SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 14
Download to read offline
PAGE 1
Table of Contents
Contents
Table of Contents..............................................................................................................................................................................................1
1.SANCHI STUPA.............................................................................................................................................................................................2
1.1Brief History..............................................................................................................................................................................................2
1.2 Values.......................................................................................................................................................................................................2
1.3 World heritage site Criterias .................................................................................................................................................................3
1.4 causes of deterioration...........................................................................................................................................................................3
1.5conservation methods.............................................................................................................................................................................4
1.5.1 Preservation ................................................................................................................................................................................4
1.5.2Reconstruction...................................................................................................................................................................................4
1.5.3 Restoration by Anastylosis ........................................................................................................................................................4
2.VICTORIA MEMORIAL ...............................................................................................................................................................................6
2.1 BRIEF HISTORY .....................................................................................................................................................................................6
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................6
2.2causes of deterioration ...........................................................................................................................................................................6
2.3conservation methods .........................................................................................................................................................................7
3.SARNATH ......................................................................................................................................................................................................8
3.1 brief ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................8
.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................8
3.2 Existing Structures and their Conditions.....................................................................................................................................9
3.3causes of deterioration............................................................................................................................................................................9
3.4conservation methods ............................................................................................................................................................................9
4.TAJ MAHAL................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10
4.1BRIEF ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
4.2values...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
4.3 site management plan ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10
4.3regional context .................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
4.4Environmental Pressures and Prevention........................................................................................................................................... 11
4.5Decays due to pollution ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
4.6 decays in the structure.........................................................................................................................................................................12
4.7prevention work in taj mahal ...............................................................................................................................................................12
4.8Vandalism and Accidental damage......................................................................................................................................................13
4.9Preventive Measures..............................................................................................................................................................................13
PAGE 2
1.SANCHI STUPA
1.1BRIEF HISTORY
Originally commissioned in the third century BCE by Emperor Ashok this huge hemispherical dome with a height of 12.2816.46
m (54.0 ft) consists of a central chamber where the relics of Lord Buddha are placed. Four ornamental gateways facing four
directions and a balustrade surrounding the Stupa were later added in the first century BCE. A typical example of a Stupa and an
excellent illustration of the development of Buddhist art and sculpture starting from the third century BC through the twelfth
century AD, the Sanchi Stupa attracts hundreds of visitors from across the world. Enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
since 1989, it is counted among the best conserved ancient Stupas of central India.
He commissioned construction of the Stupa here after redistributing the mortal remains of Lord Buddha so as to build several
Stupas in different locations across India to spread Buddhism. The present hemispherical edifice is double in diameter of the
original brick structure built by Ashoka, consisting of the relics of Lord Buddha. A chatra that is an umbrella like structure made
of stone crowned the hemispherical brick structure that was surrounded by a wooden railing. Queen Devi, wife of Ashoka and
daughter of a merchant of Vidisha, who was born in Sanchi, supervised the construction of this monument. A sandstone pillar,
inscribed with Schism Edict by Ashoka as also with ornate spiral Brahmi characters from the Gupta period resembling conch
shells referred as ‘Shankhalipi’ or ‘shell-script’ by scholars, was erected in the site. While the lower portion of it is still grounded,
the upper portions are kept under a canopy.
1.2 VALUES
The following values are associated to the stupa of Sanchi-
 Documentary-The dome holds a lot of precious inscriptions of that era
 Architectural-It showcases the Buddhist style of Architecture.
