SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 52
LOW COST BUILDING
MATERIALS AND
CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES
Yash Kotgirwar | 114AR0032 | Nehal Singh | 114AR0027
Building Materials
Low Cost Building Materials
Selection Of Low Cost
Building Material
○ Manufacturing of Low Cost Building Materials
□ Environmental friendly
□ Improve technologies for production
□ Reduction in waste generation
○ Use of Recycled Waste as Building Materials
□ Waste produced can be used for the production of a material cheaper in cost
○ Use of Natural Low Cost Building Materials
□ Natural materials are sustainable and environmental friendly
□ Materials like stone , wood ,lime ,bamboo ,sand have low embodied energy
○ Use of Local Building Materials
□ Reduces transportation dependence
□ Suitable for local environment
3
Selection Of Low Cost
Building Material
○ Use of non-toxic Building Materials
□ Materials to be free from any kind of toxins
□ Higher air cycling required if any highly organic volatile compounds are used
○ Longevity, Durability and Maintenance
□ Use of durable construction materials decreases the maintenance cost
□ Low maintenance cost saves a lot of building operating costs
○ Recyclability and Reusability
□ In a form so that it can be recycled or reused. Eg.Plastics
○ Biodegradability
□ Decompose naturally when discarded
□ Not produce toxic gases while decomposition
4
Building Materials
Natural
• Random Straw or Coconut Fibres
Stabilised Soil
• Bamboo
• Compressed Earth Block
• Non –erodible Mud Plaster
• Straw
• Fibre Cement Composites
• Bagasse Composite boards
Man Made
• Fly Ash
• Coal Washery Rejects
• Aerocon Panels
• Ferro Cement
5
Building Materials
NATURAL
Natural
Random straw or Coconut
Fibres Stabilised Soil
7
• Ancient construction material used in
many countries
• Have both strength and durability
• Compacted material
• 1% of straw increases the strength by
three time as compared to no straw
• Coconut fibres increases the durability
• Sulphur coating enhances the water
resistance
Natural
Bamboo
8
• India is the largest producer,50% of world
production
• Easily affordable
• Easy assembly and long durability
• High tensile strength, than steel
• Fire resistant unto 4000 deg C
• High elasticity hence used in earthquake
prone areas
• Low weight –easy for transportation and
assembly
Natural
Bamboo
9
Natural
Compressed Earth Block
10
• Raw earth stabilised by cement or lime
• Also known as Adobe bricks ,light in
weight
• Non toxic
• Fire resistant ,Sound resistant
• Low transportation cost
• Insect resistant as they are very dense
• Available in customizable sizes
• Used in stucco work for exteriors
Natural
Natural
Non-erodible Mud Plaster
11
• Economical process of preventing mud
walls from erosion
• Mud mixed with bitumen and kerosene
oil
• Resistant to water
Natural
Straw
12
• Fire resistant
• Thermal insulation
• Soil and Moisture insulation
• Non toxic
Life Extended Thatch Roofing
• Treating with copper sulphate solution
decreases the biodegradability
• Treatment of roof surface with
phosphorylated spray or CNSL oil
imparts-
o Water proofing
o Termite resistance
o Fire resistance
o Weathering resistance
Improved Thatched Roofing
• CBRI advise to add mud platers in
between to increase fire and water
resistance
Natural
Fibre Cement Composites
13
• Natural fibre used with cement as an
alternative building material
• Fibres used like bagasse , cereal straw,
corn and cotton stalk ,kenalf /rice husk
• Imparts
o Light weight
o High strength to weight ratio
o Corrosion resistance
o High fracture toughness
o High flexibility
o Resistance to cracking
o Add workability
14
Natural: Cement
Composite
Bagasse Cement- Boards
and Panels
15
• Fibrous matter after sugar is extracted
• Sugarcane bagasse and Portland cement
is mixed
• High density boards
Natural: Cement
Composite
Bagasse PVC Boards
16
• Sugarcane bagasse and PVC is mixed as a
binder
• Inherent self extinguishing property
• Used in door shutters, sanitary fixtures,
pipes, cable, cabinets
Natural: Bagasse PVC
boards
Jute and Coir
17
• Widely available in India
 Coir-CNSL Board
o used for window and door shutter,
partitioning, false ceiling, furniture etc.
o Single layer flat pressed medium density
board
o Low water absorption, workable with
wood tools
o Paintable, pre laminable, screw able
 Coir-CNSL Thermal Insulation Board
o Coconut fibres as reinforcing material
o CNSL as natural binder
o Low density for moderate thermal
insulation
Natural: Bagasse PVC
boards
Jute and Coir
18
 Jute-Coir Composites
o Economic alternative for wood
o Eg- coir ply boards with jute face veneer,
coir plus waste rubber inside
 Coconut and Wooden Chips Roofing
Chips
o Coconut fibres and wooden chips soaked
in water for 2 hours and then drained off
o Mixed with cement and layed over
corrugated mould kept under pressure for
8-10 hours
o CNSL oil can also be used as a natural
binder
Building Materials
MAN MADE
Man Made
Fly Ash
20
• Mineral residue after burning burning
coal and fine glass
• Constitutes of silica, alumina and iron
Fly Ash Bricks
o Class C fly ash and water
