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Final ub role of energy efficiency in smart and sustainable


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Smart and sustainable habitat design has direct impact on energy and resource consumption. To achieve energy efficiency in India, energy consumption needs to be reduced through conservation, adoption of energy efficiency measures and exploration of renewable energy generation resources.

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Final ub role of energy efficiency in smart and sustainable

  3. 3. SMART GROWTH/ DEVELOPMENT Smart Growth or development is a theory of land development that accepts that growth and development will continue to occur, and so seeks to direct it in an intentional, comprehensive way. Its proponents include urban planners, architects, developers, community activists, and historic preservationists. The biggest question it poses is …… and where should new development be accommodated ? 3
  4. 4. SMART GROWTH/ DEVELOPMENT • Smart growth is a development that serves the economy, the community, and the environment. • Smart growth means – Developing sustainable communities that provide a greater range of transportation and housing choices . – Redeveloping underutilized sites and conserving farm land . – Concentrating growth in compact walk able urban centres to avoid sprawl, thereby saving on services, reducing pollution & providing better health. – Equitable distribution of costs and benefits of development. – Preserving and enhancing natural and cultural resources and promote public health. 4
  5. 5. APPROACH TO SMART GROWTH/ DEVELOPMENT Smart growth can be achieved by • Mix land use and compact building designs. • Increasing housing density along transit nodes. • Restrictions or limitations on suburban design forms (e.g., detached houses on individual lots, strip malls and surface parking lots) supporting existing communities. • Enhancing economic competitiveness. • Providing more transportation choices. • Promoting equitable and affordable housing by redefining housing affordability and making the development process transparent. • Encouraging community and stakeholder collaboration in development decisions 5
  6. 6. CRITICISM OF SMART GROWTH/ DEVELOPMENT • The phrase "smart growth" implies that other growth and development theories are not "smart". • Smart growth policies disfavour minorities / people with average incomes and the poor due to driven up housing prices. • There is no evidence after ten years that smart-growth have had any effect on development patterns. • “Smart growth" is mostly an illusion. 6
  7. 7. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT • Energy is the most essential factor for sustainable development and poverty eradication. • India has 306.2 million people without electricity, and 705 million people who rely on wood and biomass for cooking. • 4.3 million people are dying prematurely ( mostly women and children) every year due to indoor pollution resulting from cooking and heating using unsustainable fuels. The challenge lies in finding ways to reconcile the necessity and demand for modern and sustainable energy services. their impact on the environment and the global natural resources. 7
  8. 8. India accounts for around 4.1 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions india has ratified paris climate deal on 2.10.16 -- 62nd country 8
  9. 9. ENERGY scenario in india • India’s Imports of oil and coal have been increasing at the rate of 7% and 16% per annum respectively in the last decade. • By the end of 2030, 250 million new urbanites are expected to join Indian cities. • The electrical energy demand will reach about 500 GW by 2030 with an installed capacity requirement of 800 - 900GW. • Global CO2 emission is growing at 1.3% per year. • To reduce the dependency on imported energy sources. Need to switch over to other non polluting sources of electricity generation as human habitat needs energy and resources to survive and sustain its living standard. 9
  10. 10. 24x7 POWER FOR ALL is a Joint initiative of Government of India (GoI) and State Governments/Union Territories (UTs) with the objective to ensure availability of 24x7 power supply to all households, industries, commercial businesses, public needs & any other electricity consuming entities and adequate supply to agriculture consumers as per the their policies by FY 2018-19. 10