 Scientific and Technological-The dome and structure tries to represent the technological advancement at that time.
 Symbolic-The structure represents ‘Hinayana’sect of Buddhism.
PAGE 3
1.3 WORLD HERITAGE SITE CRITERIAS
Criterion (i):to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius
Justification: The perfection of its proportions and the richness of the sculpted decorative work on its four gateways make Stupa 1
an incomparable artistic achievement. The group of Buddhist monuments at Sanchi – stupas, temples and monasteries – is
unique in India because of its age and quality.
Criterion (ii): to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on
developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design.
Justification: From the time that the oldest preserved monument on the site was erected, i.e., Asoka’s column with its projecting
capital of lions inspired by Achaemenid art, Sanchi’s role as intermediary for the spread of cultures and their peripheral arts
throughout the Mauryan Empire, and later in India of the Sunga, Shatavahana, Kushan and Gupta dynasties, was confirmed.
Criterion (iii):to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which
has disappeared.
Justification: Having remained a principal centre of Buddhism up to early medieval India following the spread of Hinduism,
Sanchi bears unique witness as a major Buddhist sanctuary in the period from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD.
Criterion (iv):to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which
illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history.
Justification: The stupas at Sanchi, in particular Stupa 1 and Stupa 3, represent the most accomplished form of this type of
monument. The hemispherical, egg-shaped dome (anda), topped with a cubical relic chamber (harmika), is built on a circular
terrace (medhi); it has one or two ambulatories for the faithful to use (pradakshina patha). Representing a transition from wood
structures to stone, the railings (vedika) and the gateways (torana) also bear witness to the continued use of the primitive forms
of megalithic tumuli covered with an outer layer and surrounded by a palisade.
Criterion (vi): to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and
literary works of outstanding universal significance.
Justification: Sanchi is one of the oldest extant Buddhist sanctuaries. Although Buddha never visited the site during any of his
former lives or during his earthly existence, the religious nature of this shrine is obvious. The chamber of relics of Stupa 3
contained the remains of Shariputra, a disciple of Shakyamuni who died six months before his master; he is especially venerated
by the occupants of the “small vehicle” or Hinayana.
1.4 CAUSES OF DETERIORATION
1. Natural Causes
a. Gravity
b. Covered in Forest and Vegetation
2. Human Causes
a. Amateur Archaeologists tried to restore the structure
b. Vandalism and negligence by the local people
c. Treasure Hunters tried to break the dome to get the relics of Buddha
PAGE 4
1.5CONSERVATION METHODS
1.5.1 Preservation
 Use of cement mortar to keep stone pieces intact of different parts of the structure.
 Use of metal clamps to join the railing and balustrades
1.5.2Reconstruction
In 1882 complete dismantling and rebuilding of a quadrant of stupa-1, setting up balustrades,erection of gateways and its
members because of the unsuitable terrain around it.
1.5.3 Restoration by Anastylosis
 The remains of the structure were put at their respective places eg.gateways
 The columns and broken statues and carvings were put near to the structure.
PAGE 5
PAGE 6
2.VICTORIA MEMORIAL
2.1 BRIEF HISTORY
In January 1901, on the death of Queen Victoria, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and Viceroy of India,
suggested the creation of a fitting memorial. He proposed the construction of a grand building with a museum and gardens.The
Prince of Wales, later King George V, laid the foundation stone on 4 January 1906, and it was formally opened to the public in
1921.In 1912, before the construction of the Victoria Memorial was finished, King George V announced the transfer of the capital
of India from Calcutta to New Delhi Thus, the Victoria Memorial was built in what would be a provincial city rather than a
capital.
2.2CAUSES OF DETERIORATION
1.Elevated Ground
On South and South-western side, outside the VMH compound, which causes problems of back flow of storm water and
Water logging of a part of VMH compound during monsoon.
2.Traffic
Since the VMH is located amidst busy urban areas with busy roads running all around its compound, traffic congestion and
long detention of vehicles at traffic signals at roadway intersections increase the load of vehicular pollution.
3.Leaves Burning
Dry leaves were often burnt in heaps at a number of locations in the near vicinity of the VMH compound which generate
profuse smoke and air pollutants like particulate matters, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen
oxides, etc., which depending on the wind direction get transported to reach the monumental structure of the VMH and
affect it adversely.
4.Parking of Vehicles
Parking of a large number of tourist and chartered buses, outside the VMH compound on the southern, northern and
eastern side, just adjacent to the boundary wall adds pollution load around the VMH.
5.Effect of Sulphur Dioxide
 sulphation is the primary degradation process leading to gypsum formation, and (b) the interaction of gypsum with
hydrated mortars compounds (calcium aluminate or silicate) leads to the formation of two secondary products -
ettringite and thaumasite. These two secondary products cause fractures, and crack in the materials, with even
more damaging consequences.
PAGE 7
 The other cause for stone work degradation is the deposition and colonization of their surfaces by bacteria, fungi
and algae.
 There are hawkers around the VMH compound contributing to the generation of additional garbage mainly in the
form of plastic carry bags, plastic pouches, plastic containers, discarded bags/containers made up of old
newspapers, etc.
 The visitors to the VMH compound were seen littering, spitting, smoking, consuming food stuff, and using plastic
carry bags inside the VMH compound
2.3conservation methods
 Restoration of Oil Paintings, Conservation of paper, metal and stone objects.
 Repairs of roof and walls.
 Renovation of areas earmarked for conservation and restoration of laboratories.
 Creation of new museum shop and a security enclosure in the north of the building.
 Restoration and renovation of the basement area, stone areas.
 No hawkers should be allowed within 50 metres of the VMH compound.
 Provisions should be made for imposition of strict fines for offences committed by the visitors for littering,
spitting, smoking, using plastic carry bags, and also consumption of food stuff inside the VMH compound
 The Committee recommends that the VMH authority should take measures, through appropriate agency, for
cleaning of the sewerage and drainage lines.
 Necessary actions should be taken by the VMH authority for improved management of the waterbodies, so that
algal growth does not occur. The water bodies should not be used for human activity and recreational activities.
