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Public Relations Management
Dr.T.Sivakami
Assistant Professor
PG& Research Department of Management Studies
Bon Secours College for Women
Thanjavur
Advertising and Promotional Techniques
Promoting and positioning your organization through
Advertising
Exhibitions
Open house
Tournaments
Lobbying
Managing Rumors & Leaks
Promotion
Promotion may be defined as “the co-
ordination of all seller initiated efforts
to set up channels of information and
persuasion to facilitate the scale of a
good or service.”
Promotion is most often intended to be
Promotion Mix
The promotion mix consists of four basic elements.
1. Advertising : Advertising is the dissemination of
information by non-personal means through paid
media where the source is the sponsoring
organization.
Promotion Mix
2. Personal Selling : Personal selling is the dissemination of information by non-
personal methods, like face-to-face, contacts between audience and employees of
the sponsoring organization. The source of information is the sponsoring
organization
Promotion Mix
3. Sales Promotion :Sales promotion is the
dissemination of information through a wide variety
of activities other than personal selling, advertising
and publicity which stimulate consumer purchasing
and dealer effectiveness.
4. Publicity is the disseminating of information by
personal or non-personal means and is not directly
paid by the organization and the organization is not
What Advertisement Is?
It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers.
(ii) It makes mass production possible.
(iii) It is non-personal communication, for it is not delivered by an actual
person, nor is it addressed to a specific person.
(iv) It is a commercial communication because it is used to help assure the
advertiser of a long business life with profitable sales.
(v) Advertising can be economical, for it reaches large groups of people. This
keeps the cost per message low.
(vi) The communication is speedy, permitting an advertiser to speak to
millions of buyers in a matter of a few hours.
(vii) Advertising is identified communication. The advertiser signs his name
to his advertisement for the purpose of publicizing his identity
Forms of messages in Advertising
The messages carried in-
 Newspapers and magazines
 On radio and television broadcasts
 Circular of all kinds, (whether distributed by mail, by person, thorough tradesmen, or by
inserts in packages)
 Dealer help materials
 Window display and counter – display materials and efforts
 Store signs, motion pictures used for advertising
 Novelties bearing advertising messages and Signature of the advertiser
 Label stags and other literature accompanying the merchandise
objectives of an advertising programme
(i) To stimulate sales amongst present, former and future consumers. It involves
a decision regarding the media, e.g.,TV rather than print
(ii) To communicate with consumers. This involves decision regarding copy
(iii)To retain the loyalty of present and former consumers. Advertising may be
used to reassure buyers that they have made the best purchase, thus building
loyalty to the brand name or the firm
(iv) To increase support. Advertising impliedly bolsters the morale of the sales
force and of distributors, wholesalers, and retailers, ; it thus contributes to
enthusiasts and confidence attitude in the organizational
(v) (v) To project an image. Advertising is used to promote an overall image of
respect and trust for an organization. This message is aimed not only at
consumers, but also at the government, shareholders, and the general public.
CLASSIFICATION ANDTYPES OF ADVERTISING
1.Product – Related Advertising
2. Public Service Advertising
3. Functional Classification
4. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle
5. Trade Advertising
6. Advertising Based on Area of operation
7. Advertising According to Medium Utilized
1.Product – Related Advertising
i. Pioneering Advertising:
This type of advertising is used in the introductory
stages in the life cycle of a product. It is concerned
with developing a “primary” demand. It conveys
information about, and selling a product category
rather than a specific brand. For example, the initial
advertisement for black – and – white television and
colour television. Such advertisements appeal to the
Product – Related Advertising
2. Competitive Advertising: It is useful when the
product has reached the market-growth and
especially the market-maturity stage. It stimulates
“selective” demand. It seeks to sell a specific brand
rather than a general product category. It is of two
types: A. Direct Type: It seeks to stimulate immediate
buying action. B. Indirect Type: It attempts to
pinpoint the virtues of the product in the expectation
that the consumer‟s action will be affected by it
when he is ready to buy.