o Due to high calcium oxide its self
cementing
o Energy efficient
o Lower water penetration, light weight,
thermal insulation
Man Made
Coal Washery Rejects
Bricks
• Left over after fluidised bed combustion
• Uses water and reduces air and land
pollution
• Energy efficient
• Red mud, coal ash, etc from large scale
industries can be used
• These are mixed with lime pozollona and
cement to form bricks
21
Man Made
Aerocon Panels
• Inorganic bonded sandwich panels
• 2 fibre cement sheets engulfing a
Portland cement mix with fibres of
silica's and micaceous aggregates
• Light weight, thermal insulation, fire and
sound resistant
• Termite and weather resistant
• Suitable for seismic or cyclone prone
zones
22
Man Made
Ferro Cement
• Thin walled versatile high strength
cement based composite material
• Cement mortar reinforced with 2-3 layers
of wire mesh
• Light weight high strength
23
Plaster
 Fibre Reinforced clay plaster
o Natural or artificial fibre(polypropylene)
o Achieve better sticking properties
o Less Brittles
24
 Calcium Silicate Plaster
o Derived from Wollanstonite naturally
occurring calcium silicate
o Does not emit VOC or any other harmful
gases
o Gives a smooth finish
Roofing
25
 Bamboo Matt Roofing Corrugated
Sheets
o Better than clay and Mangalore tiles
o Preferred for semi permanent structures
Construction Techniques
Low Cost Construction Techniques
Usually stop at floor level (30 or 40 cm
above ground level.).
Take them 45 cm higher and
you have a ready made bed or
seat!
FOUNDATIONS
When soil is poor and soft – it is usual to
dig a wide trench and cover the bottom
with concrete. On this a wide stone wall 50-
60cm is built on top of that.
When the soil is strong and hard there is no
need for either to concrete or the layer of
thick stonework.
Another use for split building BAMBOO in
LIMEconcreteisforfoundations,especially
in sandy areas along the sea coast. Salt
and saline will not affect or destroy
either the concrete or the reinforcement.
(Ordinary foundations will crack with
shiftingsands.)
In some districts stone is available,
but only in small irregular lumps.
These make very poor walls with no
possibility of good bonding. Cracks
soon develop.
Make a metal (or wood) box (without
top or bottom) about 45 cm long 23
cm wide and 15 cm high.
Place in it the larger stones and
then fill in, all round, with
concrete made of the small stones.
After drying and removing the box
you have an excellent building block.
SPLIT STONE
In some districts granite is split
from large rocks to give posts and
slabs.
You can incorporate these stones
as lintels, shelves, window
“grills” and child-proof
furniture. Short broken posts
can usually be had at very low
prices.
SUN DRIED BRICKS
This is very old, well tried and tested mud brick
system common in many parts of kerala.
If properly made, these mud sun dried bricks
are capable of being used for a two sto- rey
house.
Mix soil with onlya littlewater - pick
up as much as you can in your two
hands and make a ‘roll’.
Place these rolls closely together
in rows; Then smooth one of the
ends.
Anyone can make this sort of a wall but you
CANNOT MAKE A HIGH WALL.
It is very good for curved or circular walls.
COB
PRESSED
BRICKS
A hand operated machine
compresses the earth into hard,
smooth, strong bricks (the
machine can be owned by the
community or panchayat).
These can be used for even three
storey houses, though each
storey must be protected form
rain by overhanging slabs.
PISE (RAMMED
EARTH)
With a properly made frame
(which can be taken to pieces)
rammed earth makes a very
strong wall.
It is essentially good for large,
low, solid looking buildings or it
can take the weight of heavy
roofing such as reinforced
concrete.
WATTLE ANDDAUB
This system of using mud for house
building is more usualin india’s eastern
states.
It is mainly used in bamboo growing
areas.
It is particularly good and ‘safe’ in areas
prone to earth tremors. It is also
adaptable to any shape of building.
The RAT TRAP BOND is still
mainly unknown in india,
though used in england for the
past several hundred years. It is
as strong as the other bonds
but uses 25% LESS bricks and
mortar.
Thermal insulation is very much
better.
Bricks are laid on edge, not flat.
This creates a ‘bonded cavity’.
RAT TRAP BOND
The CAVITYin the RATTRAP BOND wall ensures
good insulation from heat and cold.
This can be ruined by a poor mason carelessly
slopping mortar into the cavitywhileheisbuilding.
Toavoid this
1. Make sure the mortar is not too wet, and
2.Use a 3” wide strip of wood, laid over the central
cavity and place the mortar on both sided of it.
BRICK JALI
‘Jali’ - formerly pierced stone panels – is one
of india’s oldest methods of letting into a
building filteredlightandventilationbut
maintainingprivacyandsecurity.
BRICK JALI can function in the same way – either as
panels or as a complete load bearing wall.
There is the old “honey comb” pattern of
‘jali’ brick work.
The holes can be extended vertically.
Or there can be alternating sections of
one row of holes followed by 2 or 3 rows
of holes, then the single hole rowagain
