hydraulic Fracturing from Long Laterals from Clustered Multi-Well Pads . • A number of hazardous chemicals used in and produced by Unconventional Gas Extraction. • A number of very plausible and in some cases documented, routes of human exposure. Conclusions
  48. 48. 49 • Drilling and energy companies must demonstrate that the drilling and gas recovery can be done in a way that minimizes the threat to human and ecosystem health. • Should establish independent foundation to fund research. – Health Effects Institute – Western Interprovincial Scientific Studies Association (WISSA) • Their responsibility to reveal the full description of all chemicals used and the quantities of those chemicals used to the public. • Should not be the responsibility of the public to fund research to determine whether hydraulic fracturing and natural gas recovery from shale is dangerous after the fact. Recommendations
  49. 49. 50 PEDIATRIC ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SPECIALTY UNITS (PEHSUs)
  50. 50. 51 • A resource for pediatricians, public health officials, school personnel, parents and others to get questions answered about children’s health and the environment What is a PEHSU?
  51. 51. 52 • Lead poisoning • Pesticide exposures • Sick building problems • Water pollution • Air pollution • Job related exposures in adolescents • Volatile Organic Compounds What Kinds of Problems do PEHSUs Deal With? • Exposure to hazardous waste sites • Environmentally related asthma • Agricultural pollutants • Solvents • Carbon monoxide • Arsenic • Mercury
  52. 52. 53 PEHSU Regions
  53. 53. 54 • www.pehsu.net Additional Information About PEHSUs
  54. 54. 55 QUESTIONS? Mid-Atlantic Center for Children’s Health & the Environment 202-471-4829 1-866-622-2431 macche@childrensnational.org

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