BANGLADESH MD. Shadrul Alam
Mechanical Engineering, KUET
OVERVIEW IN BANGLADESH
WHY RENEWABLE ENERGY
Energy can be classify into two types. Renewable energy is one of them, it offers a carbon-free
alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Renewable energy is from an energy resource that is replaced by a
natural process that are replenished constantly such as sunshine, wind, wave power, flowing water
(hydropower), biological processes such as anaerobic digestion, and geothermal heat flow. Renewable
energy sources, that derive their energy from the sun, either directly or indirectly, such as hydro and
wind, are expected to be capable of supplying humanity energy for almost another 1 billion years, at
which point the predicted increase in heat from the sun is expected to make the surface of the earth too
hot for liquid water to exist.
Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, nearly all energy used was renewable. Almost
without a doubt the oldest known use of renewable energy, in the form of traditional biomass to fuel fires,
dates from 790,000 years ago. In 200 BC - Europeans first use Harness Water Energy to Power Mills.
Bangladesh Agricultural University and Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
(BCSIR) launched biogas technology in Bangladesh in early 1970s. Bangladesh has planned to produce
5% of total power generation by 2015 & 10% by 2020 from renewable energy sources like wind, waste &
Types of Energy
The sun has
for billions of
energy is the
that reaches the
Tides are caused
by the pull of
the moon and
sun, and also
the rotation of
the earth. Near
the shore, water
levels can vary.
It is the motion
of the waves
which turns the
Wind is air in
motion. It is
heating of the
by the sun.
energy is energy
derived from the
water. It falls
to gravity. When
it moves, it has
which is used by
energy can be
used as an
source in small
is heat from the
which has stored
sunlight in the
and many other
Overview in Bangladesh
The government is gradually meeting part of the lighting and cooling load of public offices by installing solar
panels. Bangladesh receives an average daily solar radiation in the range of 4-5 kWh/m².Power Division has
initiated a programme to generate 500 MW of solar-based electricity. Most of the capacity addition is from
Solar Home Systems (SHS) implemented by Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL), a
government-owned financial institution.The international community recognises Bangladesh's SHSs as the
fastest growing solar power dissemination programme in the world. Under the Hill Tracts Electrification
Project BPDB has already implemented three solar projects in Juraichori upazila, Barkal upazila &Thanchi
upazila of Rangamati District total of 173.81 kWp Solar PV Systems have been installed.
Under this programme, projects for electrification of rural health centres, educational institutions, E-centres
at union levels, religious establishments and remote railway stations are required to be implemented by
authorities concerned. Private sector is expected to implement commercial projects like Solar Irrigation,
Solar Mini Grid, Solar Park and Solar Rooftop applications.
Overview in Bangladesh
Today, hydropower makes up the largest share of electricity generated from renewable sources as the
global capacity reaches 1,000 GW. The only hydroelectric power plant was established at Kaptai with
present installed capacity of 230 MW. Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) identified two
other sites at Sangu (140 MW) and Matamuhuri (75 MW) for large hydropower plants. Further
exploitation of hydropower appears to be limited due to flat terrain of Bangladesh. Several studies have
identified a few sites having potential ranging from 10 kW to 5 MW, but no appreciable capacity has
yet been established.
Micro/ mini-hydro have limited potential in Bangladesh with exception of Chittagong Hill Tracts
region. A 50 kW micro-hydro plant was installed at Barkal Upazila of Rangamati district in 2005.
BPDB run two ongoing projects these are 50-70 kW Mohamaya Irrigation-cum-Hydro Power Project
at Mirersorai, Chittagong and Rehabilation of 50 kW Micro-Hydro Power Plant at Barkal Upazila of
Overview in Bangladesh
The potential of wind energy is limited to coastal areas, off-shore
islands, rivers sides and other inland open areas with strong wind
regime. In order to generate electricity from Wind Energy, BPDB
installed 4x225 KW = 900 KW capacity grid connected Wind Plant at
Muhuri Dam (0.9 MW) area of Sonagazi in Feni & Kutubdia Island
(1.0 MW) in Cox's Bazaar. Currently, Power Division is
implementing a project with support from USAID to develop wind
map for Bangladesh.
Bio-EnergyBio-energy is energy derived from any form of biomass, including
bio-heat, bio-power, and bio-fuel. Estimated potential of 4 million
biogas plants about 70,000 plants have been established throughout
the country. Two rice husk-based power plants of 250 kW at Gazipur
and 400 kW at Thakurgaon, and seven poultry waste-based power
plants at different sites with aggregated capacities exceeding 1 MW,
have been established at the initiative of private sector with support
from Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL)
Overview in Bangladesh
The working principle of solar wind hybrid system, is the
combination of solar energy system and wind energy
system. The block diagram of solar wind hybrid system is
shown in the figure in which the solar panels and wind
turbine are used for power generation. Connect store solar,
wind and grid energy at home and office whit custom
7.5 MW off Grid Wind-Solar Hybrid System with
HFO/Diesel Based Engine Driven Generator in Hatiya
Island, Noakhali. Another project of 1000 KW Wind
Battery Hybrid Power Plant at Kutubdia Island was
completed in 2008 which consists of 50 Wind Turbines of
20 kW capacity each.
In the chart, there have 2.86% renewable energy. Rather than
there have many off-grid energy generation maximum of
these uses in village and for private purpose. For the efficient
use of energy, steps have been taken to encourage/promote
the use of heat reflective glasses for Passive Cooling of
commercial buildings, Solar Powered Security Lighting in
urban buildings and replacement of Diesel/Electric Pumps by
Solar Irrigation Pumps, replacement of Electric/Gas Dryer by
Solar Dryer, replacement of Electric/Gas Heater by Solar
Water Heater among the consumers of distribution zones of
BPDB. Electricity Week Program has already been launched
since 2010 with a view to promote energy savings campaigns
at consumer and school level. This program is nationally
observed on 7th December each year.
Why Renewable Energy?
Therefore, renewable energy is one of the preferable green sources of energy for next decades.
Renewables are great for our energy portfolio because they are inexhaustible and won’t pollute by emitting toxic
chemicals and gases. One major advantage with the use of renewable energy is that as it is renewable it is therefore
sustainable and so will never run out.
The use of renewable energy has risen considerably in recent times, both in developed & developing countries. REN21's
Renewables 2014 Global Status Report indicates that renewable energy provided an estimated 19% of global energy
consumption in 2012 compared to 16.7 % in 2010. International Energy Agency projects that electricity generation from
renewables may overtake natural gas by 2015 and perhaps coal by 2035.
Even more importantly, renewable energy produces little or no waste products such as carbon dioxide or other chemical
pollutants, so has minimal impact on the environment. One disadvantage with renewable energy is that it is difficult to
generate the quantities of electricity that are as large as those produced by traditional fossil fuel generators. Otherside
non renewable energy like as Nuclear power is politically very sensitive and its technology is very difficult to obtain. By
far it is the most risky in terms of damage it can cause in time of man-made or natural disasters.
Recently a number of researchers, organizations and Bangladesh Power Development Board (BPDB) performed series of
studies to generate wind profile data in Bangladesh. It has been reported that the wind speed in Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar,
Kuakata, Moheshkhali, Feni and Noakhali coastal regions are greater than 6.5 m/s. These wind speeds in the coastal
regions are suitable for both water pumping and electricity generation.