– And so on.
Once these patterns have been used – a good
mason can devise and enjoy doing many
patterns.
Floor to ceiling, and column to column,
large panels of jail can be ‘corrugated’
or ‘folded’ (for strength – and even for
four and half inch brick walls) and given
first class lighting and ventilation to
corridors, class rooms, and even for
large halls and auditoria. Bay ‘windows’
Make excellent beds in the hot weather.
The usual round and segmental arches need
shuttering or support during construction.
The corbel arch needs no support and is extremely
simple and easy to make.
One quarter of a brick is extended out from the
brick below it. The writer successfully used
such ‘arches’ over openings up to 5 meters wide.
CORBEL ARCH
ARCHES
Arches can be of different shapes and sizes and
are much less costly than r.C. Lintels.
But while constructing them, some sort of
frame work or support is necessary.
In one building there may be arches of
different sizes so make the frame for the
smallest – and add a row or two of dry bricks
(No mortar) for the larger arches.
FANCY SUNSHADES
SERVE NO PURPOSE EXCEPT TO COLLECT LEAVES.
THEYARE UNNECESSARYANDCOSTLY- SO DON’T USETHEM.
DON’T
USE
PLASTER
Unless it is really necessary. Put it all
over a building and it accounts for
about 10% of the total cost!
Fungus grows on it outside. People
finger it, and lean on it, inside. It
either looks dirty and ugly or you have
to repaint it every year at
considerable cost.
There are a few places where it is useful -
kitchen, bathrooms, but elsewhere, neat
brickworklooks better.
Doors do not have to have frames, panels,
etc. A few planks can be fixed together
wi th strap hinges to form a strong
door.
A little bit of cutting can give a small
pattern.
The cost will be much less than half the
cost of a normal door.
DOORS
WINDOWS
A window with a frame and a shutter, with
glass, and perhaps a metal grill, is very costly.
A simple 1” thick, 9” wide plank of wood, with
a rounded protrusion at both ends, will fit
into 2 strips of wood (30 or 35 cm long, 8 cm
wide) and youhave a ‘window’!
Even when it is open, no one can climb
through the two 4 inch openings, so no grill is
required. If a larger window is needed, put 2 or
3 in a row.
Certain types of building bamboo have
approximately the same tensile strength as
torsteel. See elsewhere, but steel will corrode in
lime concrete (much cheaper than cement
concrete) whereas bamboo reinforcement will not
corode in lime concrete.
Further more (and of great natural importance)
lime and bamboo use practically no ‘energy’, while
cement and steel are both energy intensive
materials.
FILLER SLAB
(Variable rod size
according to span)
In the orthodox reinforced concrete slab the
dead weight of its concrete is heavy. This weight
can be lessenedby putting light weight material
between the steel rods.
The simplest ‘filler’ is to use two
grade mangalore tiles. These have no structural
strength value – they are mere ‘fillers’.
Using them saves about 30% dead weight of the
‘slab’ – so less steel is needed – so much steel,
sand, cement metal and cost is saved.
LOFTSAND
BUNKS
These sections show how
the ‘living space’ is
increased without
enlarging the total
Floor area of a small
house.
When a sloping roof is asked for (or a
sloping site makes a sloping roof
more economical) there is usually
quote a lot of spare space under
the lower sloping parts and these
can be used not only for shelves and
storage but also for seats and beds.
Instead of using
regular walling
system of lintel and
window system ,jali
work can help cost
estimation.
Climate
considerations and
use of local materials
helps maintaining
economy than
general RCC practise
JACK ARCH
ROOFS
They are easy to construct,
save on cement and steel, are
more appropriate in hot
climates.
These can be constructed
using compressed earth
blocks also as alternative to
bricks for further economy.
References
51
 Vidya.(2009).Alternative low cost materials . Retrieved from
https://www.google.co.in/search?safe=active&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN803IN803&ei=_DV4W9yoH
czsvAS1-
YIo&q=alternative+low+cost+building+materials+pdf&oq=alternative+low+cost+building+m
aterials+pdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i22i30k1.60784.62871.0.63200.4.4.0.0.0.0.269.795.2-
3.3.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..1.3.792....0.94A-KEts084
 J. Sunu, “Eco-Friendly Inorganic Bonded Sandwich Pan- els (Aerocon Panels): Production
Properties and Applica- tions,” 11th Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composite Confer- ence,
Madrid,
 Laurie Baker(1999),”A Manual for Cost Cuts for Acceptable Housing”, Retrieved from”
https://www.google.co.in/search?safe=active&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN803IN803&ei=q0d5W76PO
of-
vATul6lA&q=laurie+baker+construction+techniques+pdf&oq=laurie+baker+construction+tec
hniques+pdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0j0i22i30k1.8882.9897.0.10251.4.4.0.0.0.0.262.478.2-
2.2.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..2.2.477...0i20i263k1.0.ZEhExNNq2mg”
Thank
You
52

