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Pharmacology Introduction
Dr.Anubhuti Khare
Assistant professor
Department of pharmacology
Goal
 To impart knowledge, skills and attitudes to the
students so that they can prescribe drugs safely,
effectively and maintain competency in professional
life
 To inculcate in them a rational and scientific basis
of therapeutics
Educational Objectives
• describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of
essential and commonly used drugs
• list the indications, contraindications, interactions and
adverse reactions of commonly used drugs
• indicate the use of appropriate drug in a particular disease
with consideration of its cost, efficacy and safety for
individual needs, and mass therapy under national health
programmes
•integrate the list the drugs of addiction and recommend the
management
•classify environmental and occupational pollutants and state
the management issues
Objectives
• explain pharmacological basis of prescribing drugs in
special medical situations such as pregnancy, lactation,
infancy, old age, renal and hepatic failure
• explain the concept of rational drug therapy in clinical
pharmacology with special focus to usage of
antimicrobial drugs
•prescribe drugs for the control of fertility and be aware
of the effects of drugs on the foetus
• describe the clinical presentation and management of
common poisoning including the bites and stings
Objectives
•state the principles underlying the concept of
`Essential Drugs’
• evaluate the ethics and modalities involved in the
development and introduction of new drugs
•understand principles of Evidence based Medicine
•understand the principles of pharmacoeconomics
Attitudes & Communication skills
•communicate with patients regarding proper use of
drug
•take adequate precaution during prescribing drug(s)
•understand the legal aspects of prescription
•counsel patients for compliance
•take adequate care to write prescriptions legibly
•understand rationality of poly pharmacy
•update themselves regarding recent advances
• Pharmacology is the science of drugs deals with
interaction of exogenously administered chemical
molecules with living systems.
• Greek: Pharmacon—drug; logos—discourse in
Any single chemical substance which can produce a
biological response is a ‘drug’.
• Oswald Schmiedeberg, regarded as the‘father of
pharmacology” fundamental concepts in
pharmacology (1838-1921)
Two important divisions
• Pharmacokinetics --- movement—what body
does to drug -- ADME
• Pharmacodynamics--- what drug does to the
body --- effects of drugs, M/A
Drug
• Any substance or product that is used or is
intended to be used to modify or explore
physiological systems or pathological states
for the benefit of the recipient
Some important defn.
• Clinical Pharmacology: scientific study of
drugs in man. includes pharmacodynamic and
pharmacokinetic investigation in healthy
volunteers and in patients
• Chemotherapy: It is the treatment of systemic
infection/malignancy with specific drugs that
have selective toxicity for the infecting
organism/ malignant cell
• Pharmacy It is the art and science of
compounding and dispensing drugs or
preparing suitable dosage forms for
administration of drugs to man or animals.
• Toxicology It is the study of poisonous effect
of drugs and other chemicals with emphasis
on detection, prevention and treatment of
poisonings.
Drug Nomenclature
• Chemical name
• Generic / Pharmacological name/Non-
proprietary name
• Brand name/Proprietary name
CHEMICAL NAME
• Given according to the structure
• Not convenient for prescription
• Significant for chemist
 e.g. 1-(Isopropylamino)-3-(1-naphthyloxy)
propan-2-ol for propranolol
Non-proprietary name
• It is the name accepted by a competent scientific
body/authority
 United States Adopted Name (USAN) by the USAN council
 BritishApproved name (BAN)
 The nonproprietary names of newer drugs are kept uniform
by an agreement to use the Recommended International
Nonproprietary Name (rINN) in all member countries of the
WHO
 many older drugs still have more than one non-proprietary
names, e.g. ‘meperidine’ and ‘pethidine’ or
‘lidocaine’ and ‘lignocaine’ for the same drugs
Proprietary (Brand) name
• It is the name assigned by the manufacturer(s)
and is his property or trade mark
• One drug may have multiple proprietary
names, e.g. ALTOL, ATCARDIL, ATECOR, ATEN,
BETACARD, LONOL, TENOLOL, TENORMIN for
atenolol from different manufacturers
CHEMICAL NAME GENERIC NAME PROPRIETARY NAME
ACETYL SALICYLIC ACIS ASPIRIN DISPIRIN
AMINO BENZYL PENICILLIN AMPICILLIN ROSCILLIN
DIPHENYL HYDANTOIN PHENYTOIN DILANTIN
Pharmacopoeias
• They contain description of chemical
structure, molecular weight, physical and
chemical characteristics, solubility,
identification and assay methods, standards of
purity, storage conditions and dosage forms of
officially approved drugs in a country
Official code
Formularies
• Produced in easily carried booklet form, they
list indications, dose, dosage forms,
contraindications, precautions, adverse effects
and storage of selected drugs that are
available for medicinal use in a country
