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Waterproofing in building construction

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Helps understand building construction and how water proofing in done in buildings, especially basements.

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Waterproofing in building construction

  1. 1. WATER PROOFING BUILDING CONSTRUCTION REPORT RIYA BAGCHI III YEAR – B D.O.A : 29.10.2015 D.O.S. : 05.11.2015 SHEET NO. 1 WATER PROOFING IS THE METHOD OF CREATING A PROTECTIVE LAYERING AROUND THE BUILDING PREVENTING THE WATER FROM SEEPING INTO THE BUILDING. WATER PROOFING IN BASEMENTS IS CARRIED OUT SO AS TO PREVENT THE INTRUSION OF FLUIDS OR SMELLS INTO THE BASEMENTS. WATER INTRUSION DAMAGES STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS. THE IMPORTANT ELEMENTS OF WATERPROOFING ARE SOIL, CONCRETE (BUILDING) AND WATER. THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATER-RELATED PROBLEMS WHICH CAN OCCUR IN THE BASEMENTS CAN BE SEEN BELOW: WHY IS WATER PROOFING ESSENTIAL? THE ABOVE PICTURES SHOW THE PROBLEMS IMPOSED ON BASEMENTS BY FLUID MATTER (GASEOUS + LIQUID) THUS MAKING THE BASEMENTS UNHYGIENIC AND WEAK. WATERPROOFING IS ESSENTIAL AT BELOW-GRADE AREAS TO PREVENT WATER INTRUSION AND STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. IT IS GENERALLY DONE WHEN THE BUILDING IS ON OR BELOW THE GROUND LEVEL. FLOODING, WATER DAMAGE AND MOLDS (HIGH MOISTURE LEVELS LEAD TO MOLDS) ARE MANY OF THE CAUSES THAT DAMAGE CONSTRUCTION. DIAGRAM SHOWING THE DIFFERENT TYPE OF LIQUID LEAKAGE/ SEEPAGES IN BASEMENTS WINDOW SWEAT HUMIDITY SUB SURFACE WATER STANDING WATER IN BASEMENT WHITEMOLDS IN BASEMENT ODOUR IN BASEMENTCAUSE OF MOISTURE IN BASEMENT
  2. 2. WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI BASICALLY, THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS: • POSITIVE SIDE WATER PROOFING SYSTEMS (ATTACKING SIDE) • NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS (DEFENDING SIDE) THE CHOICE OF WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS TO BE USED DEPENDS ON THE CONDITIONS OF THE SITE. THERE ARE ALWAS MULTIPLE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS WORKING TOGETHER ON THE SAME SITE FOR ADDITIONAL PROTECTION. A THIRD TYPE OF WATERPROOFING SYSTEM IS THE BLIND-SIDE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM. WITH BLINDSIDE WATERPROOFING, THE DRAINAGE AND WATERPROOFING MEMBRANES ARE INSTALLED BEFORE THE CONCRETE STRUCTURE IS POURED. THE CONCRETE OR OTHER WALL MATERIALS ARE PUT INTO PLACE LATER. BLINDSIDE IS A VERY DIFFICULT APPLICATION TO WATERPROOF. • POSITIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM IT IS THE SAME SIDE OF THE STRUCTURE AS THE SOURCEOF WATER. IT IS DESIGNED TO STOP THE WATER BEFORE IT GETS A CHANCE TO ENTER THE STRUCTURE AND DAMAGE IT. • NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM NEGATIVE SIDE IS THE INTERIOR SIDE OPPOSITE THE WATER PRESSURE. IT IS MOST COMMONLY USED IN: -REMEDIAL WORK -ELEVATOR PITS -TANK LINERS FIGURE SHOWS HOW WATER PENETRATES INTO CONCRETE FIGURES EXPLAINING POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SIDE WATERPROOFING 2