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  14. 14. Energy Savings in Industries Sector Energy Saving (lakh toe1) Thermal Power Plants 32.11 Iron & Steel 14.86 Cement 8.16 Fertilizer 4.78 Aluminium 4.56 Pulp & Paper 1.19 Textile 0.66 Chlor-Alkali 0.54 66.86 Thermal power plants form 50% share in PAT. Power plants older than 30 years having very low efficiency need to be replaced gradually with energy efficient ones . % Saving Targets envisaged under PAT The total energy saving target envisaged from all the PAT industries under PAT cycle 1 (2015), is 66.86 lakh toe. 1 toe = 11630 kWh 14
  15. 15. Energy consumption in buildingsector • Residential and commercial buildings account for almost 29% of total electricity consumption. • Planning and Construction of Energy efficient buildings and carrying out major retrofits could save 2988 MW of generation capacity from 2010 to 2030. • This can further be complemented by constructing net zero buildings and making best use of renewable resources like sun and wind. It will further add to; – Local employment – Capacity building and skill up gradation – Export potential – Industrial growth – Health improvement 15
  16. 16. Consumption andpossible savings in residential sector Fans consume 34% energy Lighting consumes 28% energy. Possible reduction by Energy efficient fans 20-40% by use of CFLs & LEDs 20-40% 16
  17. 17. Consumption and possible savings in commercial sector Possible reduction HVAC - 20-60% Lighting - 20-50%, Electronic & others - 20-70%. Consumption 17
  18. 18. ENERGY SAVINGS FOR BUILDINGS • Reducing heating demand – Heating demand can be reduced by limiting the exposed surface area of the building, improving the insulation of the building’s envelope, reducing ventilation losses by selecting efficient heating systems with effective controls. • Reducing cooling demand – Energy use in typical air-conditioned office buildings is approximately twice of naturally ventilated office buildings. Cooling demand can be reduced by controlling solar gains through glazing, reducing internal heat gains, setting AC thermostat at 25-26oC instead of 23-24oC, making use of thermal mass and night ventilation, reducing lighting loads and installing effective lighting controls. • Reducing the energy requirements for ventilation – The main use of energy for both mechanical cooling and for air conditioning is the fans needed to circulate the air which can be reduced by designing the system to reduce pressure drops, selecting efficient fans, utilizing variable speed fans to respond to varying load requirements, avoiding excessive air supply volumes, etc. 19
  19. 19. ENERGY SAVINGS FOR BUILDINGS • Reducing energy use for lighting – This can be accomplished through making maximum use of daylight while avoiding excessive solar heat gain, using task lighting ,installing energy-efficient luminaries, selecting lamps with a high luminous efficacy, providing effective controls like occupancy sensors. • Reducing energy used for heating water – This can be achieved by installing time controls, and setting them to correctly reflect the hours of hot water requirement, replacing any damaged or missing insulation from hot water pipes and cylinders and by solar water heating. 20
  20. 20. Energy saving in some of the green buildings in India 21
  21. 21. Possible savings in Other sectors • Up to 30% energy saving can be achieved by adopting smart street light controls alone. Considering 50% saving potential in street lights, 300 crore units of electricity can be saved per annum bringing saving worth Rs. 6,000 crore per annum. Similarly savings envisaged per annum – in transportation sector, Rs. 53,600 crore, – in power transmission & distribution, Rs. 35,000-40,000crore, – in agriculture pumps, Rs. 16,500crore, – in SME, Rs. 15,900crore – in sugar industry, saving worth Rs. 6,750 crore. – in ceramic industries, Rs. 714crore, – in coal mining, Rs. 300crore, • Net saving envisaged in Indian railway sector is 0.34 million toe and 2.07 billion kWh. 22
  22. 22. Energy Efficiency Investment Potential over 5 years Rs.2,68,000crore in transportation sector transmission and distribution sector Rs,2,00,000crore. Building sector i.e. Commercial & residential sectors Rs. 1,09,000crore 23