More Related Content

What's hot

Filler Slab Roofs
Filler Slab RoofsFiller Slab Roofs
Filler Slab Roofs
bharatagubbi
 

What's hot (20)

Architecture design housing ppt
Architecture design housing pptArchitecture design housing ppt
Architecture design housing ppt
 
GRIHA
GRIHAGRIHA
GRIHA
 
Low cost construction
Low cost constructionLow cost construction
Low cost construction
 
Filler Slab Roofs
Filler Slab RoofsFiller Slab Roofs
Filler Slab Roofs
 
Alternate roofing
Alternate roofingAlternate roofing
Alternate roofing
 
Prefabrication
PrefabricationPrefabrication
Prefabrication
 
Housing
Housing Housing
Housing
 
Aranya low cost housing-BV Doshi
Aranya low cost housing-BV DoshiAranya low cost housing-BV Doshi
Aranya low cost housing-BV Doshi
 
Green building delhi case study
Green building delhi case studyGreen building delhi case study
Green building delhi case study
 
Cost Effective and Alternate construction techniques
 Cost Effective and Alternate construction techniques Cost Effective and Alternate construction techniques
Cost Effective and Alternate construction techniques
 
Alternate building materials
Alternate building materialsAlternate building materials
Alternate building materials
 
low cost housing
low cost housinglow cost housing
low cost housing
 
Rammed earth
Rammed earthRammed earth
Rammed earth
 
brick as a building material
brick as a building materialbrick as a building material
brick as a building material
 
Adobe construction
Adobe constructionAdobe construction
Adobe construction
 
Rammed earth construction
Rammed earth constructionRammed earth construction
Rammed earth construction
 
Rammed earth
Rammed earth Rammed earth
Rammed earth
 
Prefabrication
PrefabricationPrefabrication
Prefabrication
 
Prefabricated construction systems in India- Precast Status and needed Impetus
Prefabricated construction systems in India- Precast Status and needed ImpetusPrefabricated construction systems in India- Precast Status and needed Impetus
Prefabricated construction systems in India- Precast Status and needed Impetus
 
Embodied energy
Embodied energyEmbodied energy
Embodied energy
 

Similar to Low cost building materials and construction techniques

Hudco Construction Techniques
Hudco Construction TechniquesHudco Construction Techniques
Hudco Construction Techniques
Uday Yadav
 

Similar to Low cost building materials and construction techniques (20)

PAPERCRETE
PAPERCRETEPAPERCRETE
PAPERCRETE
 
Fly ash process javid iqbal sodagar converted
Fly ash process javid iqbal sodagar convertedFly ash process javid iqbal sodagar converted
Fly ash process javid iqbal sodagar converted
 
BMPTC - products
BMPTC - productsBMPTC - products
BMPTC - products
 
Latest Contemporary Construction Techniques and Materials
Latest Contemporary Construction Techniques and MaterialsLatest Contemporary Construction Techniques and Materials
Latest Contemporary Construction Techniques and Materials
 
Earth materials
Earth materials Earth materials
Earth materials
 
Late Shri Sanat Mehta's low cost house at gandhinagar, india
Late Shri Sanat Mehta's low cost house at gandhinagar, indiaLate Shri Sanat Mehta's low cost house at gandhinagar, india
Late Shri Sanat Mehta's low cost house at gandhinagar, india
 
Minor project
Minor projectMinor project
Minor project
 
AAC Blocks vs Red Bricks - Material Study - Energy Efficient Buildings - NIT ...
AAC Blocks vs Red Bricks - Material Study - Energy Efficient Buildings - NIT ...AAC Blocks vs Red Bricks - Material Study - Energy Efficient Buildings - NIT ...
AAC Blocks vs Red Bricks - Material Study - Energy Efficient Buildings - NIT ...
 
Concrete block
Concrete blockConcrete block
Concrete block
 
Low-Cost-Housing.ppt
Low-Cost-Housing.pptLow-Cost-Housing.ppt
Low-Cost-Housing.ppt
 
sustainable materials with building construction details
sustainable materials with building construction detailssustainable materials with building construction details
sustainable materials with building construction details
 
Low cost housing viii assignmnet - 2 mahima garg
Low cost housing viii assignmnet - 2 mahima gargLow cost housing viii assignmnet - 2 mahima garg
Low cost housing viii assignmnet - 2 mahima garg
 
Introduction to Building materials
Introduction to Building materialsIntroduction to Building materials
Introduction to Building materials
 
Building Technology report
Building Technology reportBuilding Technology report
Building Technology report
 
