Renewable Energy And Social Enterprise In India Reasearch 2
Renewable Energy & Social Enterprise in India.Research Project withSkoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship - SBS. Oxford.Kaustubh Ambavanekar- EMBA-6Said Business School, Oxford.
IntroductionThis is a research initiative to explore Social Enterprise (SE) activities in Renewable Energy(RE). It illustrates that collaborative learning-by-doing by individuals across organisationalboundaries is key for the successful implementation of RE projects with help of SEs.
Purpose“After years ofattempting to developrenewable energy (RE)mainly through largeprivate sectorinitiatives, it is essentialto broadened itsapproach to providemore support for otheractors in this sector. Thepurpose of this researchis to assess what rolesocial enterprise (SE)activities can play in thedevelopment of the REsector in the India.”
Objectives- Social Enterprise and Renewable Energy Social enterprises can provide innovative solutions to achieve the global ambition to dramatically increase the proportion of the world energy that comes from renewable sources most effectively. The strategy is to make substantial use of social enterprise models to deliver renewable energy, with multiple benefits, learning from successes domestically and internationally. The specific steps suggested would enable the further development of the UK’s renewable capacity to make the most of the opportunities social enterprise business models provide. That the Renewable Energy Strategy be implemented in the full context of the government’s commitments on climate change and its other strategic objectives. The programme should aim to promote sustainable business growth and new business opportunities by enabling the establishment or further development of social enterprises based on community scale renewable energy installations.
MissionSocial enterprise models need to offercommunities an opportunity tocontribute to changing the economicsof climate change as well asadvocating and informing changes inindividual behaviours. They need tofrequently deliver environmentaloutcomes simultaneously to multiplesocial benefits, such as employmentfor those otherwise excluded from thelabour market and new communityassets. These models should presentopportunities for environmentalorganisations to be more financiallysustainable, for existing socialenterprises to diversify and offerenvironmental services and additionalmeans for policy makers to delivertheir environmental objectives.
Vision Environmental social enterprises can operate businesses ranging from community renewable energy through re-use and recycling to environmental education.
Drivers for Renewable Energy Social Enterprise (RESE)
Primary indicators 1.6 billion people- a quarter of humanity - live without electricity. Region Millions without electricity (world bank development indicators 2008) South Asia 706 Sub-Saharan Africa 547 East Asia 224 Other 101 Water problems affect half of humanity: Some 1.1 billion people in developing countries have inadequate access to water, and 2.6 billion lack basic sanitation. In developing countries some 2.5 billion people are forced to rely on biomass-fuelwood, charcoal and animal dung-to meet their energy needs for cooking. In sub-Saharan Africa, over 80 percent of the population depends on traditional biomass for cooking, as do over half of the populations of India and China. Indoor air pollution resulting from the use of solid fuels [by poorer segments of society] is a major killer. It claims the lives of 1.5 million people each year, more than half of them below the age of five: that is 4000 deaths a day. To put this number in context, it exceeds total deaths from malaria and rivals the number of deaths from tuberculosis. Approximately half the world’s population now live in cities and towns. In 2005, one out of three urban dwellers (approximately 1 billion people) was living in slum conditions. Source: World Bank Data & Statistics, accessed March 3, 2008
Rationale“ Renewable energy technologies are essential contributorsto the energy supply portfolio, as they contribute to worldenergy security, reduce dependency on fossil fuels, and provideopportunities for mitigating greenhouse gases. Climate-disrupting fossil fuels are being replaced by clean, climate-stabilizing, non-depletable sources of energy”
RESE Applications Energy Solar, Wind, Hydro ,Bio Fuel And Geothermal energy Waste Mgmt Agriculture Recycling, BioTechnology, Access and storage Access to clean water, Irrigation Social Enterprise Sustainability Education Development Learning & Manufacturing development in Rural areas Resources Finance Microfinance
Environmental sustainability is important to us all. Sustaining the quality of our natural environment and tackling the problem of climate change is a huge challenge. Many social enterprises work to provide environmental services including renewable energy generation, recycling and reuse, community transport, education and awareness raising, and sustainable land management.Environmental Sustainability