 It commends that the parking of vehicles on all sides of the Victoria Memorial Hall compound should be totally
banned.
PAGE 8
3.SARNATH
3.1 BRIEF
Sarnath is a city located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar
Pradesh, India. It includes 3 major stupas, a main shrine and few monasteries. 3 Major stupas are: -Chaukhandi Stupa,Dhamekh
Stupa, Dharamrajika Stupa.
PAGE 9
3.2 EXISTING STRUCTURES AND THEIR CONDITIONS
 Dharmarajika Stupa
Dharmarajika stupa was originally built by Ashoka to enshrine the relics of Lord Buddha.It’s rebuilt or restored for
six different times, included addition like a pradakshina path, railings and doorways on cardinal points.
 Dhamekh Stupa
Lower part made of stones and upper part made of bricks. The stone part is carved with beautiful floral patterns
and geometry.
3.3CAUSES OF DETERIORATION
• Due to vandalism, negligence and atmospheric reagents.
• Due to pollution as well as due to gravity and time.
• Structures losing its original strength.
3.4CONSERVATION METHODS
• Human interaction with the structure is one of the major cause.
• Preventive Measures
• Chemicals are applied at certain intervals.
• Proper barricade and path for the visitors should be made
PAGE 10
4.TAJ MAHAL
4.1BRIEF
The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It
was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Height of 73 meters. Architectural Style being Islamic Architecture. Exterior decoration is amongst the finest Mughal
architecture of that era. Exterior decoration is done by applying paints, stucco, stone inlays or carvings. Basically shape
of abstract forms and vegetative motifs. Counted in World Heritage Site under the criteria – Cultural-(1)-i.e. "represents
a masterpiece of human creative genius and cultural significance”.
4.2VALUES
• Wonder
• Identity
• Documentary
• Historic
• Architectural
• Scientific and Technological
4.3 SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN
• The Taj Mahal is a particularly large site; it is a complex of several buildings and gardens all of which are an integral part
of the whole.
• The Site Management Plan d bring all these areas together so that composite planning will be possible for the entire site.
• ICOMOS in 1982, while endorsing the nomination recommended that a Site Management Plan to be prepared; this is the
first attempt to integrate the planning, conservation and management challenges as an ongoing partnership of the ASI
and the Private sector.
• This preliminary document has been developed on a relationship of trust and cooperation developed over the last year
since the National Culture Fund, the Archaeological Survey of India, and the Indian Hotels Company Ltd.
• signed a Memorandum of Understanding, on the 20' of June, 2001, for the “conservation, restoration and upgradation and
beautification of The Taj Mahal and surrounding areas”.
• The Taj Mahal Conservation Collaborative (TMCC) came into existence in July 2001.
4.3REGIONAL CONTEXT
Situated in one of the extremely dense city of India. The city of Agra remains at the heart of India with the country's
major arterial highways transiting the city and carrying most of the country’s production and supplies. Small and
medium scale industries and with infrastructure unable to keep pace, there is extensive decay evident in the historic city
fabric.
PAGE 11
4.4ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES AND PREVENTION
The earliest record of its repairs is found in a letter, dated 1652 A.D., where Prince Aurangzeb points out defects in the
dome and vaults of the mausoleum to his imperial father, Shah Jahan. Under the British the whole outer surface of Taj
Mahal was repaired, cleaned and the missing stones were replaced. In 1874, the finial surmounting the main dome was
restored, and the dome was made watertight by pointing with Portland cement. In 1936, the cracked and fractured
marble stones of the main dome were replaced by fresh ones, and open joints were filled with special lime mortar after
grouting the cracks with hydraulic lime mortar.
The inner surface of the dome was plastered with weak cement mortar and left as such for a couple of years to extract
salts etc. from the masonry, and this process has been repeated thrice so far. The missing precious and semi-precious
Stone inlay pieces were replaced with new ones or sometimes even with cement or lune mortar mixed with pigments.
New marble and sandstone panels were made to replicate the original carving and surface articulation, and replace the
decayed ones.The broken, damaged and decayed building parts like chhaja, columns, brackets and so forth were
replaced with new ones made to original designs and patterns. Sometimes a complete structure like a ‘Burj’ or a ‘Chhatri’
was reconstructed using similar building materials and methods.
4.5DECAYS DUE TO POLLUTION
Due to acid rain the white marble of the structure started turning yellow. When sulphuric pollutants fall on the
buildings made of marble, limestone or sand stone they react with it and leaves a powdery substance turning the
building yellow. The cause can be manmade too. If the pollution can be reduced, then only these building can be saved.
PAGE 12
4.6 DECAYS IN THE STRUCTURE
Appearance of stains and discoloration due to atmospheric pollution as well as due to negligence of the structure
4.7PREVENTION WORK IN TAJ MAHAL
Application of lime-rich clay to clean the surface of the marble. Mud bath will take 9 years to be applied and need to be
applied at a gap of every 6-7years if the pollution is not decreased (Air pollution still now just suggested).
PAGE 13
4.8VANDALISM AND ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE
Overuse of certain areas is resulting in the erosion of steps leading from the garden to main mausoleum, Wear and tear
of the paving dong the path leading to the main mausoleum and walkways and railings. The marble steps have eroded or
are worn out in quite a few places. Vandalism is resulting in semi-precious stones being removed from inlay. Graffiti is
marring the historic fabric in a number of places. There have been instances of tourists scribbling on the walls despite
the security around. Dirt and grease deposits are visible on areas where visitors sit (platform adjoining the entrance gate)
or touch the wails surfaces as they walk past. The crowd of tourists that fill the upper chambers are at times
uncontrollable. The crypt had to be closed to the public in 1996, because the lack of ventilation was causing the CO2
levels to increase and there was a danger of stampedes. Human breath and body heat raises the temperature and creates
humidity. People sleep on the terraces and podiums as a respite from the heat. The volume of visitors places enormous
pressure on the conservators who have to battle for space to carry out their work
4.9PREVENTIVE MEASURES
Channelize visitors‘ flow along a particular route, which prevents vandalism and deploy security personnel wherever
required to prevent vandalism like graffiti on walls. Install suitable barricades in areas where visitors touch walls,
railings, etc. Control access to fragile areas like the lower chambers where semi-precious stone inlay work is accessible
and the threat of theft is high