  3. 3. VARIOUS TYPES OF POSITIVE WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS ARE AS FOLLOWS: • SHEET MEMBRANE SYSTEM • LIQUID APPLIED SYSTEM • CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING • BOARD / PROTECTION SYSTEM • DRAINAGE BOARD. SHEET MEMBRANE SYSTEM SHEET MEMBRANES ARE GENERALLY OF UNIFORM THICKNESS, GENERALLY MADE OF RUBBER. THESE ARE BASICALLY U.V. PROTECTED WATER AND CHEMICAL REPELLENT SHEETS INSTALLED IN THE POSITIVE SIDE. IT THUS PREVENTS CORROSION TO THE BASEMENT. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF SHEET MEMBRANE SYSTEMS: • COLD APPLIED SYSTEM • HOT APPLIED SYSTEM COLD APPLIED SYSTEM: IN THIS SYSTEM, HEATING IS NOT REQUIRED. IT IS EASY TO APPLY, BUT REQUIRES A LOT OF SKILLS. COMES IN PARTICULAR SIZES, AND HENCE OVERLAPPING HAS TO BE DONE. THERE SHOULDN’T BE ANY JOINTS. ASAPHALT IS THE BASIC COMPONENT. SHEET MEMBRANE SYSTEMCOLD APPLICATION ON ROOF VALLEY OF A HOUSE APPLICATION OF SHEET MEMBRANE SYSTEM WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 3
  4. 4. HOT APPLIED SYSTEM IS WHEN THE SHEET MEMBRANE IS HEATED AND PASTED. IT IS MAJORLY USED IN TERRACCING. ITS BASIC COMPONENT IS BITUMEN. OVERLAPPING IS VERY LESS IN THIS CASE HENCE IT SAVES MONEY. THE DISADVANTAGE IS THAT VERTICALAPPLICATION IS DIFFICULT AND MAY CAUSE ACCIDENTS. PICTURE SHOWING HOT APPLIED SYSTEM APPLICATION OF HEAT SHEET MEMBRANE FEW MORE PICTURES SHOWING THE APPLICATION PROCEDURE. WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 4
  5. 5. LIQUID APPLIED SYSTEMS LIQUID APPLIED MEMBRANE (LAM) IS A LOW-VISCOSITY, LIQUID-APPLIED WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE FOR USE ON HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL SURFACES. LAM IS MOST COMMONLY USED FOR TWO-PLY FABRIC REINFORCED APPLICATIONS. FAST CURE, MOISTURE CURE, ELASTOMERIC MATERIAL CURES INTO A SEAMLESS, MONOLITHIC, RUBBER-LIKE MEMBRANE VERY LOW ODOR SOLVENT FREE CAN BE APPLIED TO GREEN CONCRETE EXCELLENT ALTERNATIVE TO HOT RUBBBERIZED ASPHALT APPLICATIONS THAT ELIMINATE MANY LOGISTICALAND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH A HOT SYSTEM. IT IS A NEGATIVE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM WHICH CAN BE TURNED POSITIVE. IT IS GENERALLY A THIN LAYER, HENCE MULTIPLE COATING IS DONE. LIQUID MEMBRANE APPLICATION : ROLLERS LIQUID MEMBRANE LAYERS SPRAY APPLICATION OF FLUID APPLIED MEMBRANE TYPICAL BELOW-GRADE APPLICATION DETAILING FOR FLUID-APPLIED MEMBRANES. WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 5
  6. 6. CEMENTITIOUS APPLIED SYSTEMS THESE ARE GENERALLY ADMIXTURE BASED OR CRYSTALLINE BASED. IT IS A WATERPROOFING COMPOUND FOR GREEN CONCRETE. CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS ARE PROBABLY THE EASIEST WATERPROOFING MATERIALS TO USE. THEY'RE READILY AVAILABLE FROM SUPPLIERS OF MASONRY PRODUCTS, AND THEY'RE EASY TO MIX AND APPLY. THE CHIEF DISADVANTAGE IS THAT CEMENTITIOUS PRODUCTS HAVE NO GIVE TO THEM PROBABLY BECAUSE CEMENT JUST DOESN'T STRETCH TO ANY DEGREE WORTH MENTIONING. THEY WILL STAND UP FINE TO A HEAD OF WATER, BUT WILL TOLERATE ALMOST NO JOINT OR CRACK MOVEMENT. LIQUID CEMENTITIOUS APPLICATIONBLOCK CAVITY WALL WATERPROOFING USING CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING. SPRAY APPLICATION OF CEMENTITIOUS COATING APPLICATION OF CEMEMTITIOUS COATING. WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 6
  7. 7. BOARD PROTECTION SYSTEM (BLIND SIDE WATERPROOFING) PROTECTION COURSE (VIBRAFLEX PC) WATERPROOFING PROTECTION BOARD IS A SEMI-FLEXIBLE CORE BOARD COMPOSED OF A MINERAL-FORTIFIED ASPHALTIC CORE BETWEEN TWO OUTSIDE LAYERS OF ASPHALT-IMPREGNATED FIBREGLASS MAT. THE PRODUCT IS AVAILABLE IN TWO NOMINAL THICKNESSES: 3.2 MM (1/8″) AND 6.4 MM (1/4″). USES PROTECTION COURSE (VIBRAFLEX PC) IS USED FOR PROTECTION OF WATERPROOFING MEMBRANES FROM DAMAGE BY BACKFILL OR CONSTRUCTION TRAFFIC. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS INCLUDE PLAZA DECKS, ROOF TERRACES, PROMENADE DECKS, PEDESTRIAN CONCOURSES, TUNNELS, PARKING GARAGE DECKS, PLANTER BOXES AND FOUNDATION WALLS. THICKNESS OF THE BOARDS DEPENDS ON THE HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE. PICTURE OF A PROTECTION BOARD ATTACHED TO THE CONSTRUCTION AREA. WATERPROOFING USING PROTECTION BOARD WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 7
