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Practices in Conservation
Sun Temple, Konark
WHY the trip
Bhubaneshwar
Kalinga style
?
WHAT is conservation
to conserve ?
Methods of intervention
direct
preservation Consolidation rehabilitation
indirect
prevention
reconstruction restoration reproduction
HISTORY AND BACKGROUND
• 13th-century CE
• King narasimhadeva I
• Architects - bishnu maharana and sibei
mahapatra
• Giant ornamented chariot of the sun
god, surya
• Traditional style of kalinga architecture
• Black pagoda
• UNESCO world heritage site
http://www.thekonark.in/images/konark/conjecturalplankonark.jpg
• Oriented towards the east, first rays of sunrise
strikes the principal entrance
• Main vimana, 70 m tall
• Present day- nata mandira and jagamohana
• Sense of wonder, monumental scale
• Tallest out of all kalinga style temples
• Khondalite rocks (sandstone)
• Large pieces of rocks, no adhesive
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Konark_Temple_Panorama2.jpg/1024px-
Konark_Temple_Panorama2.jpg
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/common
s/d/d2/Khondalite_and_charcolite_rock_formatio
ns_at_Duvvada_03.jpg
PHYSICAL FORM
• Jagamohana -39 m tall
• High pedestal
• Twelve pairs of carved stone wheels
(3 meters wide)
• A set of seven horses (right-4, left -3).
• Walls- 20 to 25 feet thick
• Detailed carvings and sculptures
• Wheels of the temple- sundials
Collapse
• Heavy weight of the
superstructure
• weak soil of the area
• Kalapahada destroyed the
temple (1508)
• displacement of load stone
• fallen at the Konark
Archaeological Museum
Remains of the destroyed
structure
Current visible
structure
Prevention
In1906 large-scale plantation of
casuarina and cashew nut trees was
taken up in the direction ofthe sea
in order to check the movement of
sand-laden winds and thereby
minimize the abrasive action of
sand-blasting on the monument.
removal of sand from the compound with
necessary provision for drainage of water
rebuilding of the damaged compound wall to
the height of the original coping;
Not allowing vehicles near the temple
premises.
Balusters to prevent direct physical contact.
Lightning earthing system provided.
Preservation
To save the Jagamohan from possible collapse, the four entrances
were permanently closed, and the interior was filled with sand
vertically from the top by drilling a hole and pouring sand through a
funnel.
making the entire Temple water-tight from outside by grouting, filling
in of joints, rectification of wrong slopes and concreting the tops of
irregular masonry;
Extensive chemical cleaning. 1% of polymethylmetracrilate in
Toluene.
scaffoldings
consolidation
• Exposed rusty iron clamps and dowels were replaced by copper
ones
problems
• to correct the gradient of the area in the immediate vicinity of
the temple proper.
• The lay-out of the pathways and the garden appears to be
faulty as the run-off water from them collects around the
temple platform and stays there for a long duration of time.
• Apart from this the deterioration of the stone is an ongoing
process for which no satisfactory solution has yet been found.
Conservation by Restoration
• Bringing back the original fabric- ‘Revival of the past’
1
2
3
4
1
2
• Respect for original design, material, technique and authorized documentation.
4
5
5
• Respecting authenticity and harmonious integrity of the cultural property
Restoration by Anastylosis
1. konark
1. konark

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1. konark

  • 2. WHY the trip Bhubaneshwar Kalinga style ? WHAT is conservation to conserve ?
  • 3. Methods of intervention direct preservation Consolidation rehabilitation indirect prevention reconstruction restoration reproduction
  • 4. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND • 13th-century CE • King narasimhadeva I • Architects - bishnu maharana and sibei mahapatra • Giant ornamented chariot of the sun god, surya • Traditional style of kalinga architecture • Black pagoda • UNESCO world heritage site http://www.thekonark.in/images/konark/conjecturalplankonark.jpg
  • 5. • Oriented towards the east, first rays of sunrise strikes the principal entrance • Main vimana, 70 m tall • Present day- nata mandira and jagamohana • Sense of wonder, monumental scale • Tallest out of all kalinga style temples • Khondalite rocks (sandstone) • Large pieces of rocks, no adhesive https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/60/Konark_Temple_Panorama2.jpg/1024px- Konark_Temple_Panorama2.jpg https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/common s/d/d2/Khondalite_and_charcolite_rock_formatio ns_at_Duvvada_03.jpg
  • 6. PHYSICAL FORM • Jagamohana -39 m tall • High pedestal • Twelve pairs of carved stone wheels (3 meters wide) • A set of seven horses (right-4, left -3). • Walls- 20 to 25 feet thick • Detailed carvings and sculptures • Wheels of the temple- sundials
  • 7. Collapse • Heavy weight of the superstructure • weak soil of the area • Kalapahada destroyed the temple (1508) • displacement of load stone • fallen at the Konark Archaeological Museum
  • 8. Remains of the destroyed structure Current visible structure
  • 9. Prevention In1906 large-scale plantation of casuarina and cashew nut trees was taken up in the direction ofthe sea in order to check the movement of sand-laden winds and thereby minimize the abrasive action of sand-blasting on the monument.
  • 10. removal of sand from the compound with necessary provision for drainage of water rebuilding of the damaged compound wall to the height of the original coping; Not allowing vehicles near the temple premises. Balusters to prevent direct physical contact. Lightning earthing system provided.
  • 11. Preservation To save the Jagamohan from possible collapse, the four entrances were permanently closed, and the interior was filled with sand vertically from the top by drilling a hole and pouring sand through a funnel. making the entire Temple water-tight from outside by grouting, filling in of joints, rectification of wrong slopes and concreting the tops of irregular masonry; Extensive chemical cleaning. 1% of polymethylmetracrilate in Toluene. scaffoldings
  • 12.
  • 13. consolidation • Exposed rusty iron clamps and dowels were replaced by copper ones
  • 14. problems • to correct the gradient of the area in the immediate vicinity of the temple proper. • The lay-out of the pathways and the garden appears to be faulty as the run-off water from them collects around the temple platform and stays there for a long duration of time. • Apart from this the deterioration of the stone is an ongoing process for which no satisfactory solution has yet been found.
  • 15. Conservation by Restoration • Bringing back the original fabric- ‘Revival of the past’ 1 2 3 4
  • 16. 1 2 • Respect for original design, material, technique and authorized documentation.
  • 17. 4
  • 18. 5
  • 19. 5 • Respecting authenticity and harmonious integrity of the cultural property