CHAPTER 01 lecture 1.pptx
CHAPTER 01 lecture 1.pptxCHAPTER 01 lecture 1.pptx
CHAPTER 01 lecture 1.pptx
 
LIGHT--WEIGHT BRICK’S.pptx
LIGHT--WEIGHT BRICK’S.pptxLIGHT--WEIGHT BRICK’S.pptx
LIGHT--WEIGHT BRICK’S.pptx
 
material ppt
material pptmaterial ppt
material ppt
 
Trabajo de tecnologia construction materials
Trabajo de tecnologia   construction materialsTrabajo de tecnologia   construction materials
Trabajo de tecnologia construction materials
 
Hudco Construction Techniques
Hudco Construction TechniquesHudco Construction Techniques
Hudco Construction Techniques
 
UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC IN MANUFACTURING OF BRICK.pptx
UTILIZATION  OF  WASTE  PLASTIC  IN  MANUFACTURING OF BRICK.pptxUTILIZATION  OF  WASTE  PLASTIC  IN  MANUFACTURING OF BRICK.pptx
UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC IN MANUFACTURING OF BRICK.pptx
 

More from Yash Kotgirwar

More from Yash Kotgirwar (16)

Trasnportation system of mumbai
Trasnportation system of  mumbaiTrasnportation system of  mumbai
Trasnportation system of mumbai
 
Concrete Constructions
Concrete ConstructionsConcrete Constructions
Concrete Constructions
 
Hsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthanHsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthan
 
Jnnurm
JnnurmJnnurm
Jnnurm
 
Titanium
TitaniumTitanium
Titanium
 
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangaloreIntegrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
Integrated solid waste managemet of bangalore
 
1. konark
1. konark1. konark
1. konark
 
Kauffman centre for performing arts
Kauffman centre for performing artsKauffman centre for performing arts
Kauffman centre for performing arts
 
Contribution of Akbar and his successors
Contribution of Akbar and his successorsContribution of Akbar and his successors
Contribution of Akbar and his successors
 
Seminar 2
Seminar 2Seminar 2
Seminar 2
 
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case studyNid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
Nid & CEPT ahmedabad primary case study
 
Hsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthanHsva rajasthan
Hsva rajasthan
 
Building Services
Building ServicesBuilding Services
Building Services
 
Cons. report
Cons. reportCons. report
Cons. report
 
Report
ReportReport
Report
 
Design case study
Design case studyDesign case study
Design case study
 

Recently uploaded

Orientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdf
Orientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdfOrientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdf
Orientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdf
Elizabeth Walsh
 
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MysoreMuleSoftMeetup
 
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lessonQUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
httgc7rh9c
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
EADTU
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Simple, Complex, and Compound Sentences Exercises.pdf
Simple, Complex, and Compound Sentences Exercises.pdfSimple, Complex, and Compound Sentences Exercises.pdf
Simple, Complex, and Compound Sentences Exercises.pdf
 
NO1 Top Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Ex...
NO1 Top Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Ex...NO1 Top Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Ex...
NO1 Top Black Magic Specialist In Lahore Black magic In Pakistan Kala Ilam Ex...
 
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
How to Add a Tool Tip to a Field in Odoo 17
 
COMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptx
COMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptxCOMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptx
COMMUNICATING NEGATIVE NEWS - APPROACHES .pptx
 
Orientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdf
Orientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdfOrientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdf
Orientation Canvas Course Presentation.pdf
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 
Towards a code of practice for AI in AT.pptx
Towards a code of practice for AI in AT.pptxTowards a code of practice for AI in AT.pptx
Towards a code of practice for AI in AT.pptx
 
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learningdusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
dusjagr & nano talk on open tools for agriculture research and learning
 
PANDITA RAMABAI- Indian political thought GENDER.pptx
PANDITA RAMABAI- Indian political thought GENDER.pptxPANDITA RAMABAI- Indian political thought GENDER.pptx
PANDITA RAMABAI- Indian political thought GENDER.pptx
 
Wellbeing inclusion and digital dystopias.pptx
Wellbeing inclusion and digital dystopias.pptxWellbeing inclusion and digital dystopias.pptx
Wellbeing inclusion and digital dystopias.pptx
 
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
FSB Advising Checklist - Orientation 2024
 
Tatlong Kwento ni Lola basyang-1.pdf arts
Tatlong Kwento ni Lola basyang-1.pdf artsTatlong Kwento ni Lola basyang-1.pdf arts
Tatlong Kwento ni Lola basyang-1.pdf arts
 
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
 
Accessible Digital Futures project (20/03/2024)
Accessible Digital Futures project (20/03/2024)Accessible Digital Futures project (20/03/2024)
Accessible Digital Futures project (20/03/2024)
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptxHMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
HMCS Max Bernays Pre-Deployment Brief (May 2024).pptx
 
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
MuleSoft Integration with AWS Textract | Calling AWS Textract API |AWS - Clou...
 