Many more have environmental concerns as part of their core social values and all social enterprises canwork to improve their environmental impact.Environmental social enterprises offer the world a model where the results are truly triple bottom line:environmentally, socially and economically sustainable. As awareness of the importance of combatingclimate change and pressures on resources increase, there are tremendous opportunities for socialenterprise to make an even greater contribution.Environmental considerations span the full remit of the Government, from national carbon reductiontargets to local authority commissioning of waste services. It is important to make clear to theGovernment the key role that social enterprise can and should play in delivering on these aspirations. Environmental Sustainability Results
An inside look at the making of a global energy service organization that produces windturbines locally to bring sustainable energy services and economic opportunity tounderserved regions of the world. Starting with proof of concept in Nicaragua, Mathias Craigand blue Energy have their sights set on making a huge impact on the lives of the world’spoor.RESE Organisations
The Challenge: Change, Measure, SustainChange: Measure:From population growth to Social businesses, green initiatives, and sustainability may seeminnovations in renewable laudable in their own right, but-energies, we live in a world ofconstant change. Is it now time 1. How do we measure progress?for businesses and individuals to 2. And when we are talking about a sustainable future.reassess their relationships with 3. what constitutes success? Perhaps more than any other, this is anatural resources and the key issue facing governments, businesses, non-profits, andglobalized community? And, as communities today.some experts have suggested, canwe do so profitably? The idea of Sustain:change will be put to the test aswe reassess current capitalistic Sustainability has become a useful buzzword, but in the context ofstructures and re-evaluate status rapid global change and technological innovation, what doesquo business models. sustainability actually mean? And how, as global citizens and professionals, can we operate in ways that ensure the world’s resources for future generations?
Electricity Shortage India suffers from a severe shortage of electric capacity. According to the World Bank, roughly 40 percent of residences inIndia are without electricity. In addition, blackouts are a common occurrence throughout the country’s main cities. One-third of Indian businesses believe that unreliable electricity is one of their primary impediments to doing business. Further compounding the situation is that total demand for electricity in the country continues to rise and is outpacingincreases in capacity. Adequate additional capacity has failed to materialize in India in light of market regulations, insufficient investment in thesector, and difficulty in obtaining environmental approval and funding for hydropower projects. In addition, coal shortages are further straining power generation capabilities. In order to address this shortfall, the Indian government has set the goal of adding 90,000 MW of additional electricgeneration capacity by 2012. In light of these targets, the private sector is beginning to step up investment in the sector. For example, Uk-based HindujaGroup, which already operates several power plants in the country, has pledged $15 billion towards the addition of 10,000 MWof capacity over the next several years. The country also grapples with electricity efficiency issues. In order to improve efficiency standards, the Energy ConservationAct was passed in 2002, which established the Bureau of Energy Efficiency and has sought to promote efficient use of energyand labeling of energy-intensive products. It is also possible to import some electricity into India, as the country’s power grid is interconnected with the grids in Nepaland Bhutan. This has allowed for the export of surplus electricity to India, however, this is not likely to prove sufficient to makeup for India’s lack of electric generation capacity.
Pollution and Co2 LevelsWhile high pollution levels were found over much of India, a concentrated pool of particles wasdiscovered over Bihar, a largely rural area with a high population density. Blanketing around 100 millionpeople, primarily in the Ganges Valley, the pollution levels are about five times larger than those typicallyfound over Los Angeles and can affect both human health and local climate. A large source contributingto the Bihar pollution pool is the inefficient burning of a variety of biofuels during cooking and otherdomestic use. Particles in the smoke remain close to the ground, trapped by valley walls, and unable tomix upward because of a high-pressure system that dominates the region during winter.
Never before in the history of India, largenumber of peasants (970 in 2001) resorted tosuicides since the later part of 1990s as theeconomic policies have devastated the lives offarmers. It has started in Andhra Pradesh Stateand has spread over to Maharashtra, Madhyapradesh, Punjab and other parts, which are thehighest food grown areas.
Indian Farmer suicideDespite the fact that 60% of the population of India is involved in agriculture, “disastrous policies,woeful access to affordable credit, greedy and corrupt middlemen, and indifferent administrations”have created (and are maintaining) such an impossible credit and financial system for farmers that theyhave been committing suicide in astounding numbers. The official statistic: since 1997, over fivehundred thousand (5000) farmers have killed themselves.