More Related Content

What's hot

Isbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case study
Isbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case studyIsbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case study
Isbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case studyMridul Bhandari
 
Mall Road of Hill Stations
Mall Road of Hill StationsMall Road of Hill Stations
Mall Road of Hill StationsSheetu Goel
 
Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.
Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.
Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.Mayur Waghulde
 
bamboo case study
bamboo case studybamboo case study
bamboo case studyneel_ravani
 
Riverfront development
Riverfront developmentRiverfront development
Riverfront developmentmisschand
 
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)Divya Bhaskara
 
Bhubaneswar an ideal capital city
Bhubaneswar   an ideal capital cityBhubaneswar   an ideal capital city
Bhubaneswar an ideal capital cityRajesh Kolli
 
Shyam Thesis Report
Shyam Thesis ReportShyam Thesis Report
Shyam Thesis ReportShyam Singh
 
Vernacular Architecture of Assam
Vernacular Architecture of AssamVernacular Architecture of Assam
Vernacular Architecture of AssamAbhishek Sharma
 
Bhubaneshwar Planning
Bhubaneshwar Planning Bhubaneshwar Planning
Bhubaneshwar Planning Rajat Nainwal
 
AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES
  AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES  AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES
AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUESJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Sabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agra
Sabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agraSabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agra
Sabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agradeeksha sharma
 
International cruise terminal thesis report
International cruise terminal thesis reportInternational cruise terminal thesis report
International cruise terminal thesis reportPiyush Thakur
 
Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)
Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)
Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)Akshit Charan
 

What's hot (20)

Case study of Jaipur city
Case study  of Jaipur cityCase study  of Jaipur city
Case study of Jaipur city
 
Isbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case study
Isbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case studyIsbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case study
Isbt, kashmiri gate, delhi_a case study
 
Mall Road of Hill Stations
Mall Road of Hill StationsMall Road of Hill Stations
Mall Road of Hill Stations
 
Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.
Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.
Hall of nations, Pragati Maidan, Delhi.
 
Khirki masjid
Khirki masjidKhirki masjid
Khirki masjid
 
bamboo case study
bamboo case studybamboo case study
bamboo case study
 
Naya raipur
Naya raipurNaya raipur
Naya raipur
 
My portfolio
My portfolioMy portfolio
My portfolio
 
Riverfront development
Riverfront developmentRiverfront development
Riverfront development
 
Isbt kashmere gate 2
Isbt kashmere gate 2Isbt kashmere gate 2
Isbt kashmere gate 2
 
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
Historic Re-enactment With Modern Interpretation (Thesis Report)
 
Bhubaneswar an ideal capital city
Bhubaneswar   an ideal capital cityBhubaneswar   an ideal capital city
Bhubaneswar an ideal capital city
 
Shyam Thesis Report
Shyam Thesis ReportShyam Thesis Report
Shyam Thesis Report
 
Vernacular Architecture of Assam
Vernacular Architecture of AssamVernacular Architecture of Assam
Vernacular Architecture of Assam
 
Bhubaneshwar Planning
Bhubaneshwar Planning Bhubaneshwar Planning
Bhubaneshwar Planning
 
AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES
  AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES  AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES
AMRITSAR - A HOSTORIC CITY OF MANY VIRTUES
 
Sabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agra
Sabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agraSabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agra
Sabarmati riverfront case study for development of yamuna riverfront agra
 
International cruise terminal thesis report
International cruise terminal thesis reportInternational cruise terminal thesis report
International cruise terminal thesis report
 
Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)
Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)
Case study (JAWAHAR KALA KENDRA & SFMOMA SAN FRANSISCO)
 
Matrimandir final
Matrimandir finalMatrimandir final
Matrimandir final
 

Similar to Cons. report

A buddhist contempoorary architecture .
A buddhist contempoorary architecture .A buddhist contempoorary architecture .
A buddhist contempoorary architecture .home
 
Building & town planning
Building & town planningBuilding & town planning
Building & town planningHiten Chauhan
 
Ancient India's architecture view
Ancient India's architecture viewAncient India's architecture view
Ancient India's architecture viewHiten Chauhan
 
Culture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirants
Culture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirantsCulture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirants
Culture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirantsAshish Omer
 
Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architectureBuddhist architecture
Buddhist architectureYash Baradia
 
Indian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and Beliefs
Indian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and BeliefsIndian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and Beliefs
Indian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and BeliefsJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFS
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE   - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF  DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFSINDIAN ARCHITECTURE   - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF  DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFS
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFSJIT KUMAR GUPTA
 
Buddhist architectrure
Buddhist architectrureBuddhist architectrure
Buddhist architectrurePRAPTI MITRA
 
Buddhist architecture in india
Buddhist architecture in indiaBuddhist architecture in india
Buddhist architecture in indiaRiya Bagchi
 
history of indian architecture
history of indian architecturehistory of indian architecture
history of indian architectureBekark
 
History of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist Architecture
History of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist ArchitectureHistory of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist Architecture
History of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist ArchitectureSachith Pagidi
 
Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021
Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021 Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021
Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021 Samirsinh Parmar
 
Mauryan gandhar-gupta
Mauryan gandhar-guptaMauryan gandhar-gupta
Mauryan gandhar-guptaAppyRocks
 
Sittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintings
Sittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintingsSittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintings
Sittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintingsSubramanian Swaminathan
 
Brief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang period
Brief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang periodBrief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang period
Brief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang periodŞhįvąńí Ģønðğę
 
Vision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil services
Vision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil servicesVision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil services
Vision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil servicesMaroofAhmadGanaie
 

Similar to Cons. report (20)

A buddhist contempoorary architecture .
A buddhist contempoorary architecture .A buddhist contempoorary architecture .
A buddhist contempoorary architecture .
 
