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Rational planning and Sustainability


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Rational Planning concepts and relation with the sustainable concepts is explained with appropriate detail case studies from over the world. Indian scenario is then over-viewed..

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Rational planning and Sustainability

  1. 1. RATIONAL PLANNING AND SUSTAINABILITY Group Members: Jaysing Jadhav Akshata Karpe Saudamini Telang
  2. 2. What is Rational planning • Rational planning includes comprehensive, long-range view and a systematic , analytical approach in a planning process
  3. 3. RATIONAL PLANNING MODEL • Economics, political science, and other disciplines greatly enriched the planning education and research. • Edward Banfield was the first to define a model of rational planning (Banfield1955); his write-up is still cited frequently. 1. Ends reduction and elaboration 2. Design of courses of action 3. Comparative evaluation of consequences 4. Choice among alternatives 5. Implementation of the chosen alternative • Many othershave written their own versions of the rational model(Stuart 1969; Lichfield 1975). Barclay Hudson called it‘synoptic planning;’ and this term is sometimes used(Hudson 1979). • The model gave the birth to the Rational Planning Model • The most widely applied model in planning practice so far, Due to its simplicity and apparent logic • Viewed as applicable in all public domains everywhere around the world.
  4. 4. RATIONAL PLANNING MODEL: Definition • The rational planning model is the process of realizing a problem, establishing and evaluating planning criteria, creating alternatives, implementing alternatives, and monitoring progress of the alternatives. • Used in designing neighborhoods, cities, and regions. The rational planning model is central in the development of modern urban planning and transportation planning
  5. 5. Flow chart explaining: RATIONAL PLANNING MODEL
  6. 6. Advantages disadvantages • Advantages: 1. Generate all possible solutions 2. Generate objective assessment criteria 3. assumes accurate, stable and complete knowledge of all the alternatives, preferences, goals and consequences 4. assumes a rational, reasonable, non – political world 5.Widely applicable. • Disadvantages: 1.It is a group-based decision making process. If the problem is not identified properly then we may face a problem as each and every member of the group might have a different definition of the problem. 2.Whole assessment should be correct otherwise one can get wrong solution 3. Planner defines the problem not goal. 4.Time consuming process.
  7. 7. Case study Chicago : • Chicago Area Transportation Study(CATS) • Chicago Area Transportation Study during the late1950s and early 1960s illustrates execution of the rational planning model. • The model is outlined in ten steps • The study shows that the rational model is workable but raises questions about whether it is effective in influencing decisions.
  8. 8. CATS: TEN STEPS • 1.Data collection: survey conducted in three areas ; travel, land-use, and the transportation system. • 2.Analysis of data: The planner tries to make sense out of the bare facts and understand what is happening and why. The object is to interpret and explain the data, to find cause-effect relationships. • 3.Forecasting the future context:Came up with a population forecast, which was based on published forecasts for the United States and Illinois (Chicago Area Transportation Study 1960, 6-8). Then came a forecast of economic activity, for which a 50-sector input-output model of the local economy was formulated (Hoch 1959).
  9. 9. Ten Steps.. • 4. Establishing goals : What does the community want to achieve in the future? 1) The planner selects the goals, based on professional experience and personal judgment (elitist). 2) Someone gives the goals to the planner (the legislative body, policymaking board, or some other client). 3) The planner tries to find out shared goals through public opinion surveys or citizen participation programs. The last approach is currently quite popular. CATS used the combination of 1 and 2. Dr. Carroll and Creighton drafted and discussed possible goal statements with advisory committees and the Policy Committee. These were the stated goals 1. Greater speed 2. Increased safety 3. Lower operating costs 4. Economy in new construction 5. Minimizing disruption 6. Promoting better land development
  10. 10. Ten Steps.. • 5.Design of alternatives: The planner devises alternative ways of achieving the goals. This step requires the most creativity. 1.In physical planning, this step involves design in the sense that architects and engineers use the word. 2.In nonphysical areas, alternatives may be different programs, laws and regulations, or institutional arrangements CATS staff did involve physical design: drawing networks of highway and transit routes. List of design principles was developed to guide the planners.
  11. 11. Ten Steps.. • 6.Testing of alternatives:This is a forecast of how each alternative would perform in the future context. i. CATS put great emphasis on developing the methodologyknown as "travel demand forecasting.” • 7. Evaluation of alternatives: This means a comparison of how well the alternatives achieve the goals. Alternatives are made in which comparison between the plans is made eg. Whether Plan A is better than Plan B. etc. CATS used benefit-cost analysis to evaluate the alternative plans. Four types of costs were estimated 1.Travel time2.accident 3. operating costs 4. construction cost