Global Warming Increased temperatures will impact agricultural production. Higher temperatures reduce the total duration of a crop cycle by inducing early flowering, thus shortening the `grain fill’ period. The shorter the crop cycle, the lower the yield per unit area.
Climate change is one of the most serious challenges India faces, with consequences thatgo far beyond its effect on the environment. In this regard, the Indian government hasdecided to reduce the carbon intensity by 24% from 2005 levels by 2020 and The NationalAction Plan on Climate Change seeks to promote Sustainable development through use ofclean technologies.Challenges
Renewable Energy growth in India Since 2007, India installed 3,857 MW from wind energy; 619.53 MW from small hydro;322 MW from biomass; 704.20 MW from bagasse cogeneration; 8.10 MW from solar energy; and20.10 MW from urban and industrial waste to energy. The year marks the beginning of India’s 11th five-year economic plan. Renewable energyinstallations from the current economic plan account for 35 percent of all of India’s installationactivities India’s renewable energy power generation capacity now stands at 15,789 megawatts followinggovernment efforts to boost the sector. The minister cited the allocation of 3.9 billion Indian rupees ($86 million) to different renewableenergy projects and programs starting in 2009.
Indian Policies India has introduced policies and regulatory measures for renewable energy development, such as financialincentives, capital subsidy and customs duties. The country imposed preferential tariff for renewable power in strategic areas under its National Electricity Policy2005 and national tariff policies. In 2003, the country set a fixed minimum percentage for renewable electricitypurchase through electricity legislation. Further government efforts include a generation-based incentives scheme for wind power which lays a 0.5 rupeeper unit incentive for electricity fed into the grid. The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission is currently the centre piece of India’s renewable energydevelopment. The program, launched in November, will boost deployment of solar energy systems and install 20,000 MW solarcapacity by 2022. The first phase of the mission targets grid connected solar power plants with a combined capacityof 1,100 MW; equivalent off-grid solar applications of 200 MW; and solar thermal collectors that will cover an areaof 7 million square meters. Currently, the Indian government is trying to spread public awareness on the necessity of generating power fromrenewable energy sources. The country plans to impose taxes on coal. Meanwhile, the World Bank has allotted $4 billion in loans for India’srenewable energy projects.
Renewable energy certificate scheme- India The Indian government is reportedly working on plans for a new renewable energy certificate (REC) schemedesigned to drive investment in low-carbon energy projects. The scheme, which appears to be loosely modelled on the system of RECs in the US, would provide renewableenergy developers with an additional revenue stream while giving companies the ability to bolster their greencredentials by demonstrating that they have purchased renewable energy. A central agency will be set up to issue and administer RECs, while renewable energy generators will beallowed to sell the electricity at an above-market tariff set by local power regulators, or sell the electricity andassociated REC separately. The country launched a feed-in tariff scheme for renewable energy last year and is also working on a high-profile project, dubbed the Solar Mission, to deliver about 20GW of solar energy capacity in the next decade. India added 2.33GW of grid-connected renewable power capacity during the year to the end of March,according to a statement from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, more than doubling the rate at whichit installed renewables capacity during the previous year. The record performance takes the countrys total installed capacity of renewable energy to 16.8GW, faroutstripping the performance of many industrialised nations including the UK, France, Japan and Canada. India has approved in principal an ambitious National Solar Mission to generate 200GW of the countrys energyfrom sunlight by 2050, but it apparently expects substantial funding to come from western nations.
Mission Features Government of India has recently launched the ambitious Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission which aims topromote the development and use of solar energy for power generation and other uses in the country. This Mission isone of the eight key National Missions which comprise India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change. The mission has a twin objective - to contribute to Indias long term energy security as well as its ecologicalsecurity.The Solar Mission would be implemented in 3 stages leading up to an installed capacity of 20,000 MW by theend of the 13th Five Year Plan in 2022. It is envisaged that as a result of rapid scale up as well as technologicaldevelopments, the price of solar power will attain parity with grid power at the end of the Mission, enablingaccelerated and large-scale expansion thereafter. Mission will establish a single window investor-friendly mechanism, which reduces risk and at the same time,provides an attractive, predictable and sufficiently extended tariff for the purchase of solar power for the grid. The focal point for the grid connected utility scale power plants, for the Phase 1 of the Mission, will be the NTPCVidyut Vyapar Nigam (NVVN), which is the power trading arm of the NTPC. Government has designated it for thepurchase of solar power generated by independent solar power producers, at rates fixed by the Central RegulatoryElectricity Commission and for a period specified by the latter. The mission includes a major initiative for promoting rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) applications. The solar tariffannounced by the regulators will be applicable for such installations. The power distribution companies will beinvolved in purchase of this power. The mission would have a much focussed R&D programme’ which seeks toaddress the India-specific challenges in promoting solar energy.