Building & town planning
Building & town planningBuilding & town planning
Building & town planning
 
Ancient India's architecture view
Ancient India's architecture viewAncient India's architecture view
Ancient India's architecture view
 
Culture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirants
Culture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirantsCulture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirants
Culture notes for mains ,from ccrt india helpful for ias aspirants
 
Buddhist architecture
Buddhist architectureBuddhist architecture
Buddhist architecture
 
Indian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and Beliefs
Indian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and BeliefsIndian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and Beliefs
Indian Architecture- A Synthesis of Diverse Culture and Beliefs
 
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFS
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE   - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF  DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFSINDIAN ARCHITECTURE   - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF  DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFS
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE - A SYNTHESIS AND FUSION OF DIVERSE CULTURES AND BELIEFS
 
Buddhist architectrure
Buddhist architectrureBuddhist architectrure
Buddhist architectrure
 
Buddhist architecture in india
Buddhist architecture in indiaBuddhist architecture in india
Buddhist architecture in india
 
Buddhism In Japan
Buddhism In JapanBuddhism In Japan
Buddhism In Japan
 
Museum Case Studies
Museum Case StudiesMuseum Case Studies
Museum Case Studies
 
history of indian architecture
history of indian architecturehistory of indian architecture
history of indian architecture
 
Report.docx
Report.docxReport.docx
Report.docx
 
History of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist Architecture
History of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist ArchitectureHistory of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist Architecture
History of Architecture - Vedic and Buddhist Architecture
 
Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021
Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021 Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021
Ancient temples Geometry - conference paper prepared on 28th Feb. 2021
 
Mauryan gandhar-gupta
Mauryan gandhar-guptaMauryan gandhar-gupta
Mauryan gandhar-gupta
 
Incredible India
Incredible IndiaIncredible India
Incredible India
 
Sittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintings
Sittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintingsSittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintings
Sittannavasal – A proposal for preserving its paintings
 
Brief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang period
Brief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang periodBrief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang period
Brief survey of chinese Buddhist art tang period
 
Vision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil services
Vision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil servicesVision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil services
Vision 2021 Art n Culture.for union public civil services
 

More from Yash Kotgirwar

Trasnportation system of mumbai
Trasnportation system of  mumbaiTrasnportation system of  mumbai
Trasnportation system of mumbaiYash Kotgirwar
 
Concrete Constructions
Concrete ConstructionsConcrete Constructions
Concrete ConstructionsYash Kotgirwar
 
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangaloreIntegrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangaloreYash Kotgirwar
 
Kauffman centre for performing arts
Kauffman centre for performing artsKauffman centre for performing arts
Kauffman centre for performing artsYash Kotgirwar
 
Low cost building materials and construction techniques
Low cost building materials and construction techniquesLow cost building materials and construction techniques
Low cost building materials and construction techniquesYash Kotgirwar
 
Contribution of Akbar and his successors
Contribution of Akbar and his successorsContribution of Akbar and his successors
Contribution of Akbar and his successorsYash Kotgirwar
 
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case studyNid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case studyYash Kotgirwar
 

More from Yash Kotgirwar (16)

Trasnportation system of mumbai
Trasnportation system of  mumbaiTrasnportation system of  mumbai
Trasnportation system of mumbai
 
Concrete Constructions
Concrete ConstructionsConcrete Constructions
Concrete Constructions
 
Hsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthanHsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthan
 
Jnnurm
JnnurmJnnurm
Jnnurm
 
Titanium
TitaniumTitanium
Titanium
 
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangaloreIntegrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
 
1. konark
1. konark1. konark
1. konark
 
Kauffman centre for performing arts
Kauffman centre for performing artsKauffman centre for performing arts
Kauffman centre for performing arts
 
Low cost building materials and construction techniques
Low cost building materials and construction techniquesLow cost building materials and construction techniques
Low cost building materials and construction techniques
 
Contribution of Akbar and his successors
Contribution of Akbar and his successorsContribution of Akbar and his successors
Contribution of Akbar and his successors
 
Seminar 2
Seminar 2Seminar 2
Seminar 2
 
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case studyNid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
 
Hsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthanHsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthan
 
Building Services
Building ServicesBuilding Services
Building Services
 
Report
ReportReport
Report
 
Design case study
Design case studyDesign case study
Design case study
 

Recently uploaded

Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfPatidar M
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfVanessa Camilleri
 
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITYISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITYKayeClaireEstoconing
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemChristalin Nelson
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONHumphrey A Beña
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designMIPLM
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...Postal Advocate Inc.
 
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17Celine George
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptshraddhaparab530
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemChristalin Nelson
 
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptxBarangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptxCarlos105
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Mark Reed
 
ECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptx
ECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptxECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptx
ECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptxiammrhaywood
 
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfErwinPantujan2
 
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...JojoEDelaCruz
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfJemuel Francisco
 
Activity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translation
Activity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translationActivity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translation
Activity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translationRosabel UA
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
Field Attribute Index Feature in Odoo 17
 
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdfActive Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
Active Learning Strategies (in short ALS).pdf
 
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdfICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
ICS2208 Lecture6 Notes for SL spaces.pdf
 
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITYISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
ISYU TUNGKOL SA SEKSWLADIDA (ISSUE ABOUT SEXUALITY
 
Transaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management SystemTransaction Management in Database Management System
Transaction Management in Database Management System
 
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIONTHEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION-PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
 
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-designKeynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
Keynote by Prof. Wurzer at Nordex about IP-design
 
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
USPS® Forced Meter Migration - How to Know if Your Postage Meter Will Soon be...
 
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptxYOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
YOUVE GOT EMAIL_FINALS_EL_DORADO_2024.pptx
 
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
Difference Between Search & Browse Methods in Odoo 17
 
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.pptIntegumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
Integumentary System SMP B. Pharm Sem I.ppt
 
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management systemConcurrency Control in Database Management system
Concurrency Control in Database Management system
 
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptxBarangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
Barangay Council for the Protection of Children (BCPC) Orientation.pptx
 
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
Influencing policy (training slides from Fast Track Impact)
 
ECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptx
ECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptxECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptx
ECONOMIC CONTEXT - PAPER 1 Q3: NEWSPAPERS.pptx
 
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
HỌC TỐT TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO CHƯƠNG TRÌNH GLOBAL SUCCESS ĐÁP ÁN CHI TIẾT - CẢ NĂ...
 
