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Ret leccture 2 energy scenario in rural india

B.k. Das
B.k. Das

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Energy Scenario in Rural
India
Rural Energy Technology
Dr. Basudev Pradhan
Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India
About 668 million or around 70% of the Indians (in 6.4 lakh villages) live in rural
areas and continue to use animal dung, agricultural waste and fuel wood as fuel for
cooking
The thermal (energy) efficiency of these traditional sources is very low (15%)
Particulate matter in the Indian households burning biomass is 2000 μg/cubic m
which is much higher than the permissible 150 μg/cubic m,
Use of traditional fuel is estimated to cause around 400,000 premature annual
deaths due to various respiratory problems.
75% of rural households depend on firewood for cooking (and 9% each on, dung-
cake and LPG) as against 22% of urban households using firewood for cooking,
another 10% on kerosene and about 57% on LPG.
Source: NSSO report no. 511, 61st Round, 2004-05
For domestic lighting 55% of rural households depend on electricity and
another 44% on kerosene, while in urban areas dependency is 89% on
electricity and 10% on Kerosene.
Nevertheless, around 412 million Indians have no access to electricity
although records tell that around 82% of the villages (4.89 lakh) were
electrified as on 31.12.2008 (source: Ministry of Power), only about 44% of
the rural households have access to electricity compared to around 87% in
urban India.
Definition of electrification: “A village will be deemed to be electrified if
electricity is used in the inhabited locality within the revenue boundary of
the village for any purpose what-so-ever” According to this definition, a
single pole and a 40W bulb in the local police station or pacnchayat office
would mean a village is electrified, irrespective of the actual number of
households of the village using electricity.
Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India
Source: NSSO report no. 511, 61st Round, 2004-05
However, the new definition of an electrified village issued by MOP, vide letter No.
42/1/2001-D(RE) dated 5th February 2004 and its corrigendum vide letter No. 42/1/2001-
D(RE) dated 17th February 2004 seems to have broadened the definition of an electrified
village. According to the new definition, a village will be considered electrified if,
Basic infrastructure such as Distribution Transformer and Distribution lines are
provided in the inhabited locality as well as the Dalit Basti hamlet where it exists.
Electricity is provided to public places like Schools, Panchayat Office, Health
Centers, Dispensaries, Community centers etc.
The number of households electrified should be at least 10% of the total number
of households in the village
The power generation capacity of a state seems to be delinked to availability of power to
rural households. As for example even though Jharkhand is a "power-surplus" state
around 90% rural households have no electricity.
Plausibly, less priority to rural areas has legitimate technical and economic reasons like
high cost of supply and maintenance, payment default, electricity theft, poor
infrastructure etc. make the electrification of far flung villages through the preferred
mode of grid financially unviable.
Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India
A misinterpretation of the rural energy needs is also to be blamed for the
current state of affairs in the rural energy sector. ‘Rural’ is usually equated with
‘agriculture’ and ‘rural energy’ with ‘cooking and lighting’; which undoubtedly
misses out the energy requirements of various other rural facets like rural
schools (and its students) and rural enterprises etc.
As per District Information System for Education (DISE), around 87% of the
schools in the country are located in rural areas
(http://www.dise.in/downloads/AnaReport2006-07/School Related
Indicators.pdf).
Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India
Urban-rural gap in literacy rates
2011 Census
literacy rate among
urban population is -84.1%
rural population- 67.8%
Kerala is the most literate state in India, with
93.91% literacy, Lakshadweep at 92.28%.
Bihar is the least literate state in India, with a
literacy of 63.82%
Slightly less than half of all Indian illiterates
(48.12%) are in the six Hindi-speaking states of
Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya
Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh

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Ret leccture 2 energy scenario in rural india