Product – Related Advertising
iii. Retentive Advertising: This may be
useful when the product has achieved a
favourable status in the market – that is,
maturity or declining stage. Generally in
such times, the advertiser wants to keep
his product‟s name before the public. A
much softer selling approach is used, or
2. Public Service Advertising
This is directed at the social welfare of a
community or a nation. The effectiveness of
product service advertisements may be
measured in terms of the goodwill they
generate in favour of the sponsoring
organization. Advertisements on not mixing
drinking and driving are a good example of
public service advertising. In this type of
advertising, the objective is to put across a
message intended to change attitudes or
3. Functional ClassificationAdvertising Based on Demand Influence Level.
A. Primary Demand Stimulation:
Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather
than for a particular brand. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of
product, and not the brand of that product. Some advertise to stimulate
primary demand. When a product is new, primary demand stimulation is
appropriate. At this time, the marketer must inform consumers of the
existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing from
its use. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have
entered the market, the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the
selective demand
B.Selective Demand Stimulation :
This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes, Surf
detergent powder, or Vimal fabrics. To establish a differential advantage
and to acquire an acceptable sort of market, selective demand advertising
is attempted. It is not to stimulate the demand for the product or service.
The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand and to increase the total
ii. Institutional Advertising
Institutional advertising is used extensively
during periods of product shortages in order to
keep the name of the company before the public.
It aims at building for a firm a Positive public
image in the eyes of shareholders, employees,
suppliers, legislators, or the general public.
HMT or DCM, for example, does considerable
institutional advertising of its name, emphasizing
the quality and research behind its products.
Product Advertising
Product advertising, designed to promote the sale or
reputation of a particular product or service that the
organization sells. Indane‟s Cooking Gas is a case in point. The
marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure
attention, comprehension, attitude change or action for an
offering.
types as follows:-
A.Informative Product Advertising
B. Persuasive Product Advertising
C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising
Product Advertising
A. Informative Product Advertising: This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type
of product to develop an initial demand. It is usually done in the introductory stages of the product life cycle.
It was the original approach to advertising. B. Persuasive Product Advertising: Persuasive product
advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand. It is a type of promotion used in the
growth period and, to some extent, in the maturity period of the product life cycle.
B. C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising: The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous
promotional activity by keeping the brand name in front of the public. It is used in the maturity period as well
as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle.
4.Advertising based on Product Life Cycle
A. Consumer Advertising Most of the consumer goods producers engage in
consumer product advertising. Marketers of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics,
scooters, detergents and soaps, cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are
examples. Baring a few, all these products are all package goods that the
consumer will often buy during the year. There is a heavy competition among
the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand.
B. Industrial Advertising Industrial executives have little confidence in
advertising. They rely on this form of promotion merely out of fear that their
competitors may benefit if they stop their advertising efforts.
5.Trade Advertising
A. Retail Advertising This may be defined as “covering all advertising
by the stores that sell goods directly to the consuming public. It
includes, also advertising by establishments that sell services to the
public, such as beauty shops, petrol pumps and banks.” It refers to
advertising costs between retailers and manufacturers. From the
retailer‟s point of view, co-operative advertising permits a store to
secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been
available.
B. Wholesale Advertising Wholesalers are, generally, not advertising
minded, either for themselves or for their suppliers. They would benefit
from adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers –
the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. They also need
to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programmes
6.Advertising based on Area of Operation
A. National advertising It is practiced by many firms in our country. It encourages the
consumer to buy their product wherever they are sold. Most national
advertisements concentrate on the overall image and desirability of the product.
The famous national advertisers are: Hindustan Levers DCM ITC Jay Engineering
TISCO
B. B. Regional advertising It is geographical alternative for organizations. For example,
Amrit Vanaspati based in Rajpura claims to be the leading hydrogenated oil producer
in the Punjab. But, until recently, it mainly confined itself to one of the vegetable oil
brands distribution to Malihabad district (in U.P. near Lucknow).
C. C. Local advertising It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers.
These advertisements save the customer time and money by passing along specific
information about products, prices, location, and so on. Retailer advertisements
usually provide specific goods sales during weekends in various sectors.