British National Formulary (BNF)
National Formulary of India (NFI)
Recommended books for undergraduates
1.Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K.D.Tripathi
(Prescribed)
2.Medical Pharmacology 3rd edition by Dr Padmaja Udaykumar
(Prescribed)
3.Principles of Pharmacology by H.L.Sharma, K.K.Sharma
(Prescribed)
4.Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. R.S Sathoskar and
Bhandarkar (Prescribed)
5.Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Lange publications by
Bertram G Katzung (Reference)
6.Pharmacology by HP Rang. M M Dale, J.M Ritter, P.K.Morore
(reference)
7. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics by Goodman &
Gilman (reference)
Paper I
General Pharmacology, ANS, CVS, blood, diuretics, CNS,
autacoids, Respiratory System
I. Clinical Problem (1) = 5 marks
II. Structured essay questions (1) = 5 marks
III. Short notes (4 x3 = 12 marks)
IV. Give reasons for the following (5 x1 = 5)
V. Give two uses and two adverse effects specific to
the drug (4 x1= 4)
VI. Choose the drug and justify (5 x 1 = 5)
VII. Name two drugs (½ x 8 = 4)
Paper II
(Topics: GIT, Hormones, antibiotics, chemotherapy and miscellaneous)
I. Clinical problem ( 1) = 5 marks
II. Structured essay questions (1) = 5 marks
III. Short notes (4 x3 = 12 marks)
IV. Give reasons for the following (5 x1 = 5)
V. Specify the mechanism of action of the following drugs
(3 x1 = 3)
VI. Specify the spectrum (highly susceptible organism) for
the following agents (2x1=2)
VII. Give two uses and two adverse effects specific to the
drug (4 x1= 4)
VIII. Name two drugs (½ x 8 = 4)
Thanks for your
attention!
Good-bye !

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Pharmacology introduction.pptx

  • 1. Pharmacology Introduction Dr.Anubhuti Khare Assistant professor Department of pharmacology
  • 2. Goal  To impart knowledge, skills and attitudes to the students so that they can prescribe drugs safely, effectively and maintain competency in professional life  To inculcate in them a rational and scientific basis of therapeutics
  • 3. Educational Objectives • describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of essential and commonly used drugs • list the indications, contraindications, interactions and adverse reactions of commonly used drugs • indicate the use of appropriate drug in a particular disease with consideration of its cost, efficacy and safety for individual needs, and mass therapy under national health programmes •integrate the list the drugs of addiction and recommend the management •classify environmental and occupational pollutants and state the management issues
  • 4. Objectives • explain pharmacological basis of prescribing drugs in special medical situations such as pregnancy, lactation, infancy, old age, renal and hepatic failure • explain the concept of rational drug therapy in clinical pharmacology with special focus to usage of antimicrobial drugs •prescribe drugs for the control of fertility and be aware of the effects of drugs on the foetus • describe the clinical presentation and management of common poisoning including the bites and stings
  • 5. Objectives •state the principles underlying the concept of `Essential Drugs’ • evaluate the ethics and modalities involved in the development and introduction of new drugs •understand principles of Evidence based Medicine •understand the principles of pharmacoeconomics
  • 6. Attitudes & Communication skills •communicate with patients regarding proper use of drug •take adequate precaution during prescribing drug(s) •understand the legal aspects of prescription •counsel patients for compliance •take adequate care to write prescriptions legibly •understand rationality of poly pharmacy •update themselves regarding recent advances
  • 7. • Pharmacology is the science of drugs deals with interaction of exogenously administered chemical molecules with living systems. • Greek: Pharmacon—drug; logos—discourse in Any single chemical substance which can produce a biological response is a ‘drug’. • Oswald Schmiedeberg, regarded as the‘father of pharmacology” fundamental concepts in pharmacology (1838-1921)
  • 8. Two important divisions • Pharmacokinetics --- movement—what body does to drug -- ADME • Pharmacodynamics--- what drug does to the body --- effects of drugs, M/A
  • 9. Drug • Any substance or product that is used or is intended to be used to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient
  • 10. Some important defn. • Clinical Pharmacology: scientific study of drugs in man. includes pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic investigation in healthy volunteers and in patients • Chemotherapy: It is the treatment of systemic infection/malignancy with specific drugs that have selective toxicity for the infecting organism/ malignant cell
  • 11. • Pharmacy It is the art and science of compounding and dispensing drugs or preparing suitable dosage forms for administration of drugs to man or animals. • Toxicology It is the study of poisonous effect of drugs and other chemicals with emphasis on detection, prevention and treatment of poisonings.