Mission Objectives To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022. To ramp up capacity of grid-connected solar power generation to 1000 MW within three years – by2013; an additional 3000 MW by 2017 through the mandatory use of the renewable purchaseobligation by utilities backed with a preferential tariff. This capacity can be more than doubled – reaching 10,000MW installed power by 2017 or more,based on the enhanced and enabled international finance and technology transfer. The ambitioustarget for 2022 of 20,000 MW or more, will be dependent on the ‘learning’ of the first two phases,which if successful, could lead to conditions of grid-competitive solar power. The transition could be appropriately up scaled, based on availability of international finance andtechnology. To create favourable conditions for solar manufacturing capability, particularly solar thermal forindigenous production and market leadership. To promote programs for off grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022. To achieve 15 million square meters solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million squaremeters solar thermal collector area by 2022.
Mission Objectives To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022. The Mission underlines the Government’s intention to give a boost to solar energy and is apurposeful step by India towards climate change mitigation“. The Solar Mission forms a part of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). Ananalysis done by Greenpeace shows that the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission plan couldensure an annual reduction of 434 million tons of CO2 emissions every year by 2050 based on theassumption that solar will replace fossil fuels.Incentives offered: CERC has announced preferential tariff of Rs. 18.44 per unit for solar PV power and Rs. 13.45 perunit for solar thermal power for 25 years; Zero or concessional duty applicable on import of certain specific items; Zero Excise duty on domestic manufacture of many solar energy devices and systems; NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam will purchase solar power for a period of 25 years at a fixed tariffannounced by CERC; CERC will review the costs every year and fix tariff accordingly for new projects.
Social Enterprise offering Renewable EnergyCase Studies
Case Studies- IndiaSELCO India, a social enterprise that provides sustainable energy services to underservedhouseholds and businesses in India, announced that it received a social growth financinginvestment from an international consortium of leading social investors. The financing was led bythe Good Energies Foundation, a not-for-profit organization focused on the alleviation of povertythrough sustainable access to renewable energy, and also included the Lemelson Foundation, whichcelebrates and supports inventors and entrepreneurs to strengthen social and economic life, andE+Co, a non-profit investment firm that provides business support services and capital to energyenterprises in Africa, Asia and Latin America.GOOD ENERGIES FOUNDATIONThe mission of the Good Energies Foundation is poverty alleviation through sustainable access torenewable energy. A Swiss registered foundation, it is independent from, but affiliated with, GoodEnergies, Inc.
Case Studies- IndiaNextGen, incubated at NSRCEL, IIM-Bangalore operates in two major domains - EmissionManagement and Waste to Energy. We are the pioneers of carbon accounting in India and haveworked with some of the biggest companies across the globe on their footprint estimation, analysis, reduction and low carbon strategy. We help organizations measure, manage, mitigate andcommunicate the environmental impact of their operations, supply chain, products and eventsamongst others.NextGen has developed an in house biogas technology for decentralized organic waste to energyapplication, focusing on urban needs of reliability, hygiene and aesthetic values. This technology iscurrently being deployed across IT parks, university campuses, housing complexes and hotel chainsacross India.
Case Studies-IndiaEnvirofit International was established to develop well-engineered technology solutions to improvethe human condition on a global scale, with a primary emphasis on applications in the developingworld. Envirofits goal is to develop and distribute well-engineered energy products that addressmajor environmental problems in the global emerging markets that traditionally have beenoverlooked. Established as a U.S. tax-exempt corporation, Envirofit utilizes initial donations andinstitutional support to fund product development and early stage product commercialization, andthen uses operating income to develop and expand its businesses. In the rank of organizationsdeveloping products for "bottom of the pyramid" markets, Envirofit is unique in its utilization of thesame rigorous product-development methodology and protocols used by modern industry. Thisrequires rigor in areas like design, validation, manufacturing, quality control, supply chainmanagement, distribution, inventory management, and marketing. Envirofits goal is thus to buildand operate self-sustaining businesses as an entrepreneurial, commercially-driven, independent,non-profit organization.