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdfVirtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
Virtual-Orientation-on-the-Administration-of-NATG12-NATG6-and-ELLNA.pdf
 
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
ENG 5 Q4 WEEk 1 DAY 1 Restate sentences heard in one’s own words. Use appropr...
 
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdfGrade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
Grade 9 Quarter 4 Dll Grade 9 Quarter 4 DLL.pdf
 
Activity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translation
Activity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translationActivity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translation
Activity 2-unit 2-update 2024. English translation
 

Cons. report

  • 1.
  • 2. PAGE 1 Table of Contents Contents Table of Contents..............................................................................................................................................................................................1 1.SANCHI STUPA.............................................................................................................................................................................................2 1.1Brief History..............................................................................................................................................................................................2 1.2 Values.......................................................................................................................................................................................................2 1.3 World heritage site Criterias .................................................................................................................................................................3 1.4 causes of deterioration...........................................................................................................................................................................3 1.5conservation methods.............................................................................................................................................................................4 1.5.1 Preservation ................................................................................................................................................................................4 1.5.2Reconstruction...................................................................................................................................................................................4 1.5.3 Restoration by Anastylosis ........................................................................................................................................................4 2.VICTORIA MEMORIAL ...............................................................................................................................................................................6 2.1 BRIEF HISTORY .....................................................................................................................................................................................6 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 2.2causes of deterioration ...........................................................................................................................................................................6 2.3conservation methods .........................................................................................................................................................................7 3.SARNATH ......................................................................................................................................................................................................8 3.1 brief ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................8 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................8 3.2 Existing Structures and their Conditions.....................................................................................................................................9 3.3causes of deterioration............................................................................................................................................................................9 3.4conservation methods ............................................................................................................................................................................9 4.TAJ MAHAL................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10 4.1BRIEF ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 4.2values...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 4.3 site management plan ......................................................................................................................................................................... 10 4.3regional context .................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 4.4Environmental Pressures and Prevention........................................................................................................................................... 11 4.5Decays due to pollution ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11 4.6 decays in the structure.........................................................................................................................................................................12 4.7prevention work in taj mahal ...............................................................................................................................................................12 4.8Vandalism and Accidental damage......................................................................................................................................................13 4.9Preventive Measures..............................................................................................................................................................................13
  • 3. PAGE 2 1.SANCHI STUPA 1.1BRIEF HISTORY Originally commissioned in the third century BCE by Emperor Ashok this huge hemispherical dome with a height of 12.2816.46 m (54.0 ft) consists of a central chamber where the relics of Lord Buddha are placed. Four ornamental gateways facing four directions and a balustrade surrounding the Stupa were later added in the first century BCE. A typical example of a Stupa and an excellent illustration of the development of Buddhist art and sculpture starting from the third century BC through the twelfth century AD, the Sanchi Stupa attracts hundreds of visitors from across the world. Enlisted as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1989, it is counted among the best conserved ancient Stupas of central India. He commissioned construction of the Stupa here after redistributing the mortal remains of Lord Buddha so as to build several Stupas in different locations across India to spread Buddhism. The present hemispherical edifice is double in diameter of the original brick structure built by Ashoka, consisting of the relics of Lord Buddha. A chatra that is an umbrella like structure made of stone crowned the hemispherical brick structure that was surrounded by a wooden railing. Queen Devi, wife of Ashoka and daughter of a merchant of Vidisha, who was born in Sanchi, supervised the construction of this monument. A sandstone pillar, inscribed with Schism Edict by Ashoka as also with ornate spiral Brahmi characters from the Gupta period resembling conch shells referred as ‘Shankhalipi’ or ‘shell-script’ by scholars, was erected in the site. While the lower portion of it is still grounded, the upper portions are kept under a canopy. 1.2 VALUES The following values are associated to the stupa of Sanchi-  Documentary-The dome holds a lot of precious inscriptions of that era  Architectural-It showcases the Buddhist style of Architecture.  Scientific and Technological-The dome and structure tries to represent the technological advancement at that time.  Symbolic-The structure represents ‘Hinayana’sect of Buddhism.