  8. 8. DIMPLE BOARD THESE ARE ONE OF THE MOST VERSATILE AND EFFECTIVE DRAINAGE PRODUCTS ON THE MARKET. INVENTED IN THE MID-1960S, TODAY THEY ARE MADE BY MORE THAN A DOZEN DIFFERENT MANUFACTURERS, AND CAN BE USED FOR NEARLY EVERY DRAINAGE SITUATION IMAGINABLE. DIMPLED DRAIN SHEETS ARE USED ON EVERYTHING FROM SMALL RESIDENTIAL BASEMENTS TO ENORMOUS COMMERCIAL PROJECTS EXTENDING 50 FEET BELOW GRADE. THEY CAN EVEN BE USED HORIZONTALLY. THEY CAN BE USED FOR WATERPROOFING IN BASEMENTS, OR EVEN FOR TERRACING. WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 8 DIMPLE BOARDS USED FOR TERRACING DRAINAGE IN A DIMPLE BOARD (EXPLAINED IN THE NEXT SHEET) PARTS OF A DIMPLE BOARD DIMPLE BOARDS
  9. 9. BOARD DRAINAGE WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 8 FIGURE SHOWING HOW DRAINAGE TAKES PLACE WHILE USING WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE VARIOUS SUMPS AND PUMPS ARE ADDED TO THE BASEMENTS. THE WATER FROM THE MEMBRANES (DIMPLE BOARD) COLLECTS INTO THE PERFORATED PIPES AND HENCE DRAINAGE IS CARRIED OUT USING THESE PUMPS. SMALL CHANNELS ARE ALSO INSTALLED IN THE BASEMENTS.
  10. 10. SURFACE AFTER CRYSTALLINE WATERPROOFING CEMENTITIOUS CAPILLARY CRYSTALLINE WATERPROOF COATING WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 9 VARIOUS TYPES OF NEGATIVE WATERPROOFING SYSTEMS ARE AS FOLLOWS: • CRYSTALLINE CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEMS • FLEXIBLE CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEMS (FOR MINUTE CRACKS) • FLUID APPLIED SYSTEM.. CRYSTALLINE CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEM CEMENT-BASED CAPILLARY CRYSTALLINE WATERPROOFING COATING (CCCW), WHICH IS IN THE FORM OF GRAY POWDER, IS COMPOSED OF ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT AS BASE MATERIAL AND ACTIVE CHEMICALS. CARRIED BY WATER, THE ACTIVE CHEMICALS PENETRATE INTO CONCRETE SUBSTRATE AND REACT WITH UNHYDRATED CEMENT GRANULES TO PRODUCE INSOLUBLE CRYSTALS, WHICH BLOCK THE CAPILLARY CHANNELS IN CONCRETE, MAKING THE CONCRETE ITSELF BECOME WATERPROOF. WHEN SMALL CRACKS DEVELOP IN THE CONCRETE SUBSTRATE DUE TO INTERNAL STRESS OR EXTERNAL FORCE, AS ALONG AS THERE IS WATER, THE ABOVE MENTIONED REACTION WILL HAPPEN AGAIN AND THE CRYSTALS PRODUCED WILL FILL THE CRACKS, REALIZING SELF-REPAIR.
  11. 11. ALONGSIDE IMAGE SHOWING A SMALL SAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM WATERPROOFING RIYA BAGCHI 10 FLEXIBLE CEMENTITIOUS SYSTEMS IT IS A POLYMER MODIFIED CEMENTITIOUS COATING. IT CAN BE APPLIED EITHER ON THE POSITIVE OR THE NEGATIVE SIDE USING A BRUSH OR SPRAY. IT HELPS TO FILL UP CRACKS. FLEXIBLE CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING PRODUCTS ARE TWO COMPONENT BRUSHABLE SLURRIES OR TROWELABLE MORTARS WITH EXCEPTIONAL FLEXIBILITY DESTINED TO SOLVE SOME CHRONIC AND THORNY PROBLEMS IN THE WATERPROOFING INDUSTRY. ADVANTAGES OF FLEXIBLE CEMENTITIOUS WATERPROOFING PRODUCTS - AMPLE FLEXIBILITY TO BRIDGE CRACKS – EXISTING AND FUTURE - CAN WITHSTAND NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE PRESSURES - HAVE EXCELLENT WATERPROOFING PROPERTIES - ARE EASY TO MIX AND USE - CAN DIRECTLY ACCEPT TILES OR WATER BASED PAINTS. -CAN BE COMBINED WITH VARIOUS REINFORCEMENTS FOR PROPRIETARY SOLUTION FLEXIBLE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM: APPLICATION USING A BRUSH SPRAY WATERPROOFING

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