Case Studies-IndiaThe CleanStar Trust was established in mid-2007 based on the realisation that with appropriatetechnical and financial support, the rural poor could become great champions in the fight againstclimate change and environmental degradation.Today, we are a resource centre for community-based agro-forestry, clean energy production, andenvironmental education programs that engage and benefit the rural poor.CleanStar Energy is a private limited company registered in New Delhi, India. The company waslaunched in 2005 based on award-winning research at Oxford University. It now has offices in Pune,Maharashtra and field sites in central and western Maharashtra.CleanStar is proud to support the CleanStar Trust for Sustainable Development, an independentnon-profit group that helps the rural poor fight climate change.
Case Studies -WorldwideCommunity Renewable Energy Ltd (CoRE) is a Social Enterprise. We know that manycommunities have explored renewable energy and discovered that they lack theresources to make this happen. We work with communities to develop systems that willgenerate income and provide them with sustainable, secure energy supplies. In returnCoRE takes a stake in the companies set up; to recoup development costs and to supportthe establishment of more community owned renewable energy systems.The UK’s National Agency ECOTEC has awarded Embrace with one of the EuropeanCommission’s flagship Transfer of Innovation projects. The project has been developedover the years to address the need for qualified and well-trained people working in therenewable energy sector. The project will be a platform to share the regional/ nationaldifferences in vocational education and training (VET) within the renewable energysector
Case Studies- CambodiaE+Co makes clean energy investments in developing countries. With 15 years of experience andoffices in 8 locations, E+Cos innovative business model provides lasting solutions to climate changeand poverty.SME Cambodia and E + Co, a US non-profit renewable energy investment organization, haveestablished a new Cambodian renewable energy company. The new venture,SME RenewableEnergy Ltd., will promote renewable energy technologies and market biomass gasification powergeneration systems in Cambodia and throughout the Greater Mekong region. SME-RE Ltd. offers“turnkey” projects, including system design, project feasibility studies, project planning and projectfinancing, to rural electricity producers, agro-business processing enterprises and manufacturersrequiring stand alone thermal or electrical energy solutions. Primary markets include rice mills,cashew processing plants, ice factories and noodle factories. Other potential customers arecompanies that currently depend on high cost diesel and other petroleum fuels for thermal steamgeneration, ceramic kiln firing and grain drying
Case Studies- PhilippinesRuralLight is a youth-led social enterprise based in the Philippines that is focused on empoweringoff-grid communities in pursuing sustainable solutions in renewable energy.RuralLight is a Philippine-based, youth-led social enterprise focused on empowering off-gridcommunities in pursuing sustainable solutions in renewable energy. The organization supports inempowering off-grid communities and villages using renewable energy in part or wholly byproviding scalable solutions that support their local economies. This includes supporting localproduce by expanding their markets and engaging in community-centered product developmentand deployment like bringing in products for the bottom of the pyramid. This context engages andempowers the community to enhance their livelihood and expand their market.Given that there are still about 2,400 villages still not electrified, there are avenues to provideenergy for these villages. One solution is to provide an electrified community center using arenewable energy source or a mix of resources for a town not yet connected to the electric grid.
Case Studies- BarbadosInnogen Technologies is a social innovation enterprise specializing in alternative energy solutionsfor small island economies. We are situated on the Island of Barbados, our focus is on developing arenewable energy industry within the Caribbean Islands. it is not based on a businessentrepreneurship model but rather a social entrepreneurship model. seeking to address broadgrassroots economic problems that Caribbean people are facing, using innovative technologies,solutions and processes.Founded by Jerome Lemelson, one of U.S. historys most prolific inventors, the LemelsonFoundation uses its resources to recognize and celebrate accomplished inventors, inspire andmentor young people and grassroots inventors and entrepreneurs, disseminate technologies thatimprove people’s lives and generate entrepreneurial opportunity, and research and shareinformation that illuminates the value of invention to society. To date, the Foundation has donatedor committed more than $150 million in support of its mission.
