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Basic Design : Elements & Principles

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This Basic design Presentation serves the purpose of initiating creativity and there by appreciation of visual language.
Basic design studios help to unlock students creativity and enhance spatial perception.

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Basic Design : Elements & Principles

  1. 1. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S & D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S. Prepared by : Ar.Sujit Vasant Jadhav Architect & Artist. “Design is an Expression of Feeling……..Any Creative Act is Design”.
  2. 2. B A S I C D E S I G N – I N T R O D U C T I O N The ABC..of any design means Aesthetics , Basic design & Creativity. Basic design – the basics of Design is rightly called the “ Mother of all Designs”. Its journey begins with the Basic Elements and culminates in a Spatial Perception. In India, the eligibility criteria for the Architecture , being High school graduation in Math, hence the Creativity and Art remain in their infant state. This sometimes makes it difficult for the students to understand Art, Architecture and Art in Architecture. Basic design studio serves an important purpose of initiating Creativity & there by appreciating Art in many forms. “ Design is an expression of feeling..any Creative act is design.”
  3. 3. B A S I C D E S I G N – I N T R O D U C T I O N
  4. 4. B A S I C D E S I G N – I N T R O D U C T I O N Creative Act / Creativity : Creativity is a process when an original or new theory along with new hypothesis results in permutation or combination together to offer new generative alternatives. Design Process : Design process is a thinking process and the process adopted must generate Creative thinking. Creative thinking involves Visualization ; which is the skill & ability to convert Vision into Visuals. Basic design promotes a holistic , creative and experimental methodology. Basic design serves the purpose of initiating creativity and there by appreciation of visual language. Basic design studios help to unlock students creativity and enhance spatial perception.
  5. 5. B A S I C D E S I G N – I N T R O D U C T I O N
  6. 6. B A S I C D E S I G N – I N T R O D U C T I O N
  7. 7. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S ELEMENTS OF DESIGN The elements of design are the Language of the visual arts. They are the parts. Elements structure and carry the work. They are basically ingredients of art / design. POINT LINE SHAPE VALUE FORM COLOR SPACE TEXTURE
  8. 8. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S POINT A point or mark is the smallest and most basic element. These can vary in size, value, regularity or irregularity, and can be used alone or as a unit in a group which forms a line or shape in the image. (1) The single point represents a visual stop. As you can see, a rectangle is used to restrict the subject area. The point at centre immediately takes focus of the eye. (2) Two points represent a direction. It makes the eye move away from the border and move back and forth between those two points. (3) Three points makes the eyes move in a closed path. They signify a shape. (4) The unique arrangement of those dots creates a directional path for the eye to move on. (5) The eye jumps from one part to the other because of the random arrangement of dots. However, the dense area is able to gain more attention than the rest.
  9. 9. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S LINE A line is a form with width and length, but no depth. The direction of a line can convey mood. Horizontal lines are calm and quiet, vertical lines suggest more of a potential for movement, while diagonal lines strongly suggest movement and give more of a feeling of vitality to a picture. A line is a series of marks, or points. The closeness of these points causes them to “lose their individual identity and form a new identity“. The direction, weight, and character of line convey many different states and emotions.
  10. 10. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S LINE (6)The line near the centre of the bounding area immediately steals focus and makes the eye look at a certain area only. (7) The alignment of those two lines creates a flow for the eye, it moves from the top to the bottom. (8) The line is closer to one corner of the bounding area. Hence the eye has more focus near that corner than the others. (9) The two lines give hint of an inner bounding area. (10) The eye moves from one line to the other in a specific pattern represented by the height and horizontal alignment of the two lines.
  11. 11. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S SHAPE Shape is an area that is contained within implied line. Shapes have two dimensions, length and width, and can be geometric or free-form. - A shape is formed when a  encloses an area. - Simple shapes are remembered and understoo more easily than complex shapes. - Shapes, geometric or organic, add interest to the design. - Design in painting is basically the planned arrangement of shapes in a work of art.