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lessonQUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
QUATER-1-PE-HEALTH-LC2- this is just a sample of unpacked lesson
 
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
Transparency, Recognition and the role of eSealing - Ildiko Mazar and Koen No...
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 

Low cost building materials and construction techniques

  • 1. LOW COST BUILDING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES Yash Kotgirwar | 114AR0032 | Nehal Singh | 114AR0027
  • 2. Building Materials Low Cost Building Materials
  • 3. Selection Of Low Cost Building Material ○ Manufacturing of Low Cost Building Materials □ Environmental friendly □ Improve technologies for production □ Reduction in waste generation ○ Use of Recycled Waste as Building Materials □ Waste produced can be used for the production of a material cheaper in cost ○ Use of Natural Low Cost Building Materials □ Natural materials are sustainable and environmental friendly □ Materials like stone , wood ,lime ,bamboo ,sand have low embodied energy ○ Use of Local Building Materials □ Reduces transportation dependence □ Suitable for local environment 3
  • 4. Selection Of Low Cost Building Material ○ Use of non-toxic Building Materials □ Materials to be free from any kind of toxins □ Higher air cycling required if any highly organic volatile compounds are used ○ Longevity, Durability and Maintenance □ Use of durable construction materials decreases the maintenance cost □ Low maintenance cost saves a lot of building operating costs ○ Recyclability and Reusability □ In a form so that it can be recycled or reused. Eg.Plastics ○ Biodegradability □ Decompose naturally when discarded □ Not produce toxic gases while decomposition 4
  • 5. Building Materials Natural • Random Straw or Coconut Fibres Stabilised Soil • Bamboo • Compressed Earth Block • Non –erodible Mud Plaster • Straw • Fibre Cement Composites • Bagasse Composite boards Man Made • Fly Ash • Coal Washery Rejects • Aerocon Panels • Ferro Cement 5
  • 7. Natural Random straw or Coconut Fibres Stabilised Soil 7 • Ancient construction material used in many countries • Have both strength and durability • Compacted material • 1% of straw increases the strength by three time as compared to no straw • Coconut fibres increases the durability • Sulphur coating enhances the water resistance
  • 8. Natural Bamboo 8 • India is the largest producer,50% of world production • Easily affordable • Easy assembly and long durability • High tensile strength, than steel • Fire resistant unto 4000 deg C • High elasticity hence used in earthquake prone areas • Low weight –easy for transportation and assembly
  • 10. Natural Compressed Earth Block 10 • Raw earth stabilised by cement or lime • Also known as Adobe bricks ,light in weight • Non toxic • Fire resistant ,Sound resistant • Low transportation cost • Insect resistant as they are very dense • Available in customizable sizes • Used in stucco work for exteriors Natural
  • 11. Natural Non-erodible Mud Plaster 11 • Economical process of preventing mud walls from erosion • Mud mixed with bitumen and kerosene oil • Resistant to water
  • 12. Natural Straw 12 • Fire resistant • Thermal insulation • Soil and Moisture insulation • Non toxic Life Extended Thatch Roofing • Treating with copper sulphate solution decreases the biodegradability • Treatment of roof surface with phosphorylated spray or CNSL oil imparts- o Water proofing o Termite resistance o Fire resistance o Weathering resistance Improved Thatched Roofing • CBRI advise to add mud platers in between to increase fire and water resistance
  • 13. Natural Fibre Cement Composites 13 • Natural fibre used with cement as an alternative building material • Fibres used like bagasse , cereal straw, corn and cotton stalk ,kenalf /rice husk • Imparts o Light weight o High strength to weight ratio o Corrosion resistance o High fracture toughness o High flexibility o Resistance to cracking o Add workability
  • 14. 14
  • 15. Natural: Cement Composite Bagasse Cement- Boards and Panels 15 • Fibrous matter after sugar is extracted • Sugarcane bagasse and Portland cement is mixed • High density boards
  • 16. Natural: Cement Composite Bagasse PVC Boards 16 • Sugarcane bagasse and PVC is mixed as a binder • Inherent self extinguishing property • Used in door shutters, sanitary fixtures, pipes, cable, cabinets
  • 17. Natural: Bagasse PVC boards Jute and Coir 17 • Widely available in India  Coir-CNSL Board o used for window and door shutter, partitioning, false ceiling, furniture etc. o Single layer flat pressed medium density board o Low water absorption, workable with wood tools o Paintable, pre laminable, screw able  Coir-CNSL Thermal Insulation Board o Coconut fibres as reinforcing material o CNSL as natural binder o Low density for moderate thermal insulation
  • 18. Natural: Bagasse PVC boards Jute and Coir 18  Jute-Coir Composites o Economic alternative for wood o Eg- coir ply boards with jute face veneer, coir plus waste rubber inside  Coconut and Wooden Chips Roofing Chips o Coconut fibres and wooden chips soaked in water for 2 hours and then drained off o Mixed with cement and layed over corrugated mould kept under pressure for 8-10 hours o CNSL oil can also be used as a natural binder