  • 4. PAGE 3 1.3 WORLD HERITAGE SITE CRITERIAS Criterion (i):to represent a masterpiece of human creative genius Justification: The perfection of its proportions and the richness of the sculpted decorative work on its four gateways make Stupa 1 an incomparable artistic achievement. The group of Buddhist monuments at Sanchi – stupas, temples and monasteries – is unique in India because of its age and quality. Criterion (ii): to exhibit an important interchange of human values, over a span of time or within a cultural area of the world, on developments in architecture or technology, monumental arts, town-planning or landscape design. Justification: From the time that the oldest preserved monument on the site was erected, i.e., Asoka’s column with its projecting capital of lions inspired by Achaemenid art, Sanchi’s role as intermediary for the spread of cultures and their peripheral arts throughout the Mauryan Empire, and later in India of the Sunga, Shatavahana, Kushan and Gupta dynasties, was confirmed. Criterion (iii):to bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which is living or which has disappeared. Justification: Having remained a principal centre of Buddhism up to early medieval India following the spread of Hinduism, Sanchi bears unique witness as a major Buddhist sanctuary in the period from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD. Criterion (iv):to be an outstanding example of a type of building, architectural or technological ensemble or landscape which illustrates (a) significant stage(s) in human history. Justification: The stupas at Sanchi, in particular Stupa 1 and Stupa 3, represent the most accomplished form of this type of monument. The hemispherical, egg-shaped dome (anda), topped with a cubical relic chamber (harmika), is built on a circular terrace (medhi); it has one or two ambulatories for the faithful to use (pradakshina patha). Representing a transition from wood structures to stone, the railings (vedika) and the gateways (torana) also bear witness to the continued use of the primitive forms of megalithic tumuli covered with an outer layer and surrounded by a palisade. Criterion (vi): to be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. Justification: Sanchi is one of the oldest extant Buddhist sanctuaries. Although Buddha never visited the site during any of his former lives or during his earthly existence, the religious nature of this shrine is obvious. The chamber of relics of Stupa 3 contained the remains of Shariputra, a disciple of Shakyamuni who died six months before his master; he is especially venerated by the occupants of the “small vehicle” or Hinayana. 1.4 CAUSES OF DETERIORATION 1. Natural Causes a. Gravity b. Covered in Forest and Vegetation 2. Human Causes a. Amateur Archaeologists tried to restore the structure b. Vandalism and negligence by the local people c. Treasure Hunters tried to break the dome to get the relics of Buddha
  • 5. PAGE 4 1.5CONSERVATION METHODS 1.5.1 Preservation  Use of cement mortar to keep stone pieces intact of different parts of the structure.  Use of metal clamps to join the railing and balustrades 1.5.2Reconstruction In 1882 complete dismantling and rebuilding of a quadrant of stupa-1, setting up balustrades,erection of gateways and its members because of the unsuitable terrain around it. 1.5.3 Restoration by Anastylosis  The remains of the structure were put at their respective places eg.gateways  The columns and broken statues and carvings were put near to the structure.
  • 7. PAGE 6 2.VICTORIA MEMORIAL 2.1 BRIEF HISTORY In January 1901, on the death of Queen Victoria, George Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston and Viceroy of India, suggested the creation of a fitting memorial. He proposed the construction of a grand building with a museum and gardens.The Prince of Wales, later King George V, laid the foundation stone on 4 January 1906, and it was formally opened to the public in 1921.In 1912, before the construction of the Victoria Memorial was finished, King George V announced the transfer of the capital of India from Calcutta to New Delhi Thus, the Victoria Memorial was built in what would be a provincial city rather than a capital. 2.2CAUSES OF DETERIORATION 1.Elevated Ground On South and South-western side, outside the VMH compound, which causes problems of back flow of storm water and Water logging of a part of VMH compound during monsoon. 2.Traffic Since the VMH is located amidst busy urban areas with busy roads running all around its compound, traffic congestion and long detention of vehicles at traffic signals at roadway intersections increase the load of vehicular pollution. 3.Leaves Burning Dry leaves were often burnt in heaps at a number of locations in the near vicinity of the VMH compound which generate profuse smoke and air pollutants like particulate matters, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, etc., which depending on the wind direction get transported to reach the monumental structure of the VMH and affect it adversely. 4.Parking of Vehicles Parking of a large number of tourist and chartered buses, outside the VMH compound on the southern, northern and eastern side, just adjacent to the boundary wall adds pollution load around the VMH. 5.Effect of Sulphur Dioxide  sulphation is the primary degradation process leading to gypsum formation, and (b) the interaction of gypsum with hydrated mortars compounds (calcium aluminate or silicate) leads to the formation of two secondary products - ettringite and thaumasite. These two secondary products cause fractures, and crack in the materials, with even more damaging consequences.
  • 8. PAGE 7  The other cause for stone work degradation is the deposition and colonization of their surfaces by bacteria, fungi and algae.  There are hawkers around the VMH compound contributing to the generation of additional garbage mainly in the form of plastic carry bags, plastic pouches, plastic containers, discarded bags/containers made up of old newspapers, etc.  The visitors to the VMH compound were seen littering, spitting, smoking, consuming food stuff, and using plastic carry bags inside the VMH compound 2.3conservation methods  Restoration of Oil Paintings, Conservation of paper, metal and stone objects.  Repairs of roof and walls.  Renovation of areas earmarked for conservation and restoration of laboratories.  Creation of new museum shop and a security enclosure in the north of the building.  Restoration and renovation of the basement area, stone areas.  No hawkers should be allowed within 50 metres of the VMH compound.  Provisions should be made for imposition of strict fines for offences committed by the visitors for littering, spitting, smoking, using plastic carry bags, and also consumption of food stuff inside the VMH compound  The Committee recommends that the VMH authority should take measures, through appropriate agency, for cleaning of the sewerage and drainage lines.  Necessary actions should be taken by the VMH authority for improved management of the waterbodies, so that algal growth does not occur. The water bodies should not be used for human activity and recreational activities.  It commends that the parking of vehicles on all sides of the Victoria Memorial Hall compound should be totally banned.