7.Advertising According to Medium
The most common classification of advertising is by
the medium used. For example: TV, radio, magazine,
outdoor, business periodical, newspaper and direct
mail advertising. This classification is so common in
use that it is mentioned here only for the sake of
completeness.
Thank
you

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Public Relations Management

  • 1. Public Relations Management Dr.T.Sivakami Assistant Professor PG& Research Department of Management Studies Bon Secours College for Women Thanjavur
  • 2. Advertising and Promotional Techniques Promoting and positioning your organization through Advertising Exhibitions Open house Tournaments Lobbying Managing Rumors & Leaks
  • 3. Promotion Promotion may be defined as “the co- ordination of all seller initiated efforts to set up channels of information and persuasion to facilitate the scale of a good or service.” Promotion is most often intended to be
  • 4. Promotion Mix The promotion mix consists of four basic elements. 1. Advertising : Advertising is the dissemination of information by non-personal means through paid media where the source is the sponsoring organization.
  • 5. Promotion Mix 2. Personal Selling : Personal selling is the dissemination of information by non- personal methods, like face-to-face, contacts between audience and employees of the sponsoring organization. The source of information is the sponsoring organization
  • 6. Promotion Mix 3. Sales Promotion :Sales promotion is the dissemination of information through a wide variety of activities other than personal selling, advertising and publicity which stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness. 4. Publicity is the disseminating of information by personal or non-personal means and is not directly paid by the organization and the organization is not
  • 7. What Advertisement Is? It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers. (ii) It makes mass production possible. (iii) It is non-personal communication, for it is not delivered by an actual person, nor is it addressed to a specific person. (iv) It is a commercial communication because it is used to help assure the advertiser of a long business life with profitable sales. (v) Advertising can be economical, for it reaches large groups of people. This keeps the cost per message low. (vi) The communication is speedy, permitting an advertiser to speak to millions of buyers in a matter of a few hours. (vii) Advertising is identified communication. The advertiser signs his name to his advertisement for the purpose of publicizing his identity
  • 8. Forms of messages in Advertising The messages carried in-  Newspapers and magazines  On radio and television broadcasts  Circular of all kinds, (whether distributed by mail, by person, thorough tradesmen, or by inserts in packages)  Dealer help materials  Window display and counter – display materials and efforts  Store signs, motion pictures used for advertising  Novelties bearing advertising messages and Signature of the advertiser  Label stags and other literature accompanying the merchandise
  • 9. objectives of an advertising programme (i) To stimulate sales amongst present, former and future consumers. It involves a decision regarding the media, e.g.,TV rather than print (ii) To communicate with consumers. This involves decision regarding copy (iii)To retain the loyalty of present and former consumers. Advertising may be used to reassure buyers that they have made the best purchase, thus building loyalty to the brand name or the firm (iv) To increase support. Advertising impliedly bolsters the morale of the sales force and of distributors, wholesalers, and retailers, ; it thus contributes to enthusiasts and confidence attitude in the organizational (v) (v) To project an image. Advertising is used to promote an overall image of respect and trust for an organization. This message is aimed not only at consumers, but also at the government, shareholders, and the general public.
  • 10. CLASSIFICATION ANDTYPES OF ADVERTISING 1.Product – Related Advertising 2. Public Service Advertising 3. Functional Classification 4. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle 5. Trade Advertising 6. Advertising Based on Area of operation 7. Advertising According to Medium Utilized
  • 11. 1.Product – Related Advertising i. Pioneering Advertising: This type of advertising is used in the introductory stages in the life cycle of a product. It is concerned with developing a “primary” demand. It conveys information about, and selling a product category rather than a specific brand. For example, the initial advertisement for black – and – white television and colour television. Such advertisements appeal to the
  • 12. Product – Related Advertising 2. Competitive Advertising: It is useful when the product has reached the market-growth and especially the market-maturity stage. It stimulates “selective” demand. It seeks to sell a specific brand rather than a general product category. It is of two types: A. Direct Type: It seeks to stimulate immediate buying action. B. Indirect Type: It attempts to pinpoint the virtues of the product in the expectation that the consumer‟s action will be affected by it when he is ready to buy.