Case Studies-Nicaragua, FranceblueEnergy improves lives in marginalized communities using a holistic approach to sustainableenergy and related fundamental services.To ensure long-term operation, blueEnergy leverages international support to develop neededinfrastructure and human capacity and empowers local people by making them central figures inthe design, construction, and implementation of the energy systems and other solutions.Ultimately, blueEnergy creates long-term value by linking its sustainable energy services to life-improving energy uses such as clean light, water treatment, medicine storage, and ice making forfish storage.
Case Studies- USARREAL has the unique mission of making solar energy available to people of all income levels. Solartechnologies present viable alternatives to fossil fuels that are both environmentally sound andsocially empowering. In order for solar to be widely embraced, it must be available to people of allincome levels. However, solar technology remains out of reach for many lower income households.The cost of home heating is unpredictable, and has been rising every year for the last 30 years-much faster than people’s incomes. Since low income families devote a greater share of income tothe necessity of heat, they are the most vulnerable to these increases and fluctuations in energycosts.
Case Studies-EthiopiaSOLAR-POWERED HEALTH POSTS TO PROVIDE VACCINES IN ETHIOPIAHealth stations offer the only opportunity for around 12,000 people in Ethiopia’s Midda Region tomeet their basic medical needs. The remote locations of these health stations make it extremelydifficult to guarantee the indispensable, uninterrupted cooling (between 2 and 8° C) of life-savingvaccines. Hitherto, kerosene using generators provided the essential power. Yet, fuel supplydistribution is difficult, the often old engines are unreliable and fuel itself bears high permanentcosts. Thanks to the project’s installed solar PV facilities directly at the health stations, autonomouspower supply can be achieved. The high-tech installations guarantee a reliable and persistent powersupply as well as significant cost reduction.
Case Studies-EthiopiaELECTRIFICATION OF THE VILLAGE OF REMA/ETHIOPIARema is a village with 3,000 inhabitants in the Midda Region in Ethiopia. Through a contribution byGood Energies and other donors, Stiftung Solarenergie was able to equip every single house in thevillage with a solar panel, a battery for energy storage and two LED lamps (which use very littleenergy). These electric off-grid lights replace health damaging kerosene lamps, which are commonin this area. The success was so overwhelming that several surrounding villages approached theSolarstiftung in order to be electrified in the same way.The advantage of the solar system contrary to diesel generators, which aid organizationstraditionally have in their aid programs, is the independence from petrol prices and the delivery ofpetrol to these remote areas.
Case Studies-EthiopiaSOLAR-POWERED WATER PUMP REPLACING MANUAL WATER TRANSPORTATIONIn the Midda region, people often have to walk many hours in order to have access to a source ofwater and the walk from the plateau into the valley is usually steep. It is mostly the women and thechildren who have to go on this laborious march which often takes seven to eight hours every day.We helped to install the solar-powered water pumping system in the village of Rema, where thewomen and children now no longer need to travel the difficult path into the valley for preciouswater. The time they save is important: The children now have time, for example, to go to schoolduring the day.
World Potential Renewable Energy 1. Globally, renewable energy is growing fast. The rates of development for renewable energy sources is far exceeding those of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas. 2. In 2006, wind and solar development grew by 20 and 40 percent respectively. 3. A recent report released by Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council, states that renewable energy can deliver half of the worlds energy needs by 2050. 4. Renewable energy will become increasingly important as the world attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to levels that scientists predict are necessary to curb global warming.
Global Renewable Energy Resources Solar WindFig 1.0 :The geographical distribution of the solar radiation Fig 2.0 Availability of standardized evaluations of the wind incident on the earths surface each year. energy potential
Global Access to safe drinking waterFig 1.0 :The geographical distribution of the solar radiation Fig 2.0 Availability of standardized evaluations of the wind incident on the earths surface each year. energy potential
Projected agriculture in 2080 due to climate change
Wind Energy Capacity (Worldwide)The BLUE scenario forecasts that wind energy will produce over 5,000 TWh of electricity per yearby 2050, accounting for up to 17% of global power production. Over one third of the resulting CO2savings will be achieved in China and India.
Population density of Indian states States In India
Energy Consumption- World & IndiaCoal accounts for more than half of India’s total energy consumption followed by oil, which comprises31 percent of total energy consumption. Natural gas and hydroelectric power account for 8 and 6percent of consumption, respectively. Although nuclear power comprises a very small percentage oftotal energy consumption at this time, it is expected to increase in light of recent international civilnuclear energy cooperation deals. According to the Indian government, 30 percent of India’s totalenergy needs are met through imports.
