“Gamification is an inadvertent con.
It tricks people into believing that there‟s a simple way to imbue their thing ... with the psychological, emotional and social power of a great game.” Margaret Robertson Game Designer & Consultant to EA, Sony
“Most gamification is just „pointsification.‟
…too much gamification is about zero sum games: often, for me to win, you‟ve got to lose.” Matthew Jensen Game Designer Co-founder, Natron Baxter Applied Gaming, Co-founder, Gameful
(real) Games are about intrinsic
rewards Research show that fun in gaming is from intrinsic factors – experiences of competence, self-efficacy, and mastery Raph Koster, A Theory of Fun for Game Design (2004)
Fact Economists developed the theory
of games to mathematically capture human behavior in strategic situations. It has been used to develop war strategies, nuclear weapon strategy, and more. Serious stuff.
Classic game theory: The Prisoners‟
Dilemma Games arise when multiple actors with differing objectives compete or cooperate for scarce resources. Does that sound like your workplace?
Example: the Career Game “We
compete for jobs: the more desirable the job, the tougher the competition. Most people readily understand this. But, fewer people recognize that the pursuit of an open job can be framed as one „move‟ in a multifaceted game called „a career.” Stephen Miles Vice Chairman, Heidrick & Struggles Author, Your Career Game
The Cover-Your-Ass game “When credit
and blame are mismanaged and unfair, people shut down, become demotivated, and focus more on covering their rears rather than moving forward. When credit and blame are managed properly, people are willing and able to experiment, learn and grow.” Ben Dattner Professor of Industrial & Organizational Psychology, NYU Author, The Blame Game
The Bonus Game “…when the
tasks involve higher levels of cognition or creativity, the monetary incentives actually stifle performance rather than drive it. In addition, people undertake activities for reasons of mastery, purpose, etc. rather than specifically for monetary reward.” Daniel Pink Author, Drive
Gamification: “One of Many Design
tools for Engaging Systems” Good Design Behavioral Economics / FLOW Gamification Great Copy / Tone Engagement loops Points Badges Leaderboards Auto-triggers Skumorphism Typography / Color Layout Cohort Analysis Marcus Gosling Principal Design Architect, salesforce.com Rypple lead designer Co-founder IMVU (50m users) IDEO Simplicity / Subtraction Social Design
You have to design the
right game And that happens slowly, carefully & iteratively 24h User insight Game design Release 7 days Observe behavior Refine game element 24h Release 7 days
Another critical ingredient: Game Designers*!
Do we need this slide anymore? Marcus Gosling UX Designer, Rypple Previously, co-founder, imvu Ryan Dewsbury Product Designer, Rypple Creator of KDice & GPokr * Alert: Be wary of software companies claiming their products are gameified…when they don‟t have game designers on staff!
“Game elements are like an
amplifier: There has to be a genuine sound first – a value, an interest, a motivation – for the amplifier to do any good.” Sebastian Deterding Gamification & UX designer and researcher
Badges can be silly Badges
devoid of meaning can be silly. For many, the badge is the only benefit of playing the game. And that‟s okay in certain contexts. Or they can be meaningful Military badges are meaningful because the underlying activity is meaningful. The badges are filled with shared symbolism.
Not just a piece of
metal Symbol of meaningful impact "Let it be known that he who wears the military order of the purple heart has given of his blood in the defense of his homeland and shall forever be revered by his fellow countrymen." George Washington, August 7, 1782
Identity at work Badges as
reputation You reputation at work is important for a host of reasons. Managing this identity is a powerful intrinsic driver. Badges created by peers for meaningful achievements lets people share successes and manage their reputation. Badges thus have a shared meaning that leads to them becoming trusted indicators of meaningful activities.
Positive Behavior To: Make it
easy. Make it Social. Joy Gao Cc: Subject: Thanks! Thanks for the awesome L&L! I learnt a ton! People like giving others a thanks for meaningful achievements, help, etc. Recognition is tremendously motivating. Make it crazy simple to give people thanks, and for others to see it. Easy and social.
Positive Behavior In games and
at work, people like to embark on Epic Quests. They like to pick their quests, gather the troops and take on challenges head on. Design Element Make it easy for people to define their own Epic Quests, enlist contributors & share real-time progress on their quests. And to collect badges representing their successful quests.
Game element Scoreboards are a
common game element. Harmless in the virtual world of games. Unintended consequences “Depending on [work context], leaderboards can feel like yet another form of control and pressure, or as merely informational and supportive” *Sebastian Deterding, Meaningful Gamification
Invite coworkers $25 Unintended consequences
% of new users that invite coworkers Game element $25 reward Monetary incentives should drive activity right? After all, people like rewards, and money‟s a great reward! with "invite your "invite your team" team to join you" + reasons why Wrong! Users emailed us saying getting paid for invitations in a work context was inappropriate. They preferred to invite others to simply join them on Work.com.
Difficult Behavior We all know
that getting regular feedback is good for your performance at work. But its hard (& scary) to get constructive feedback from people you work with! Simplicity in design The easier we made it to ask for feedback, the more people used it. The more complicated the process (unnecessary fields, ratings, options…choices), the less people do it.
Helpful lessons on Enterprise Gamification
Work is already filled with games. They‟re mostly poorly designed. Get people on the team with experience in building games. Design, build, learn, design, ... repeat. Leverage intrinsic motivators at work. Amplify positive behaviors. Watch for unintended consequences of game elements in the social context of work. Simplicity counts.