Topic – Classifications
And Types Of
What is Advertising?
Advertising is a perfect world that is been moulded.
It should be filled with creativity, ideals, warmth, sentiments, which
will in turn cause the general public to want to pursue the product and
recognize its value.
Classifications and types of advertising
Advertising may be classified according to the functions
which it is intended to fulfil.
1. Advertising maybe used to stimulate either the primary demand or
the selective demand.
2. It may promote either the brand or the firm selling that brand.
3. It may try to cause indirect action or direct action.
(A) Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level.
(i) Primary Demand (Stimulation)
Primary demand stimulation refers to advertising messages that
promote the merits of product category rather than a particular brand.
(ii) Selective Demand (Stimulation)
The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand from the brand of
others, even though he may also hope, and perhaps intend, to increase
the total amount of consumption of that product.
(B) Institutional or Product Advertising
(i) Institutional Advertising: Institutional Adverting is any type of
advertising intended to promote a company, corporation, business,
institution, organization or other similar entity. Such advertising
does not attempt to sell anything directly.
(ii) Product Advertising: Product advertising is any method of
communication about the promotion of a product in an attempt to
induce potential customers to purchase the product.
(a) Informative Advertising: It is often used when launching a new product or for
an updated or re-launched product. It helps to promote new product innovations.
(ii) Persuasive Product Advertising: A type of product promotion that attempts
to influence a consumer in favour of a purchasing particular good or service.
(iii) Reminded-Oriented Product Advertising: Advertising intended to keep
product or service availability in the forefront for the existing customers.
It is designed to remind customers of the benefits of a product or service, or of
their current need for those benefits.
Relationship Between Advertising and Product Life-cycle
(C) The audience to which it is directed
(i) Consumer Advertising: Consumer advertising is messages paid
for by companies and delivered through mass media. The
objective is to inform or persuade consumers of the merit of
company’s brand and products.
(ii) Industrial Advertising, otherwise known as B2B advertising, is a
form of advertising to other businesses. This can include the
advertising of parts or raw materials for their products or
equipment used in their manufacturing process.
(iii) Trade Advertising is an advertising undertaken by the
manufacturer and directed toward the wholesaler or retailer.
(a) Retail Advertising – Retail advertising refers to advertising for the retail
business, in connection of the private business of branches.
(b) Wholesale Advertising – Most wholesalers are not advertising minded, either
for themselves or for their suppliers; and their use to trade advertising is
largely haphazard and behind the times. But they would benefit from
adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers—the need
for developing an overall promotional strategy.
(c) Non-Profit Advertising – It aims at fund raising, persuasion to action and
(d) Public Service Advertising – This Advertising is directed at the social welfare
of a nation or a community.
(D) Timing of the Response It Elicits
Direct or Indirect Action
Product advertising has two sub-categories—direct and indirect
Direct Advertising – aims at generating immediate response.
Indirect Advertising – does not attempt to bring about an immediate
(E) Sponsorship Arrangement
Sponsorship of advertising may be undertaken by an individual
organization or as a co-operative activity.
The Term Co-operative Advertising is sometimes used to designate
advertising efforts supported by industry or trade groups or associations.
Horizontal Co-operative Advertising is not limited to a single industries
and sometimes the general public. It aims to reach a particular
demographic or multiple demographics.
Vertical Advertising appeals to people in a specific industry.
(F) Extent of Geographical Coverage – National, Regional or
(i) National Advertising – It encourages the consumer to buy their
products wherever they are sold.
(ii) Local Advertising – It is generally done by retailers and service
firms rather than manufacturers. Retailers ads usually provide
specific information for the consumer.
(iii) Regional Advertising – It is another geographical alternative for
(G) Advertising According to Medium Utilized
The most common classification of advertising is by medium used;
such as TV, radio, newspapers, and direct mail advertising.