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Last month GPAT preparation


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This presentation contains the main topics to be covered in the preparation of Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT).

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Last month GPAT preparation

  1. 1. By : Mr. Viplove Kataria M.S. Student NIPER, Mohali Last Month Preparation
  2. 2. Pharmaceutics Pharmacology Pharmacognosy Pharmaceutical Chemistry Subjects to be covered
  3. 3. Pharmaceutics
  4. 4. Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics Physical Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Technology Dispensing Pharmacy & Unit Operations Cosmetics Preparations & Biotechnology Microbiology & Jurisprudence
  5. 5. Main topics to be covered in Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics • Mechanisms of drug absorption • Theories of dissolution • Equations like Fick’s law, Noyes Whitney eqn etc. • Types of models of mechanism of drug release i.e. Zero order, first order, Higuchi Model, Hixon-Crowel, Korsmeyer- Peppas • Dissolution Apparatus Types (according to USP & IP), Testing, Interpretation • BCS classification, Modified BCS classification, Examples of each class • Concepts of Pharmacokinetics • Biological half –life, equations of t1/2 (according to zero order & first order) • Volume of distribution (Vd), equations • Clearance, Total Body Clearance, Renal Clearance, equations • Elimination Rate Constant (Ke), equations
  6. 6. Main topics to be covered in Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics • Relationship between t1/2, Vd, Ke, Cl • GFR, Markers of GFR • Compartment Models ( One, Two & Multi, their eqns) • AUC, AUMC, MRT, Css, eqns • Concepts of loading dose, maintenance dose, eqns • Non-linear Kinetics overview, Michaelis-Menton eqn • Concepts of bioavailability, Types: Absolute, Relative, eqns • Bioequivalence concepts : terms like bioequivalents, Chemical equivalents, Pharmaceutical equivalence, Therapeutic equivalents etc. • IVIVC, levels of correlation • Handerson-Hasselbach eqn, numericals • ICH guidelines, Climate Zones
  7. 7. Suggested Books Brahmankar – Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics
  8. 8. Main topics to be covered in Physical Pharmaceutics • Micromeritics, fundamental properties, derived properties, Particle size distribution, methods to determine particle size, grades of powder ( coarse, fine etc.) • Surface area, eqns, methods to determine surface area, Porosity, eqns of porosity • Types of density, eqns • Carr’s Index, Hausner ratio, Angle of repose ( their relation with type of flow) • Surface tension, Interfacial tension, determination of ST & IT, Instruments used ( Du Nuoy Tensiometer, Stalagmometer etc.), eqns • Wetting, Contact angle ( 0 = complete wetting, 180 = insignificant wetting) • Surfactants, Types, HLB scale, methods of HLB value determination, common brand names of surfactants (Span, Tween, Brij, Myrj etc.) • Rheology ( Full Chapter) Very Important • Colloids, CMC, Kraft’s Point, Schulze-Hardy Rule, Hofmeister or lyotropic series, Gold no.
  9. 9. Main topics to be covered in Physical Pharmaceutics • Donnan membrane effect, Nernst potential, Zeta potential, eqns • Concepts of Thermodynamics, eqns like Gibb’s Energy etc. • Buffers, electrolyte solutions, Isotonic solutions, concepts of molarity, Normality, molality etc. Suggested books RS Aggarwal - Physical Pharmacy Subramanyam – Physical Pharmacy Martin’s Physical Pharmacy
  10. 10. Main topics to be covered in Pharmaceutical Technology • Preformulation, Physical characteristics, Chemical characteristics • Polymorphism, pseudopolymorphism, clathrates • Solubilization • Excipients like antioxidants, bulk forming agents, vehicles, disintegrants, flavours, colorants etc., their types, solubility, properties • Tablets ( Full Chapter) Very Important • Capsules ( Full Chapter) Very Important • Parenterals ( Full Chapter) Very Important Suggested books RS Aggarwal - Physical Pharmacy Lachman Industrial Pharmacy
  11. 11. Main topics to be covered in Dispensing Pharmacy & Unit Operations • Size Reduction, Mechanisms of size reduction, Size reduction equipment, type of mills, their mechanism, Uses, Size separation, Methods • Sterilization (Full Chapter) ( From Cooper and Gunn’s) • Size separation, Methods, • Drying, Dryers, Crystallization – general concepts, Mixing, Equipment • Posology, Alcohol %age calculations, Proof spirit & strength calculations, allegation method, Isotonicity calculations ( 0.52-a/b) • Stoke’s law calculations etc. Suggested books Sukhbir Kaur – Dispensing Pharmacy Cooper and Gunn’s Dispensing Pharmacy Subramanyam - Unit Operations
  12. 12. Main topics to be covered in Cosmetics Preparations & Biotechnology • A brief overview of Mithal’s book for cosmetics • Basic concepts of biotechnology like replication, transcription, translation, PCR • Terms like annealing, de-annealing, re-annealing, DNA melting point, formulas, various temperatures in PCR • Biotechnology derived drugs • In Jurisprudence, all schedules, example of drugs falling in various schedules, all acts, when they were enacted, DPCO ( Drug price control order) Formula
  13. 13. Pharmacology
  14. 14. • An overview of Pharmacological classification, mechanisms and main adverse effects of the drugs from KDT • Main Chapters : • Chapter 1 : Basic Pharmacology from KDT (A-Z) • ANS, CNS, CVS, Chemotherapy, Analgesics
  15. 15. Pharmacognosy
  16. 16. • A brief overview of Kokate • Common names / synonyms of drugs, Biological source, Uses, Adulterants • Types of stomata • Alkaloids, Glycosides, Tannins, Flavonoids, Terpenoids, Volatile oils, Gums & Resins, flavonoids • Knowledge about basic rings in alkaloids, they are derived from which amino acid? • Chemical Identification tests for alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and others • Plant tissue culture ( Full Chapter)
  17. 17. Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  18. 18. Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Organic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry Analytical Chemistry
  19. 19. Organic Chemistry • Stereochemistry (from Morrison & Boyd) • Name reactions Suggested books Bahl and Bahl’s Organic Chemistry Morrison and Boyd’s Organic Chemistry
  20. 20. Analytical Chemistry • Spectroscopy ( general overview) UV, IR, NMR, PMR • Shielding, deshielding groups in NMR • All types of detectors and their mechanisms (e.g. Flame ionisation detector, Thermal conductivity, Electron capture, photoionisation detectors etc.) • General overview of Chromatography • Woodward- Fisher rule • Values of characteristic functional groups in IR ( e.g. –OH, -COOH etc.) • Reference electrodes, indicator electrodes • Beer-Lambert’s law • A general overview of titration ( Karl-Fisher titration, Kjehldahl Method etc.)