India’s Oil production and ImportsIndia lacks sufficient domestic energy resources and must import much of its growing energyrequirements. India is not only experiencing an electricity shortage but is also increasingly dependenton oil imports to meet demand. In addition to pursuing domestic oil and gas exploration and productionprojects, India is also stepping up its natural gas imports, particularly through imports of liquefiednatural gas. The country’s ability to secure a reliable supply of energy resources at affordable prices willbe one of the most important factors in shaping its future energy demand.
Energy Resources, Production and Capacity Indias Largest Hydroelectric Power Plants Total Capacity Power Plant State (MWe) Dehar Rajasthan 990 Sharavathi Karnataka 891 Koyna Maharashtra 880 Kalinadi I Karnataka 825 Nagarjun Sugar Andhra Pradesh 815 Idduki Kerala 780 Srisailam Right Bank Andhra Pradesh 770 Bhakra-Nangal Rajasthan 710 Salal Jammu & Kashmir 690 Kundah Tamil Nadu 555
Future Wind Energy Capacity (India)The BLUE scenario forecasts that wind energy will produce over 5,000 TWh of electricity peryear by 2050, accounting for up to 17% of global power production. Over one third of theresulting CO2 savings will be achieved in China and India.
Innovation and Renewable Energy SocialEnterprise
HighDro Power generation A graduating industrial design student at Leicester’s De Montfort University (DMU) is hoping for award-winning success with his innovative design which transforms falling wastewater into electricity. DMU Industrial design student, Tom Broadbent’s money and energy-saving brainwave is called the HighDro Power and works by harnessing the energy from falling waste water in the soil pipes of high-rise buildings, converting it to electricity through an ingenious device. As well as having developed a potentially commercially viable product, Tom is waiting to hear whether he will win accolades from the Institute of Engineering Designers (IED) and the Dyson Awards. He is also entering the Kevin McCloud Green Heroes award to win the opportunity to show HighDro Power at the NEC’s Grand Designs Live show. The invention was developed in answer to targets set at the G8 Summit by governments to reduce their country’s carbon dioxide emissions and dependency on fossil fuels for energy production by 2050. In HighDro Power, the electricity can either be utilised in the building to save £926-per-year for a seven- storey building or sold back to the national grid on a buy-back tariff.
Envirofit- EnviroFlame Combustion System To achieve the desired health, environmental, social and economic improvements, hundreds of millions of primitive stoves will need to be replaced. From the outset, Envirofit has systematically set the stage for this degree of global scalability and sustainability through: enterprise-based business model driving economic self- sustainability, voice-of-the-customer market research, disciplined ground-breaking R & D, modern product development process, robust durability and emissions testing, global supply chain supporting centralized quality-controlled mass-manufacturing, multi- tiered distribution & sales networks, location-specific marketing strategies, partnerships with global organizations and local MFIs & NGOs, and global awareness raising and brand building about Envirofit and the problems we look to address. In creating products for developing world customers, Envirofit utilizes the same disciplined, mature product-development methodologies used by modern industry. Compared to traditional cooking fires, Envirofit cookstoves reduce emissions by as much as 80%, use up to 60% less fuel and reduce cooking cycle time by up to 50%. Built and engineered to address the unique cooking habits of our customers, Envirofit clean cookstoves are a result of over five years of market research, engineering R & D, emissions and durability testing in coordination with Shell Foundation and Colorado State University’s world-renown Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory. Envirofit International’s goal is to develop affordable, aesthetic, well-engineered technology solutions that have significant global health and environmental impacts and economic payback incentives for our customers.
Solar Powered Laptop During 2007 this simple solar photovoltaic (PV) system has provided some of my energy needs (OK, a pretty small percentage Ill admit). In total there are approximately 40W(peak) of PV panels. This charges a sealed gel type lead-acid battery with a charge controller to ensure no overcharging. The battery can then be moved and used to power various devices including 12V lights, laptops (through a suitable converter) and audio equipment (through a pure sine wave DC to AC inverter). There is a display to show the power being fed into the battery along with the battery voltage. Two batteries are used in rotation, with one being recharged while the other is used.