  • 20. Man Made Fly Ash 20 • Mineral residue after burning burning coal and fine glass • Constitutes of silica, alumina and iron Fly Ash Bricks o Class C fly ash and water o Due to high calcium oxide its self cementing o Energy efficient o Lower water penetration, light weight, thermal insulation
  • 21. Man Made Coal Washery Rejects Bricks • Left over after fluidised bed combustion • Uses water and reduces air and land pollution • Energy efficient • Red mud, coal ash, etc from large scale industries can be used • These are mixed with lime pozollona and cement to form bricks 21
  • 22. Man Made Aerocon Panels • Inorganic bonded sandwich panels • 2 fibre cement sheets engulfing a Portland cement mix with fibres of silica's and micaceous aggregates • Light weight, thermal insulation, fire and sound resistant • Termite and weather resistant • Suitable for seismic or cyclone prone zones 22
  • 23. Man Made Ferro Cement • Thin walled versatile high strength cement based composite material • Cement mortar reinforced with 2-3 layers of wire mesh • Light weight high strength 23
  • 24. Plaster  Fibre Reinforced clay plaster o Natural or artificial fibre(polypropylene) o Achieve better sticking properties o Less Brittles 24  Calcium Silicate Plaster o Derived from Wollanstonite naturally occurring calcium silicate o Does not emit VOC or any other harmful gases o Gives a smooth finish
  • 25. Roofing 25  Bamboo Matt Roofing Corrugated Sheets o Better than clay and Mangalore tiles o Preferred for semi permanent structures
  • 26. Construction Techniques Low Cost Construction Techniques
  • 27. Usually stop at floor level (30 or 40 cm above ground level.). Take them 45 cm higher and you have a ready made bed or seat! FOUNDATIONS When soil is poor and soft – it is usual to dig a wide trench and cover the bottom with concrete. On this a wide stone wall 50- 60cm is built on top of that. When the soil is strong and hard there is no need for either to concrete or the layer of thick stonework.
  • 28. Another use for split building BAMBOO in LIMEconcreteisforfoundations,especially in sandy areas along the sea coast. Salt and saline will not affect or destroy either the concrete or the reinforcement. (Ordinary foundations will crack with shiftingsands.)
  • 29. In some districts stone is available, but only in small irregular lumps. These make very poor walls with no possibility of good bonding. Cracks soon develop. Make a metal (or wood) box (without top or bottom) about 45 cm long 23 cm wide and 15 cm high. Place in it the larger stones and then fill in, all round, with concrete made of the small stones. After drying and removing the box you have an excellent building block.
  • 30. SPLIT STONE In some districts granite is split from large rocks to give posts and slabs. You can incorporate these stones as lintels, shelves, window “grills” and child-proof furniture. Short broken posts can usually be had at very low prices.
  • 31. SUN DRIED BRICKS This is very old, well tried and tested mud brick system common in many parts of kerala. If properly made, these mud sun dried bricks are capable of being used for a two sto- rey house.
  • 32. Mix soil with onlya littlewater - pick up as much as you can in your two hands and make a ‘roll’. Place these rolls closely together in rows; Then smooth one of the ends. Anyone can make this sort of a wall but you CANNOT MAKE A HIGH WALL. It is very good for curved or circular walls. COB
  • 33. PRESSED BRICKS A hand operated machine compresses the earth into hard, smooth, strong bricks (the machine can be owned by the community or panchayat). These can be used for even three storey houses, though each storey must be protected form rain by overhanging slabs.
  • 34. PISE (RAMMED EARTH) With a properly made frame (which can be taken to pieces) rammed earth makes a very strong wall. It is essentially good for large, low, solid looking buildings or it can take the weight of heavy roofing such as reinforced concrete.
  • 35. WATTLE ANDDAUB This system of using mud for house building is more usualin india’s eastern states. It is mainly used in bamboo growing areas. It is particularly good and ‘safe’ in areas prone to earth tremors. It is also adaptable to any shape of building.
  • 36. The RAT TRAP BOND is still mainly unknown in india, though used in england for the past several hundred years. It is as strong as the other bonds but uses 25% LESS bricks and mortar. Thermal insulation is very much better. Bricks are laid on edge, not flat. This creates a ‘bonded cavity’. RAT TRAP BOND
  • 37. The CAVITYin the RATTRAP BOND wall ensures good insulation from heat and cold. This can be ruined by a poor mason carelessly slopping mortar into the cavitywhileheisbuilding. Toavoid this 1. Make sure the mortar is not too wet, and 2.Use a 3” wide strip of wood, laid over the central cavity and place the mortar on both sided of it.
  • 38. BRICK JALI ‘Jali’ - formerly pierced stone panels – is one of india’s oldest methods of letting into a building filteredlightandventilationbut maintainingprivacyandsecurity. BRICK JALI can function in the same way – either as panels or as a complete load bearing wall.