  • 12. Drug Nomenclature • Chemical name • Generic / Pharmacological name/Non- proprietary name • Brand name/Proprietary name
  • 13. CHEMICAL NAME • Given according to the structure • Not convenient for prescription • Significant for chemist  e.g. 1-(Isopropylamino)-3-(1-naphthyloxy) propan-2-ol for propranolol
  • 14. Non-proprietary name • It is the name accepted by a competent scientific body/authority  United States Adopted Name (USAN) by the USAN council  BritishApproved name (BAN)  The nonproprietary names of newer drugs are kept uniform by an agreement to use the Recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN) in all member countries of the WHO  many older drugs still have more than one non-proprietary names, e.g. ‘meperidine’ and ‘pethidine’ or ‘lidocaine’ and ‘lignocaine’ for the same drugs
  • 15. Proprietary (Brand) name • It is the name assigned by the manufacturer(s) and is his property or trade mark • One drug may have multiple proprietary names, e.g. ALTOL, ATCARDIL, ATECOR, ATEN, BETACARD, LONOL, TENOLOL, TENORMIN for atenolol from different manufacturers
  • 16. CHEMICAL NAME GENERIC NAME PROPRIETARY NAME ACETYL SALICYLIC ACIS ASPIRIN DISPIRIN AMINO BENZYL PENICILLIN AMPICILLIN ROSCILLIN DIPHENYL HYDANTOIN PHENYTOIN DILANTIN
  • 17. Pharmacopoeias • They contain description of chemical structure, molecular weight, physical and chemical characteristics, solubility, identification and assay methods, standards of purity, storage conditions and dosage forms of officially approved drugs in a country Official code
  • 18. Formularies • Produced in easily carried booklet form, they list indications, dose, dosage forms, contraindications, precautions, adverse effects and storage of selected drugs that are available for medicinal use in a country British National Formulary (BNF) National Formulary of India (NFI)
  • 19. Recommended books for undergraduates 1.Essentials of Medical Pharmacology by K.D.Tripathi (Prescribed) 2.Medical Pharmacology 3rd edition by Dr Padmaja Udaykumar (Prescribed) 3.Principles of Pharmacology by H.L.Sharma, K.K.Sharma (Prescribed) 4.Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapeutics. R.S Sathoskar and Bhandarkar (Prescribed) 5.Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Lange publications by Bertram G Katzung (Reference) 6.Pharmacology by HP Rang. M M Dale, J.M Ritter, P.K.Morore (reference) 7. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics by Goodman & Gilman (reference)
  • 20. Paper I General Pharmacology, ANS, CVS, blood, diuretics, CNS, autacoids, Respiratory System I. Clinical Problem (1) = 5 marks II. Structured essay questions (1) = 5 marks III. Short notes (4 x3 = 12 marks) IV. Give reasons for the following (5 x1 = 5) V. Give two uses and two adverse effects specific to the drug (4 x1= 4) VI. Choose the drug and justify (5 x 1 = 5) VII. Name two drugs (½ x 8 = 4)
  • 21. Paper II (Topics: GIT, Hormones, antibiotics, chemotherapy and miscellaneous) I. Clinical problem ( 1) = 5 marks II. Structured essay questions (1) = 5 marks III. Short notes (4 x3 = 12 marks) IV. Give reasons for the following (5 x1 = 5) V. Specify the mechanism of action of the following drugs (3 x1 = 3) VI. Specify the spectrum (highly susceptible organism) for the following agents (2x1=2) VII. Give two uses and two adverse effects specific to the drug (4 x1= 4) VIII. Name two drugs (½ x 8 = 4)