  23. 23. Measures for energy savings • Mandatory waste heat recovery system (WHRS) in industries like steel & iron sector, thermal power plant, cement industry, sugar industry, and various SMEs. • Use of energy efficient appliances/machinery in all the sectors. • Adopting energy efficient lighting system in residential, commercial and industrial sectors. • Promotion & Use of energy efficient & environmental friendly electrical / hybrid vehicles . • Making energy audit mandatory in all the industrial, commercial and other sectors. • Carry out capacity building and training programmes regarding energy efficiency for different corporate sectors/industries. • Promoting greater awareness for energy conservation and energy efficiency by including them in education curriculum, both at school and college levels. • Ensure compliance of various energy efficiency policies and regulation through various national and state level certification agencies. 24
  24. 24. EXPECTED SAVINGS FROM ENERGY MEASURES It is expected that with the proposed energy saving measures, about 246 billion units of electricity, 88 million tonnes of coal and 12 billion litres of oil can be saved per annum. This will also help in reducing CO2 emissions. 25
  25. 25. initiatives by govt. of India • GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) • Indian Green building Council (IGBC) provides green Building rating system, • Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) 2007 provides design norms for Building envelope, including thermal performance requirements for walls, roofs, and windows, Lighting system ,HVAC system, Electrical system . ECBC-compliant bldgs. use 40 to 60% less energy than conventional buildings. • BEE ; Star Rating of various equipments from 1 to 5. • PAT i.e. Perform Achieve and Trade mechanism to enhance cost effectiveness of improvements in energy efficiency in energy intensive large industries . • RAILSAVER to improve energy efficiency in Indian Railways to save energy up to 15% by the year 2020, through improved energy efficiency measures. 26
  26. 26. Government of India is contemplating on increasing the investment in R&D from 1% to 2%of GDP It should be spent on Economizing and fine tuning of inventions already made rather than new inventions 27
  27. 27. INITIATIVES BY states of india • Many states are mandating / promoting use of ECBC and energy efficient building design in government buildings in new construction as well as for retrofitting. • Use of energy efficient fittings & star rated products, solar lanterns, solar water heaters, roof top solar PV and net metering. • Obtaining ratings of government buildings. • Compulsory energy audit for industries, commercial buildings and non domestic high rise buildings every 3 years. • Industries with load of 2000kva & more, to produce 5% using renewable energy. • Energy conservation awards. • Awareness about energy conservation through multiplex halls and including the topic in school curriculum. • Replacement of old / in-efficient equipments. • Charging green cess from polluting industries. • Promotion of non conventional energy i.e. solar, wind and bio-mass. 28
  28. 28. • Canada; Enforcement of regulations for minimum energy performance levels, and labeling of energy-using products. • Japan; In housing sector, all buildings with 300 sq.m. of floor space or more need to adopt energy conservation measures. – Energy consumption in industrial sector, to be reduced by minimum 1% per year. – all newly constructed public buildings to be ‘Zero Energy Building’. • Great Britain; every home to have a smart energy meter in 2019 and all new non-domestic buildings to be zero carbon from 2019 • Germany; has initiated Labeling for cars, products and buildings. • Italy; At least 50% of primary energy consumption for water heating to be obtained from renewable energy . • France; All new buildings after 1st January 2013 to have energy consumption below a threshold of 50 kWh/m2/year . – 20% reduction of CO2 emissions by 2020 . – Incentives to consumer for ultra-low emission vehicles . – Two million electric and hybrid cars by 2020. • China; Shut down of Inefficient power plants and their replacement with state of the art facilities. INITIATIVES BY other countries 29
  29. 29. RENEWABLE ENERGY INSTALLED CAPACITY IN INDIA AS ON 2014 • India is on 5th number in wind - 22.6 GW • 11th in solar -3.3GW capacity. Source wise renewable capacity is given in table below. 30
  30. 30. SOLAR PV POTENTIAL • Limitless • Clean • Everywhere • Free Not even one percent of India’s total solar energy potential has been harvested till date, Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) has revealed. National Institute of Solar Energy has estimated India's solar power potential as 749 GW. 31
  31. 31. SOLAR ROOFTOP Solar energy from an energy security perspective is the most secure of all sources since it is abundantly available. Theoretically, a small fraction of the total incident solar energy, if captured effectively, can meet the entire country’s power requirements.Presently, 360 MW of solar rooftop projects have been sanctioned by MNRE and 49.677 MW have been commissioned. 32
