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BRIHADEESWARAR TEMPLE - An Ancient Architectural marvel

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One Architectural marvel that has stood a millennium with violent natural disturbances and more violent human disturbances. One ancient TAMIL - DRAVIDIAN architecture with all it's structural intricacies and the SCIENCE which makes the modern day scientist to baffle. A SCIENTIFIC place than a SPIRITUAL place. One challenging structure analysed from the point of view of engineering details.

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BRIHADEESWARAR TEMPLE - An Ancient Architectural marvel

  1. 1. BRIHADEESWARAR TEMPLE @ THANJAVUR BIG TEMPLE ENGLISH COMMUNICATION LAB – PRESENTATION 1
  2. 2. LOCATION OF TEMPLE : THANJAVUR , TAMILNADU About 1 km from the Thanjavur Bustand LOCATION COORDINATES : 10°46′58″N79°07′54″E CHOLA EMPIRE  DRAVIDIAN ARCHITECTURE
  3. 3. BRIEF HISTORY OF TEMPLE : A MAGNIFICIENT EDIFICE WITH IT’S MAJESTIC VIMANA,SCULPTURES, ARCHITECTURE & FRESCOES. WEALTH & RICHNESS OF TAMIL INSCRIPTIONS ENGRAVED IN SUPER CALLIGRAPHY.  BUILT IN 10TH CENTURY B.C APPROXIMATELY 1010 C.E MILLENIUM COMMEMORATION ON SEPTEMBER 2010 UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE INITIALLY NAMED AS RAJA RAJESHWARAM BY THE CHOZHA’S AND RENAMED AS BRIHADEESWARA (THE GREAT ISHWARA) BY THE MARATHAS
  4. 4. BUILT BY  RAJA RAJA CHOLA – 1 1010 AD WRITTEN ON STONE  INSCRIPTIONS OF ABOUT 107 PARAGRAPHS  A KING’S PASSION ON ARCHITECTURE SUCH A MASSIVE ARCHITECTURE  INTENSE PLANNING  SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION  JUST 1 ACCIDENT RECORDED EVERY INCIDENT RECORDED  STRUCTURAL DETAILS, GIFTS GIVEN, JEWELLERY PRESENT, TIME OF CONSTRUCTION… etc. DREAM  SRILANKA INVASIONS  SAIVIST TEMPER SENIOR ARCHITECT / ENGINEER OF THE PROJECT : KUNJARA MALLAN PERUNTACHANRAJA RAJA CHOLA 1 – 985 AD to 1014 AD
  5. 5. ABOUT THE TEMPLE : STRUCTURAL DETAILS  RELATIONSHIP WITH ‘TAMIL’ 216 feet HIGH TEMPLE (app. 66 m) 12 feet HIGH VIGRAHA ( LORD SHIVA SHRINE) 18 feet DEEP FOUNDATION  1 LORD SHIVA SHRINE 12 UYIR EZHUTHUKAL 18 MEI EZHUTHUKAL 216 UYIR MEI EZHUTHUKAL  1 AAYUTHA EZHUTHU 247m(TOTAL) = DISTANCE BETWEEN LINGA AND NANDHI
  6. 6. STRUCTURAL ELEVATION & PLAN :
  7. 7. ENTIRE ‘GRANITE’ STRUCTURE BUT NO GRANITE SOURCE IN 100 km RADIUS HERCULEAN TASK OF TRANSPORTATION A 16 STOREY VIMANA OF 60.96m A 30m HIGH MAIN ENTRANCE AXIAL & SYMMETRICAL GEOMETRY PRAKARAM (OUTER PRECINCTS) 240m BY 125 m
  8. 8. OTRAI KAL NANDHI NANDI IS A SACRED BULL IN HINDU MYTHOLOGY CARVED OUT OF A SINGLE ROCK 16 feet LONG (4.9 m) 13 feet HIGH (4.0 m) SAID TO BE GROWING A PHENOMENOL WEATHERING ACTION CONSPIRACY OVER OTRAI KAL NANDI ORIGINAL OTRAI KAL NANDHI
  9. 9. 270 m BY 140 m OUTER BOUNDARY OUTER WALLS CONTAIN 108 BHARATHANTIYA KARANAS PERUVUDAYAR KOIL  PERUNKOIL or MADAKOIL  HIGHER PLATFORM NATURAL OR MAN MADE MOUNDS CHOLA’S ACHIEVEMENTSMURALS, SCULPTURES, PAINTINGS…etc MULTIFACETED PILLARS WITH PROJECTING SQUARE CAPITALS  KUNJARA MALLAN RAJA RAJA RAMA PERUNTHACHANNEW STYLE SHRINE OF GODDESS  PANDYAS SUBRAMANYA SHRINE  VIJAYANAGARA EMPIRE VINAYAKA SHRINE  MARATHA RULERS
  10. 10. THE VIMANA
  11. 11. THE VIMANA: AN ENGINEERING WONDER  STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF VIMANA BIGGEST MYSTERY  HUGE CAP STONE ON TOP OF VIMANA A SINGLE STONE CAP OF 80 TONNES WEIGHT RESTED ON THE 16 STOREY SCIENTISTS BAFFLE ON HOW IT WENT THAT HIGH MANY THEORIES WERE PROPOSED ON HOW IT WENT THAT HIGH… HOW EQUILIBRIUM IS MAINTAINED THERE…? SHADOW DOES NOT FALL ON THE GROUND  INSTEAD FALL ON ITSELF
  12. 12. THE GARBAGRAHA  SHIVA LINGA  EMITS HUGE AMOUNT ELECTROMAGNETIC POSITIVE ENERGY 80 TONNE STONE CAP WAS SET AS REPULSIVE FORCE  TO MAKE THE POSITIVE ENERGY REVOLVE AROUND THE PERIMETER OF TEMPLE CLOCKWISE CIRCULATION OF COSMIC ENERGY 6 FEET TALL KALASAM WHY THE VIMANA WAS CAPPED?:
  13. 13. The popular theory by western investigators is that a 11 km - long inclined plane was built, and the stone was rolled to the top on logs, by elephants. The starting of the inclined plane has been found and it is called "Sāra Palālāam" (Scaffold Pit). MOST POPULAR THEORY
  14. 14. ALTERNATE THEORY  A THICK ROUND BRICK WALL  5 TO 6 FEET WIDE  SCAFFOLDING  ‘SAARAKKATTU SUVAR’  AROUND GOPURAM  BIG STONES ARE KEPT  SAND IS POURED IN THE GAP  SCAFFFOLDING  SPIRAL CASING  BLOCKS AND BIG STONES ARE PLACED ON THE SCAFFOLDING AND ARE MOVED WITH LESSER ENERGY THAN THE PREVIOUS METHOD.  “BREAKING OF EGG SHELL”  OPENING OF THE SCAFFOLDING  STHAPATHI’S  SCAFFOLDING COMES OFF  SAND SPILLS OUT  GOPURAM REVEALED  ANY MISTAKE IN LEVELS  WILL SHOW UP  PLUMB LINE PERFECT The temple is constructed in layers. It would take less space and less effort comparing to other methods. Sand in poured in large amounts as shown in the figure to move around and place the rock at the center. Moving in circular path makes you feel less tired and that is why you have circular stair case
  15. 15. A HUGE HOLLOW AT CENTRE OF VIMANA  STILL MAKES A WONDER  HOW THE LOAD BALANCING WOULD HAVE TOOK PLACE BUILT OF INTERLOCKING STONES AND NO BINDING MATERIAL IN BETWEEN SURVIVED 6EARTHQUAKES. 1807, 1816, 1866, 1823, 1864 and 1900
  16. 16. OTHER INTERESTING FACTS :
  17. 17. MOAT: DEFENSIVE FORT  WITHSTAND ANY ATTACK FROM ENEMIES SATTELITE IMAGE  WATER DRAINAGE LAYOUT  LONG MOAT  GRAND ANAICUT’S WATER  CROCODILES HUGE DEFENSE OF THE CITY PAVED WAY FOR MANY SECRET HIDDEN PASSAGES
  18. 18. A dedicated secret passage was created to connect different secret places in hidden mesh-like structure. It is decorated with distinct features depicting Hindu history of Bharat (India).   While roaming through secret passages, it is impossible to come back to the starting point, as no one knows the route to reach the inter-places meshed to each other. That is the reason, most of the underground and secret passages are closed for the public and archaeologists. What are Secret Passages of Thanjavur (Tanjore)?  Secret Passages are closed since entrance to them is only possible when you recite right mantra to enter it. The in-roads through the secret passages lead to places which RajaRaja Chola wanted only his close confidante to know. Such places were holding keys to the treasure chest, rare scripts, calligraphs and vaults whose confidentiality were to be maintained. SECRET PASSAGES INSIDE TEMPLE :
  19. 19. GRANITE CARVINGS:
  20. 20. GRANITE CUTTING : Series of holes were created in the granite block. The holes can be deeper or surfacial based on the requirement. Then wooden sticks were filled in those holes, water is poured on the holes. After a long period of time the rocks would break. And in similar manner, customized Granite blocks were cut.
  21. 21. PAINTINGS & MURALS: These were purposely painted using solution made up of natural elements like flower petals, colorful leaves, haldi (turmeric), treated muds, crushed salts, neem, pressed herbs, etc. The lasting of such Vedic designs were ensured using medicinal learnings of Ayurveda.
  22. 22. INSCRIPTIONS ON WALLS:
  23. 23. BUDDHA STATUE IN THANJAVUR ?: EVIDENCES  SHOW  ADVENT OF BUDDHISM  DURING 10TH CENTURY AD RAJA RAJA CHOLAN  SAIVIST SECULAR  RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE BUDDHA UNDER WISDOM TREE
  24. 24. SCULPTURES:
  25. 25. REFERENCES: GOOGLE WIKIPEDIA QUORA HARIBHAKT.COM INNOVATIVEBLAZE.BLOGSPOT.COM THE HINDU – ARCHIVES TAMILNADU.COM VALAITAMIL.NET INDIANTEMPLES.ORG

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