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12. environmental issues, impacts, mitigations

environmental issues, impacts, mitigations

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12. environmental issues, impacts, mitigations

  1. 1. Environmental Issues, Impacts, and Mitigations of Roads Gordon Keller, PE, GE Geotechnical Engineer grkeller@fs.fed.us gordonrkeller@gmail.com
  2. 2. A Well Built Minimum Impact Road • Planning/Environmental Analysis • Location • Design • Construction • Maintenance • Road Closure or Obliteration
  3. 3. GOOD PLANNING + GOOD ENGINEERING (with conscience) = GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL MITIGACION
  4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
  5. 5. What are the impacts from roads? Positive Impacts • Improving quality of life • Better access to schools and clinics • Promoting development of areas • More rapid movement of goods and services • Lower operating costs • Lower cost of food and products • Everybody wants a road
  6. 6. What are the impacts from roads? Negative Impacts • Degradation of water quality • Wildlife mortality and habitat fragmentation • Barriers to fish and AOP movement • Promoting movement of invasive species • Loss of terrain • Land use changes –forests to crops • Pressure on reserves and sensitive areas • Promotion of landslides and stream channel changes • Damage to coastal areas, mangroves, and swamps • High cost of maintenance and repairs • Use of resources • Deforestation and illegal logging/hunting • Pollution and trash • Traffic accidents
  7. 7. CURRENT ISSUES Water quality degradation
  8. 8. Clean Water Dirty Water
  9. 9. Rolling Dips
  10. 10. • Culverts • Fords and LWX • Bridges Drainage Crossing Structures
  11. 11. A Fish Barrier Fish Passage
  12. 12. THE PROBLEM
  13. 13. Fish Baffles Fish Ladder
  14. 14. http://www.stream.fs.fed.us/fishxing/aop_pdfs.html http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering/ hydraulics/pubs/11008/hif11008.pdf http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/engineering /hydraulics/pubs/11008/hif11008.pdf
  15. 15. Wildlife Mortality
  16. 16. How big of a problem is mortality, anyway? • Vehicle-caused wildlife mortality estimated at ONE MILLION vertebrates each day in US • Deer/vehicle collisions cost BILLIONS of dollars ANNUALLY • Virtually all wildlife species affected • Hundreds of people killed annually
  17. 17. Huan Xi Township, China
  18. 18. V-Shape Inverted U-Shape Better!
  19. 19. Monkey “Overpass”
  20. 20. Lake Jackson- turtle fence leading into a culvert •
  21. 21. Think in the Long Term
  22. 22. Noxious Weeds/Invasive Species
  23. 23. Kosrae, Micronesia
  24. 24. Roads/Riparian Restoration Team KNAPWEEDSBLACK LOCUSTSTAR THISTLEMUSK THISTLE PURPLE LOOSESTRIFE KUDZUTAMARIX LEAFY SPURGEAILANTHUSRUSSIAN OLIVE
  25. 25. Roads/Riparian Restoration Team Costos Anuales en Billones de Dolares $1 Diseases $1 Mollusks $37 Mammals $25 Microbes $57 Insects $34 Plants $1 Fish $138 Billon por Ano!!
  26. 26. Roads/Riparian Restoration Team
  27. 27. Roads/Riparian Restoration Team Referencias 2002 David Pimentel, Lori Lach, Rodolfo Zuniga, and Doug Morrison. Chapter 16 Environmental and Economic Costs Associated with Non- Indigenous Species in the United States
  28. 28. COLONIALIZATION AND LAND USE CHANGE
  29. 29. LANDSLIDES
  30. 30. COASTAL IMPACTS ON MANGROVES AND REEFS
  31. 31. DEFORESTATION AND ILLEGAL LOGGING
  32. 32. POLLUTION AND TRASH
  33. 33. DUST
  34. 34. TRAFFIC SAFETY AND ACCIDENTS
  35. 35. Road Safety Audits
  36. 36. POOR OR MISSING SIGNS
  37. 37. IMPROVING SIGHT DISTANCE

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