  12. 12. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S FORM Form is any three dimensional object. They can be measured in terms of height, width, breadth. Form describes volume and mass, or the three dimensional aspects of objects that take up space. (Shape is two-dimensional) Forms can and should be viewed from any angles When you hold a baseball, shoe, or small sculpture, you are aware of their curves, angles, indentations, extensions, and edges---their forms.
  13. 13. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S SPACE Actual space is three-dimensional volume that can be empty or filled with objects. It has width, height, and depth. Two-dimensional design is concerned with the flat space that the design takes place on and the illusion of three-dimensional space.   Incorporating space into a design helps reduce noise, increase readability, and/or create illusion. White space is an important part of your design.
  14. 14. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S COLOUR Colour adds the magic element to a design. They represent a common language of communication. Each colour has a mood, an emotion and different levels of significance. Colours can reflect warm or cool, hard or soft, light or dark, passive or active, all of which when used individually or in combination of one another greatly affects the mood.
  15. 15. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S COLOUR - Colour palette choices and combinations are used to differentiate items, create depth, add emphasis, and/or help organize information.  - Colour theory examines how various choices psychologically impact users. - Every colour says something different, and combinations can alter that impression further.
  16. 16. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S COLOUR Vermeer, The Milkmaid, 1658 – 60 Pablo Picasso , Tragedy1903
  17. 17. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S TEXTURE Texture refers to the surface quality, both simulated and actual, of design. Textures can create a more three-dimensional appearance on this two-dimensional surface.
  18. 18. B A S I C D E S I G N – E L E M E N T S TEXTURE
  19. 19. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN The Principles are concepts used to organize or arrange the structural Elements of design. The way in which these principles are applied affects the expressive content, or the message of the work. BALANCE PROPORTION RHYTHM MOVEMENT EMPHASIS / FOCAL POINT UNITY VARIETY HARMONY REPETITION RADIATION PARALLELISM DISTORTION FOREGROUND-BACKGROUND
  20. 20. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S BALANCE Balance is a psychological sense of equilibrium. As a design principle, balance places the parts of a visual in an aesthetically pleasing arrangement. In a composition, balance is formal when both sides are symmetrical in terms of arrangement. Symmetrical Balance Leonardo da Vinci, Last supper. Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa.
  21. 21. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S BALANCE Balance is informal when sides are not exactly symmetrical, but the resulting image is still balanced. Informal balance is more dynamic than formal balance and normally keeps the learner's attention focused on the visual message. Asymmetrical Balance Vincent Van Gogh , The Starry Night , 1889 Kandinsky’s Composition 8
  22. 22. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S BALANCE Symmetrical Balance Art of Balance ,Jessi Palkovic, 2005
  23. 23. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S BALANCE
  24. 24. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S BALANCE Vincent Van Gogh , The Starry Night , 1889 There are three main types of balance, horizontal balance, vertical balance, radial balance.
  25. 25. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S PROPORTION Proportion refers to the relative size and scale of the various elements in a design. It is the relationship between objects, or parts, of a whole. It is necessary to discuss proportion in terms of the context or standard , used to determine proportions.
  26. 26. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S PROPORTION
  27. 27. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S PROPORTION Golden Proportion – Parthenon, Greece Manipulations in Proportion
  28. 28. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S RHYTHM Rhythm is the repetition of visual movement of the elements-colours, shapes, lines, values, forms, spaces, and textures. Variety is essential to keep rhythms exciting and active, and to avoid monotony. Movement and rhythm work together to create the visual equivalent of a musical beat. Robert Delaunay, Rhythm 1912 Piet Mondrian, The Gray Tree, date unknown
  29. 29. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S RHYTHM
  30. 30. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S MOVEMENT The way the artist leads the eye in, around, and through a composition. The path the eye follows. Motion or movement in a visual image occurs when objects seem to be moving in a visual image. Movement in a visual image comes from the kinds of shapes, forms, lines, and curves that are used. “Rotating Snakes” (Kitaoka, 2003) Edgar Degas, entitled, Ballet probe, 1873.
  31. 31. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S MOVEMENT Movement is the art principle that uses some of the elements of art to produce the look of action or to cause the viewer’s eye to sweep over the art work in a certain manner. MOVEMENT Look at the painting and concentrate on how your eyes bounce from one star to another. This is an example of how an artist can create movement in a work of art.
  32. 32. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S MOVEMENT
  33. 33. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S EMPHASIS / FOCAL POINT Emphasis is used by artists to create dominance and focus in their work. Artists can emphasize colour, value, shapes, or other art elements to achieve dominance. Various kinds of contrast can be used to emphasize a centre of interest. Girl with pearl earring, Vermeer The creation of Adam, Michelangelo
  34. 34. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S EMPHASIS / FOCAL POINT
  35. 35. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S EMPHASIS / FOCAL POINT The Meditative Rose , Salvador Dali  Proud Rose , Thomas Kinkade
  36. 36. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S UNITY Unity means the harmony of the whole composition. The parts of a composition made to work together as a total visual theme. Unity is the relationship among the elements of a visual that helps all the elements function together. Unity gives a sense of oneness to a visual image. In other words, the words and the images work together to create meaning.
  37. 37. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S VARIETY Variety provides contrast to harmony and unity. Variety consists of the differences in objects that add interest to a visual image. Variety can be achieved by using opposites or strong contrasts. Changing the size, point of view, and angle of a single object can add variety and interest to a visual image. Breaking a repeating pattern can enliven a visual image. Artwork by Rassouli.
  38. 38. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S UNITY-VARIETY Artwork by Rassouli.  Kandinsky ,Several Circles 1926. In this composition, unity is provided by the repetition of circles on a neutral background. Variety is added by varying the sizes and colours of the circles, and by overlapping them.
  39. 39. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S UNITY-VARIETY   Thomas Pollock Anshutz The Ironworker's Noontime 1880 Unity is suggested by the repetition of the figures and their muscularity. They are also enclosed within the architectural structures of the foundry. Variety is obvious in the number of different poses struck by the ironworkers, while showing off their physiques.
  40. 40. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S HARMONY Harmony in visual design means all parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other. Harmony pulls the pieces of a visual image together. Harmony can be achieved through repetition and rhythm. Patterns or shapes can help achieve harmony. By repeating patterns in an interesting arrangement, the overall visual image comes together.
  41. 41. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S HARMONY Intrinsic Harmony Radial Harmony
  42. 42. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S HARMONY
  43. 43. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S REPETITION Repetition is the use of same thing/ pattern more than once and the same thing/pattern arranged in different location. It is the simplest and most fundamental of all design principles and is the building block of other principles. The repetition of elements of design creates unity within the artwork.
  44. 44. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S REPETITION René Magritte - Golconde, 1953. Jasper Johns - Three Flags, 1958. M.C. Escher - Lizard, 1942
  45. 45. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S RADIATION Radiation is a feeling of movement steadily bursting outwards in all directions from a visible / suggested central point , emission of rays from a central source. Spokes of wheel , petals of flower , spider web suggests radiation principle.
  46. 46. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S PARALLELISM Parallelism is the use of lines lying on the same plane, equidistant at all the points and which are never meeting. It is the simple yet interesting design principle. Composition Red Blue Yellow - Piet Mondrian Holder's Symbolist Painting
  47. 47. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S DISTORTION Distortion is a change of a reality's depiction, altering it in a way that one is able to still recognize the item itself, but notices it is changed in some manner.   Scream , Edvard Munch,1893 Distortion is the deliberate alteration or departure from a normal depiction of shapes , forms, imagery and proportion.
  48. 48. B A S I C D E S I G N – P R I N C I P L E S FOREGROUND-BACKGROUND In a Composition is divided into three parts : Foreground , Middle ground & Background. The Foreground appears closest to the viewer, whereas the Background appears farthest to the viewer and Middle ground appears in between Foreground- Background.

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