  • 1. Energy Scenario in Rural India Rural Energy Technology Dr. Basudev Pradhan
  • 2. Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India About 668 million or around 70% of the Indians (in 6.4 lakh villages) live in rural areas and continue to use animal dung, agricultural waste and fuel wood as fuel for cooking The thermal (energy) efficiency of these traditional sources is very low (15%) Particulate matter in the Indian households burning biomass is 2000 μg/cubic m which is much higher than the permissible 150 μg/cubic m, Use of traditional fuel is estimated to cause around 400,000 premature annual deaths due to various respiratory problems. 75% of rural households depend on firewood for cooking (and 9% each on, dung- cake and LPG) as against 22% of urban households using firewood for cooking, another 10% on kerosene and about 57% on LPG. Source: NSSO report no. 511, 61st Round, 2004-05
  • 3. For domestic lighting 55% of rural households depend on electricity and another 44% on kerosene, while in urban areas dependency is 89% on electricity and 10% on Kerosene. Nevertheless, around 412 million Indians have no access to electricity although records tell that around 82% of the villages (4.89 lakh) were electrified as on 31.12.2008 (source: Ministry of Power), only about 44% of the rural households have access to electricity compared to around 87% in urban India. Definition of electrification: “A village will be deemed to be electrified if electricity is used in the inhabited locality within the revenue boundary of the village for any purpose what-so-ever” According to this definition, a single pole and a 40W bulb in the local police station or pacnchayat office would mean a village is electrified, irrespective of the actual number of households of the village using electricity. Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India Source: NSSO report no. 511, 61st Round, 2004-05
  • 4. However, the new definition of an electrified village issued by MOP, vide letter No. 42/1/2001-D(RE) dated 5th February 2004 and its corrigendum vide letter No. 42/1/2001- D(RE) dated 17th February 2004 seems to have broadened the definition of an electrified village. According to the new definition, a village will be considered electrified if, Basic infrastructure such as Distribution Transformer and Distribution lines are provided in the inhabited locality as well as the Dalit Basti hamlet where it exists. Electricity is provided to public places like Schools, Panchayat Office, Health Centers, Dispensaries, Community centers etc. The number of households electrified should be at least 10% of the total number of households in the village The power generation capacity of a state seems to be delinked to availability of power to rural households. As for example even though Jharkhand is a "power-surplus" state around 90% rural households have no electricity. Plausibly, less priority to rural areas has legitimate technical and economic reasons like high cost of supply and maintenance, payment default, electricity theft, poor infrastructure etc. make the electrification of far flung villages through the preferred mode of grid financially unviable. Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India
  • 5. A misinterpretation of the rural energy needs is also to be blamed for the current state of affairs in the rural energy sector. ‘Rural’ is usually equated with ‘agriculture’ and ‘rural energy’ with ‘cooking and lighting’; which undoubtedly misses out the energy requirements of various other rural facets like rural schools (and its students) and rural enterprises etc. As per District Information System for Education (DISE), around 87% of the schools in the country are located in rural areas (http://www.dise.in/downloads/AnaReport2006-07/School Related Indicators.pdf). Some hard facts of energy scenario in rural India
  • 6. Urban-rural gap in literacy rates 2011 Census literacy rate among urban population is -84.1% rural population- 67.8% Kerala is the most literate state in India, with 93.91% literacy, Lakshadweep at 92.28%. Bihar is the least literate state in India, with a literacy of 63.82% Slightly less than half of all Indian illiterates (48.12%) are in the six Hindi-speaking states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
  • 7. As per District Information System for Education (DISE), around 87% of the schools in the country are located in rural areas Percentage of schools in rural areas
  • 8. Rural areas Energy Consumption in India
  • 9. Key areas of energy usages in Rural areas Food: preparations & storages lighting Transporting water: Treatment, Transport. Communication  Farming  Construction Heating and Drying  manufacturing  Education  Health  Recreation
  • 10. Pattern Of Energy Consumption in Rural areas In rural areas, power is consumed in three main ways: 1. Domestic consumption  For cooking  For lightening 2.Industrial consumption  For Micro Small and Medium Enterprises  For Big Industry 3.On-farm energy consumption Energy consumption for farming
  • 11. Consumption of energy in Rural India for cooking Different types of energy sources are used for cooking in rural India:  Firewood and chips  Dung cake  LPG
  • 12. Consumption of energy in Rural India for cooking Consumption of firewood for domestic cooking across major states of India : NSSO report no. 511, 61st Round, 2004-05
  • 13. Consumption of dung cake and LPG for domestic cooking rural India Consumption of dung cake and LPG for domestic cooking rural India
  • 14. Fig : Break-up of households (per 1000) of each social group by primary source of energy used for cooking in Rural India
  • 15. Consumption of energy in Rural India for lighting Distribution of households (per 1000) in different employment classes by primary source of energy used for lighting
  • 16. Fig 6: Distribution of households (per 1000) in each MPCE class by primary source of energy used for lighting (MPCE: Monthly per Capita Expenditure) Source: NSSO report no. 511, 61st Round, 2004-05
  • 17. the status of consumption of energy for lighting in rural India Major source for lighting are kerosene and electricity. As a whole 55% of rural habitants are using electricity and 44% are using kerosene for lighting their house. And also higher MPCE class tends to use electricity for lighting.
  • 18. Consumption of energy in Rural Micro Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Micro and small enterprises are major part of Indian economy Registered Units (44.52% ) Un-Registered Units(54.68%) Approximately 46% of un- registered and 35% of registered rural MSME have no access to power Sources of Energy for Indian Rural MSMEs Source: MSME 3rd Census, 2001-02
  • 19. Consumption of energy in Agriculture (rural) Agriculture’ is considered to be synonymous with ‘rural’, especially in countries like India where agricultural mechanization is not so much advanced. It is commonly believed that agriculture is one of the main power consumption areas in rural India. The percentage of mechanical and electrical power used in agriculture increased from 40% to 84% during the years 1971-2003 first five year plan, power consumption in Indian agriculture was 316 GWh (3.97% of total power consumption in India). In 2005 total power consumption in agriculture stood 88,555 GWh, which is approximately 22.93% of total energy consumption in India. Gujarat (46%), Andhra Pradesh (43%) and Haryana (45%) are the leading states regarding electricity power consumption in Agriculture (TERI energy data directory & yearbook, 2005, P: 240).
  • 20. Rural energy needs perception of rural energy defining the goals as well as strategies of India’s energy security, shifting from centralized mega- thermal/hydro/nuclear plants etc, and, more importantly concentrating in renewable and sustainable sources of energy.

Editor's Notes

  1. In rural India, firewood and chips continued to be the most important source of cooking energy. As on 2004-05, around 75% of the rural households are using firewood and chips for cooking. But the positive signal is the decrease in the number of households using firewood and chips for cooking by around 1% during the period 1999-2005.
  2. The next important sources of energy in rural India are dung cake and LPG. Both these sources of energy are used by around 9% of the rural households in 2004-05. Nationally, use of LPG has increased by around 3 percentage points during 1999-2005; Punjab recorded 14% increase in the use of LPG during the same period and is the highest among all states
  3. If we consider the source of energy used for cooking according to social group, it is apparent that use of firewood and chips is highest among the rural Scheduled Tribes, around 90% of the households in this category use firewood and chips for cooking.