  32. 32. WIND ENERGY POTENTIAL IN INDIA • Centre for Wind Energy Technology has reassessed India’s on shore wind power potential as 103 GW (at 80 metres height and 2% land availability). India has significant off shore wind power potential - Offshore wind potential of Tamil Nadu estimated as 127 GW at 80 m height in a WISE study .It is one of the most environment friendly, clean and safe energy resources. It has the lowest gestation period as compared to conventional energy. Operating costs and maintenance costs are low. 33
  33. 33. BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL IN INDIA It has a potential of 19,500 MW (3,500 MW from bagasse based cogeneration and 16,000 MW from surplus biomass). Currently, India has 537 MW commissioned and 536 MW generation plants under construction. 34
  34. 34. HYDRO ENERGY POTENTIAL IN INDIA • India ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on global scale. • India’s economically exploitable and viable hydro potential is about 148,701 MW. • In addition, 6,780 MW from small, mini, and micro Hydel schemes (<25 MW) have been assessed. • 56 sites for pumped storage schemes with an aggregate installed capacity of 94,000 MW have been identified. 35
  35. 35. RENEWABLE ENERGY INITIATIVEs BY CPWD • All buildings have to be minimum 3 star GRIHA rated with solar rooftop panels and energy efficient fittings. • Construction of Net zero energy buildings. • Installations of solar roof top PV in all existing major buildings. 36
  36. 36. Solar power in transport sector The plane uses so little energy that with the energy we collect during the day from the sun, we can fly through the night," The solar-panel powered train has six coaches, with each coach fitted with twelve solar panels. 37
  37. 37. WORLD'S FIRST AIRPORT, COMPLETELY OPERATES ON SOLARPOWER • Cochin International airport is the country's first airport in the world that completely operates on solar power. • Hon.Chief Minister Mr.Oommen Chandy inaugurated the 12 MWp solar power plant, on 18th August 2015, comprising of 46,150 solar panels laid across 45 acres near cargo complex. • Plant is producing 50,000 to 60,000 units of electricity per day against Consumption of around 48,000 units. • This plant will produce 18 million units of power from ‘ sun ‘ annually-the power equivalent to feed 10,000 homes for one year. • Over the next 25 years, this green power project will avoid carbon dioxide emissions by more than 3 lakh metric tons, which is equivalent to planting 3 million trees or not driving 750 miles. 38
  38. 38. SMART DEVELOPMENT AND ENERGY • Energy is the basic requirement for smart development. • Smart development will require 24x7 electric supply and thus availability of clean energy will be the basic requirement. • India has high potential of clean energy and thus emphasis will have to be given on its generation through various sources. • It’s use will also help in reduction of CO2 emissions and climate change. • It is essential that integrated policies are adopted in generation and consumption of energy. Government of India has already announced various policies in this regard. • Excess energy when generated can be connected to smart grids to make it available in all parts of the country and even abroad. 39
  39. 39. Conclusions • Energy efficiency is the easiest way to reduce the demand - supply gap. • There is huge scope for improving energy efficiency levels in Indian industries, thermal power plants , household, agriculture, and transport sector. • Use of renewable energy sources, mandating net zero buildings and single window clearance for energy efficiency projects can convert the dream of smart & sustainable development into reality. • Promoting awareness about energy conservation and energy efficiency, mandating use of BEE standard energy efficient pumps in agriculture sector, as well as shut down of power plants having very low efficiency and gradually replacing them with energy efficient ones is liable to contribute to good amount of energy savings. • Use of renewable energy potential and ultimately complete shift to renewable is a must for smart & sustainable development. 40
  40. 40. THANK YOU 41
  41. 41. REFERENCES • • Energy efficiency opportunities in India by PowerGrid Corporation of India Limited. • gytrends/currentusage/renewable/Renewable -Energy-Potential-for-India.pdf • • nce/indias-solar-energy-potential-still-under-one- percent-study/ • ndia-cochin-solar-powered-airport/ • 42