  • 39. There is the old “honey comb” pattern of ‘jali’ brick work. The holes can be extended vertically. Or there can be alternating sections of one row of holes followed by 2 or 3 rows of holes, then the single hole rowagain – And so on. Once these patterns have been used – a good mason can devise and enjoy doing many patterns.
  • 40. Floor to ceiling, and column to column, large panels of jail can be ‘corrugated’ or ‘folded’ (for strength – and even for four and half inch brick walls) and given first class lighting and ventilation to corridors, class rooms, and even for large halls and auditoria. Bay ‘windows’ Make excellent beds in the hot weather.
  • 41. The usual round and segmental arches need shuttering or support during construction. The corbel arch needs no support and is extremely simple and easy to make. One quarter of a brick is extended out from the brick below it. The writer successfully used such ‘arches’ over openings up to 5 meters wide. CORBEL ARCH
  • 42. ARCHES Arches can be of different shapes and sizes and are much less costly than r.C. Lintels. But while constructing them, some sort of frame work or support is necessary. In one building there may be arches of different sizes so make the frame for the smallest – and add a row or two of dry bricks (No mortar) for the larger arches.
  • 43. FANCY SUNSHADES SERVE NO PURPOSE EXCEPT TO COLLECT LEAVES. THEYARE UNNECESSARYANDCOSTLY- SO DON’T USETHEM. DON’T USE PLASTER Unless it is really necessary. Put it all over a building and it accounts for about 10% of the total cost! Fungus grows on it outside. People finger it, and lean on it, inside. It either looks dirty and ugly or you have to repaint it every year at considerable cost. There are a few places where it is useful - kitchen, bathrooms, but elsewhere, neat brickworklooks better.
  • 44. Doors do not have to have frames, panels, etc. A few planks can be fixed together wi th strap hinges to form a strong door. A little bit of cutting can give a small pattern. The cost will be much less than half the cost of a normal door. DOORS
  • 45. WINDOWS A window with a frame and a shutter, with glass, and perhaps a metal grill, is very costly. A simple 1” thick, 9” wide plank of wood, with a rounded protrusion at both ends, will fit into 2 strips of wood (30 or 35 cm long, 8 cm wide) and youhave a ‘window’! Even when it is open, no one can climb through the two 4 inch openings, so no grill is required. If a larger window is needed, put 2 or 3 in a row.
  • 46. Certain types of building bamboo have approximately the same tensile strength as torsteel. See elsewhere, but steel will corrode in lime concrete (much cheaper than cement concrete) whereas bamboo reinforcement will not corode in lime concrete. Further more (and of great natural importance) lime and bamboo use practically no ‘energy’, while cement and steel are both energy intensive materials.
  • 47. FILLER SLAB (Variable rod size according to span) In the orthodox reinforced concrete slab the dead weight of its concrete is heavy. This weight can be lessenedby putting light weight material between the steel rods. The simplest ‘filler’ is to use two grade mangalore tiles. These have no structural strength value – they are mere ‘fillers’. Using them saves about 30% dead weight of the ‘slab’ – so less steel is needed – so much steel, sand, cement metal and cost is saved.
  • 48. LOFTSAND BUNKS These sections show how the ‘living space’ is increased without enlarging the total Floor area of a small house. When a sloping roof is asked for (or a sloping site makes a sloping roof more economical) there is usually quote a lot of spare space under the lower sloping parts and these can be used not only for shelves and storage but also for seats and beds.
  • 49. Instead of using regular walling system of lintel and window system ,jali work can help cost estimation. Climate considerations and use of local materials helps maintaining economy than general RCC practise
  • 50. JACK ARCH ROOFS They are easy to construct, save on cement and steel, are more appropriate in hot climates. These can be constructed using compressed earth blocks also as alternative to bricks for further economy.
  • 51. References 51  Vidya.(2009).Alternative low cost materials . Retrieved from https://www.google.co.in/search?safe=active&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN803IN803&ei=_DV4W9yoH czsvAS1- YIo&q=alternative+low+cost+building+materials+pdf&oq=alternative+low+cost+building+m aterials+pdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0i22i30k1.60784.62871.0.63200.4.4.0.0.0.0.269.795.2- 3.3.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..1.3.792....0.94A-KEts084  J. Sunu, “Eco-Friendly Inorganic Bonded Sandwich Pan- els (Aerocon Panels): Production Properties and Applica- tions,” 11th Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composite Confer- ence, Madrid,  Laurie Baker(1999),”A Manual for Cost Cuts for Acceptable Housing”, Retrieved from” https://www.google.co.in/search?safe=active&rlz=1C1CHZL_enIN803IN803&ei=q0d5W76PO of- vATul6lA&q=laurie+baker+construction+techniques+pdf&oq=laurie+baker+construction+tec hniques+pdf&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0j0i22i30k1.8882.9897.0.10251.4.4.0.0.0.0.262.478.2- 2.2.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..2.2.477...0i20i263k1.0.ZEhExNNq2mg”