  • 9. PAGE 8 3.SARNATH 3.1 BRIEF Sarnath is a city located 13 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India. It includes 3 major stupas, a main shrine and few monasteries. 3 Major stupas are: -Chaukhandi Stupa,Dhamekh Stupa, Dharamrajika Stupa.
  • 10. PAGE 9 3.2 EXISTING STRUCTURES AND THEIR CONDITIONS  Dharmarajika Stupa Dharmarajika stupa was originally built by Ashoka to enshrine the relics of Lord Buddha.It’s rebuilt or restored for six different times, included addition like a pradakshina path, railings and doorways on cardinal points.  Dhamekh Stupa Lower part made of stones and upper part made of bricks. The stone part is carved with beautiful floral patterns and geometry. 3.3CAUSES OF DETERIORATION • Due to vandalism, negligence and atmospheric reagents. • Due to pollution as well as due to gravity and time. • Structures losing its original strength. 3.4CONSERVATION METHODS • Human interaction with the structure is one of the major cause. • Preventive Measures • Chemicals are applied at certain intervals. • Proper barricade and path for the visitors should be made
  • 11. PAGE 10 4.TAJ MAHAL 4.1BRIEF The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. Height of 73 meters. Architectural Style being Islamic Architecture. Exterior decoration is amongst the finest Mughal architecture of that era. Exterior decoration is done by applying paints, stucco, stone inlays or carvings. Basically shape of abstract forms and vegetative motifs. Counted in World Heritage Site under the criteria – Cultural-(1)-i.e. "represents a masterpiece of human creative genius and cultural significance”. 4.2VALUES • Wonder • Identity • Documentary • Historic • Architectural • Scientific and Technological 4.3 SITE MANAGEMENT PLAN • The Taj Mahal is a particularly large site; it is a complex of several buildings and gardens all of which are an integral part of the whole. • The Site Management Plan d bring all these areas together so that composite planning will be possible for the entire site. • ICOMOS in 1982, while endorsing the nomination recommended that a Site Management Plan to be prepared; this is the first attempt to integrate the planning, conservation and management challenges as an ongoing partnership of the ASI and the Private sector. • This preliminary document has been developed on a relationship of trust and cooperation developed over the last year since the National Culture Fund, the Archaeological Survey of India, and the Indian Hotels Company Ltd. • signed a Memorandum of Understanding, on the 20' of June, 2001, for the “conservation, restoration and upgradation and beautification of The Taj Mahal and surrounding areas”. • The Taj Mahal Conservation Collaborative (TMCC) came into existence in July 2001. 4.3REGIONAL CONTEXT Situated in one of the extremely dense city of India. The city of Agra remains at the heart of India with the country's major arterial highways transiting the city and carrying most of the country’s production and supplies. Small and medium scale industries and with infrastructure unable to keep pace, there is extensive decay evident in the historic city fabric.
  • 12. PAGE 11 4.4ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES AND PREVENTION The earliest record of its repairs is found in a letter, dated 1652 A.D., where Prince Aurangzeb points out defects in the dome and vaults of the mausoleum to his imperial father, Shah Jahan. Under the British the whole outer surface of Taj Mahal was repaired, cleaned and the missing stones were replaced. In 1874, the finial surmounting the main dome was restored, and the dome was made watertight by pointing with Portland cement. In 1936, the cracked and fractured marble stones of the main dome were replaced by fresh ones, and open joints were filled with special lime mortar after grouting the cracks with hydraulic lime mortar. The inner surface of the dome was plastered with weak cement mortar and left as such for a couple of years to extract salts etc. from the masonry, and this process has been repeated thrice so far. The missing precious and semi-precious Stone inlay pieces were replaced with new ones or sometimes even with cement or lune mortar mixed with pigments. New marble and sandstone panels were made to replicate the original carving and surface articulation, and replace the decayed ones.The broken, damaged and decayed building parts like chhaja, columns, brackets and so forth were replaced with new ones made to original designs and patterns. Sometimes a complete structure like a ‘Burj’ or a ‘Chhatri’ was reconstructed using similar building materials and methods. 4.5DECAYS DUE TO POLLUTION Due to acid rain the white marble of the structure started turning yellow. When sulphuric pollutants fall on the buildings made of marble, limestone or sand stone they react with it and leaves a powdery substance turning the building yellow. The cause can be manmade too. If the pollution can be reduced, then only these building can be saved.
  • 13. PAGE 12 4.6 DECAYS IN THE STRUCTURE Appearance of stains and discoloration due to atmospheric pollution as well as due to negligence of the structure 4.7PREVENTION WORK IN TAJ MAHAL Application of lime-rich clay to clean the surface of the marble. Mud bath will take 9 years to be applied and need to be applied at a gap of every 6-7years if the pollution is not decreased (Air pollution still now just suggested).
  • 14. PAGE 13 4.8VANDALISM AND ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE Overuse of certain areas is resulting in the erosion of steps leading from the garden to main mausoleum, Wear and tear of the paving dong the path leading to the main mausoleum and walkways and railings. The marble steps have eroded or are worn out in quite a few places. Vandalism is resulting in semi-precious stones being removed from inlay. Graffiti is marring the historic fabric in a number of places. There have been instances of tourists scribbling on the walls despite the security around. Dirt and grease deposits are visible on areas where visitors sit (platform adjoining the entrance gate) or touch the wails surfaces as they walk past. The crowd of tourists that fill the upper chambers are at times uncontrollable. The crypt had to be closed to the public in 1996, because the lack of ventilation was causing the CO2 levels to increase and there was a danger of stampedes. Human breath and body heat raises the temperature and creates humidity. People sleep on the terraces and podiums as a respite from the heat. The volume of visitors places enormous pressure on the conservators who have to battle for space to carry out their work 4.9PREVENTIVE MEASURES Channelize visitors‘ flow along a particular route, which prevents vandalism and deploy security personnel wherever required to prevent vandalism like graffiti on walls. Install suitable barricades in areas where visitors touch walls, railings, etc. Control access to fragile areas like the lower chambers where semi-precious stone inlay work is accessible and the threat of theft is high