  • 13. Product – Related Advertising iii. Retentive Advertising: This may be useful when the product has achieved a favourable status in the market – that is, maturity or declining stage. Generally in such times, the advertiser wants to keep his product‟s name before the public. A much softer selling approach is used, or
  • 14. 2. Public Service Advertising This is directed at the social welfare of a community or a nation. The effectiveness of product service advertisements may be measured in terms of the goodwill they generate in favour of the sponsoring organization. Advertisements on not mixing drinking and driving are a good example of public service advertising. In this type of advertising, the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or
  • 15. 3. Functional ClassificationAdvertising Based on Demand Influence Level. A. Primary Demand Stimulation: Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather than for a particular brand. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of product, and not the brand of that product. Some advertise to stimulate primary demand. When a product is new, primary demand stimulation is appropriate. At this time, the marketer must inform consumers of the existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing from its use. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have entered the market, the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the selective demand B.Selective Demand Stimulation : This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes, Surf detergent powder, or Vimal fabrics. To establish a differential advantage and to acquire an acceptable sort of market, selective demand advertising is attempted. It is not to stimulate the demand for the product or service. The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand and to increase the total
  • 16. ii. Institutional Advertising Institutional advertising is used extensively during periods of product shortages in order to keep the name of the company before the public. It aims at building for a firm a Positive public image in the eyes of shareholders, employees, suppliers, legislators, or the general public. HMT or DCM, for example, does considerable institutional advertising of its name, emphasizing the quality and research behind its products.
  • 17. Product Advertising Product advertising, designed to promote the sale or reputation of a particular product or service that the organization sells. Indane‟s Cooking Gas is a case in point. The marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure attention, comprehension, attitude change or action for an offering. types as follows:- A.Informative Product Advertising B. Persuasive Product Advertising C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising
  • 18. Product Advertising A. Informative Product Advertising: This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type of product to develop an initial demand. It is usually done in the introductory stages of the product life cycle. It was the original approach to advertising. B. Persuasive Product Advertising: Persuasive product advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand. It is a type of promotion used in the growth period and, to some extent, in the maturity period of the product life cycle. B. C. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising: The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the brand name in front of the public. It is used in the maturity period as well as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle.
  • 19. 4.Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. Consumer Advertising Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product advertising. Marketers of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, scooters, detergents and soaps, cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are examples. Baring a few, all these products are all package goods that the consumer will often buy during the year. There is a heavy competition among the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand. B. Industrial Advertising Industrial executives have little confidence in advertising. They rely on this form of promotion merely out of fear that their competitors may benefit if they stop their advertising efforts.
  • 20. 5.Trade Advertising A. Retail Advertising This may be defined as “covering all advertising by the stores that sell goods directly to the consuming public. It includes, also advertising by establishments that sell services to the public, such as beauty shops, petrol pumps and banks.” It refers to advertising costs between retailers and manufacturers. From the retailer‟s point of view, co-operative advertising permits a store to secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been available. B. Wholesale Advertising Wholesalers are, generally, not advertising minded, either for themselves or for their suppliers. They would benefit from adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers – the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. They also need to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programmes
  • 21. 6.Advertising based on Area of Operation A. National advertising It is practiced by many firms in our country. It encourages the consumer to buy their product wherever they are sold. Most national advertisements concentrate on the overall image and desirability of the product. The famous national advertisers are: Hindustan Levers DCM ITC Jay Engineering TISCO B. B. Regional advertising It is geographical alternative for organizations. For example, Amrit Vanaspati based in Rajpura claims to be the leading hydrogenated oil producer in the Punjab. But, until recently, it mainly confined itself to one of the vegetable oil brands distribution to Malihabad district (in U.P. near Lucknow). C. C. Local advertising It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers. These advertisements save the customer time and money by passing along specific information about products, prices, location, and so on. Retailer advertisements usually provide specific goods sales during weekends in various sectors.
  • 22. 7.Advertising According to Medium The most common classification of advertising is by the medium used. For example: TV, radio, magazine, outdoor, business periodical, newspaper and direct mail advertising. This classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness.