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Gas turbine technology


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Published in: Technology, Business

Gas turbine technology

  1. 1. Ashish Kumar MDS12M002
  2. 2. Introduction Basic structure and parts Working mechanism Types Application Role in Power sector Performance variables Reference
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Type of internal combustion engine Uses air as the working fluid
  4. 4. Turbine 3 stages Impulse Type Combustor 10 cans Reverse Flow Type Compressor 17 stages Axial Type
  5. 5. • Brayton cycle is the ideal cycle for gas-turbine T P= Const. 1 2 3 4 QH QL 1-2 isentropic compression (in compressor) 2-3 const. pressure heat-addition (in combustion chamber) 3-4 isentropic expansion (in turbine) 4-1 const. pressure heat rejection (exhaust) s
  6. 6. Combustion chamber Fan – low pressure compressor 6 stage high pressure compressor 8 stage intermediate pressure compressor
  7. 7. Compressor  Compressor used in gas turbine is Axial –Flow type Axial-flow compressors are dynamic rotating compressors that use arrays of fan-like airfoils to progressively compress the working fluid
  8. 8. Axial Compressor Modern Compressor Designs are Extremely Efficient gas turbine performance rating depends greatly on the compressor efficiency High Performance Made Possible by Advanced Aerodynamics, Coatings, and Small Blade Tip Clearances Even Small Amounts of Deposits on Compressor Blades May Cause Large Performance Losses Inlet Guide Vane Rotor Blades(rotating) Stator Vanes (fixed to case)
  9. 9. Combustor
  10. 10. Combustion air, with the help of swirler vanes, flows in around the fuel nozzle and mixes with the fuel. This air is called primary air and represents approximately 25 percent of total air ingested by the engine. The fuel-air mixture by weight is roughly 15 parts of air to 1 part of fuel. The remaining 75 percent of the air is used to form an air blanket around the burning gases and to lower the temperature.
  11. 11. 1 2 3 5 7 The Turbine Two Basic Types - Radial and Axial Almost all industrial Gas Turbines use axial flow turbines Like the Compressor, Turbine Expansion Takes Place in “Stages” a row of stationary blades (nozzles) followed by a row of moving blades = one stage.
  12. 12. Axial Turbine Two Stage Axial Turbine rotation Rotor Blade Nozzle rotation Rotor Blade Nozzle First Stage Turbine Nozzle Sees the Hottest Temperatures Referred to as TIT (Turbine Inlet Temperature) or TRIT (Turbine Rotor Inlet Temperature) Modern engines run TRIT as high as 1500C (some even higher)
  13. 13. The axial flow turbine consists of stages, each made up primarily of a set of stationary vanes followed by a row of rotating blades, Typically modern aircraft gas turbine blades have both impulse and reaction sections.
  14. 14. Exhaust System  Must perform four function Reduce noise to the atmosphere Hot gases away from personnel Minimize backpressure to gas turbines Mechanically well during extreme temperature changes.
  15. 15. Types Shaft power gas turbines: is a gas turbine whose goal is mainly to deliver shaft power Jet engine gas turbines: is a turbine whose goal is mainly to deliver thrust
  16. 16. Cogeneration Power Plant Combined Cycle Power Plant
  17. 17. H-25 Power Output 40,500 kW Overall Efficiency More than 80 % Steam Generator H-25 Gas Turbine HRSG Air Fuel Water
  18. 18. Typical Steam Production Quantity for H-25 Co-generation System (H-25 Uprate) Co-generation system with HRSG provides 55-70 ton/hr steam UNFIRED Steam Production HRSG Inlet Temp. 562C FIRED Steam Production HRSG Inlet Temp. 700C 45 55 65 75 85 2 4 6 Steam Pressure (MPa.a) 8 SteamFlow (t/h) UNFIRED Steam Production 500C 450C 400C 350C 300C 250C Saturate d 70 80 90 100 110 120 2 4 6 Steam Pressure (MPa.a) 8 SteamFlow (t/h) FIRED Steam Production 23Doc No. : GKKP-13-009 Rev.0 © Hitachi, Ltd. 2013. All rights reserved. 450C 500C 400C 350C 300C 250C Saturate d
  19. 19. Typical Performance (2xH-25 + 2xHRSG + 1 Steam Turbine) System Configuration Performance (Typical) Fuel Air Steam Turbine Generator HRSGH-25 Gas Turbine & Generator Condenser Fuel Air 24Doc No. : GKKP-13-009 Rev.0 © Hitachi, Ltd. 2013. All rights reserved. H-25 H-25 Uprate Total Plant Output 87, 800 kW 115,900 kW Gas Turbine Output 29,730 kW x 2 40,500 kW x 2 Steam Turbine Output 28,340 kW 34,900 kW Gross Efficiency 50.3 % 51.9 %
  20. 20. Environmental factor Material Factor Operation Factor Fuel Exhaust Temp.
  21. 21. Ambient Temp. Ambient pressure Relative Humidity
  22. 22. Turbine Performance is changed by anything that affects the density and mass flow of the air intake to the compressor Ref. GE3567H
  23. 23. The air density Reduces as the site elevation increase Result airflow and output decrease
  24. 24. Turbine exhaust Temp is limited by material condition As we get higher efficiency when we increase in firing temp. result in increase in exhaust temp Till now maximum exhaust temp limit is 582 c
  25. 25. Efficiency at Part Load Operation Gas Turbine Thermal Efficiency / ref versus Load P/Pmax (Typical, for 3 arbitrarily selected industrial engines) 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 50 60 70 80 90 100 Load (%) Rel.ThermalEfficiency(%)
  26. 26. Heated fuel result in higher turbine efficiency due to the reduced fuel flow required to raise the total gas temp to firing temp. The source of heat for the fuel typically is IP feedwater Since use of this energy in the gas turbine fuel heating system is thermodynamically advantageous Combined efficiency is improved by approximately 0.6%
  27. 27. Base Load, Peak Load and Stand-By Units • Engine Life depends on Firing Temperature (and number of starts*) – Thus, a peak load unit can be fired at higher temperatures without any design changes – Higher Firing Temperature means more power, but shorter engine life. * According to some manufacturers
  28. 28. Very high power-to-weight ratio, compared to reciprocating engines; Moves in one direction only, with far less vibration than a reciprocating engine. Fewer moving parts than reciprocating engines. Waste heat is dissipated almost entirely in the exhaust. This results in a high temperature exhaust stream that is very usable for boiling water in a combined cycle, or for cogeneration.
  29. 29. Low operating pressures. High operation speeds. Low lubricating oil cost and consumption. Can run on a wide variety of fuels.
  30. 30. Cost is much greater than for a similar-sized reciprocating engine since the materials must be stronger and more heat resistant. Machining operations are also more complex Usually less efficient than reciprocating engines, especially at idle Longer start up than reciprocating engines Delayed response to changes in power settings.
  31. 31. • Caterpillar Power Generation Systems • Electro-Motive Diesel Inc. • GE Gas Engines • Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. • MWM Rolls-Royce Hitachi Ltd. Toshiba Ltd.
  32. 32. Wikipedia GE Ref. Documents 6567, 3567 Hitachi Gas turbine Catalog