  12. 12. Ten Steps.. • 8. Selection of one alternative:The transit plan recommended construction of onenew rail line and extension of three existing lines, coordination of service between the subway-elevated system and the private railroads, installation of moving sidewalks in the Loop, construction of parking garages at outer terminals of rail transit lines, and experimenting with express bus service on two expressways. • 9. Implementation: Financing and programming the plan; It was intended to show that the highways could be built without raising taxes. Projected revenues from existing sources (fuel taxes, registrations, and federal aid) would be sufficient to fund completion of the plan by 1980. But CATS had no operating responsibility or implementing power. That was up to the sponsoring agencies: the City, County, State, and Federal governments.
  13. 13. Ten Steps.. • 10. Monitoring: The planner should periodically review the plan to see whether it works, and if not, to suggest changes. Sometimes this step is called “feedback”. In 1970 CATS repeated the major travel surveys to update its data base. Because the political tide turned against highways,very little of Plan L-3 was realized. The top priority was the Crosstown Expressway, a northsouth route in the Cicero Avenue corridor. This became highly controversial and was the subject of much political debate and many further studies (Pikarsky 1967). Despite extensive efforts to mitigate the impacts and make it acceptable to the neighborhoods, it was never built.
  14. 14. CARBON FOOTPRINT Definition: The total sets of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person. The GHG emissions of a country depend on many things -- its level of income, life style, need for heating or cooling, population, level of economic activity, trade patterns, urbanization, population density, size of the country, transport infrastructure, its natural resources, etc. Thus, not only the total emissions, but also per capita emissions vary widely across countries. So do the emission intensities of economic activities as measured in tonnes of carbon dioxide emitted per dollar worth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Rational planning and Sustainability India needs to sustain an economic growth of 9 percent over the next 20 years to eradicate poverty and meet its human development goals. Meeting the energy requirements for growth of this magnitude in a sustainable manner presents a major challenge.
  15. 15. Sustainability • Definition: Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own Three pillars of the Human consumption of resources needs. sustainability are as follows on the basis of which the whole sustainability can be explained or described 1.Environment 2.Economy 3.Social I=P×A× T Cultural and political concern Rational planning and Sustainability Where: I = Environmental impact, Environmental aspects P = Population, A = Affluence, T = Technology Source:
  16. 16. Sustainability In Planning.. Sustainability development embraces a new objective to optimize operations to minimize environmental impacts , improve social and economical outcomes in a manner that maximizes the performance. • • • • • • • • • • • • • LAND USE ENVIRONMENT TOPOGRAPHY CLIMATE RESOURCES(NATURAL) MANAGEMENT OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION WASTE MANAGEMENT GREEN BUILDING LANDSCAPING ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT WATER MANAGEMENT WATER TREATMENT RE-USE Rational planning and Sustainability
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  20. 20. Water sustainability • • • A family of four can use 220,000 litres of water a year. This requires 120 kWh of energy to provide it and 100 kWh to treat it as sewerage. The energy used release 200 kg of CO2 into the atmosphere each year Despite the efforts devoted to water treatment at sewage plants in the Netherlands, upwards of 50,000 tonnes of pollutants enter surface aquatic ecosystems annually from municipal water system, including almost 500 tonnes of heavy metal. The system also produces 3.2 million tonnes of unusable solid sewage sludge. The World Water Vision statement say that trend of freshwater withdrawal and consumption will continue to increase over next twenty-five years. Related to 1995 figures, water withdrawal and consumption in municipalities will respectively by 43% and 100% greater in 2025. Current Situation of India • 20% of the world's population do not have access to safe drinking water. • India with 16% of the world's population has only 4% of the fresh water resources. • Per capita availability of fresh water in India has dropped from 5,177 cubic meters in 1951 to 1,820 cubic meters in 2001. • Urban situation is no better. There is great water shortage in Maharashtra. Rational planning and Sustainability
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  24. 24. Best Practices- BedZED project Surry (England) Beddington Zero Energy Development (BedZED) is an environmentally-friendly-housing development near Wallington, England. • • • • • Energy: 81% reduction in energy use for heating, 45% reduction in electricity use (compared to local av.). Transport: 64% reduction in car mileage 2,318km/year (compared to national av.). Water: 58% reduction in water use 72 liters/person/day (compared to local av.). Waste: 60% waste recycled. Food: 86% of residents buy organic food. Rational planning and Sustainability
  25. 25. Best Practices- Western Harbor (Malmo) Sweden 50% less energy used Material New technologies, construction techniques Locally produced energy Renewable energy (wind, solar and ground and seawater heat extraction) Recycling energy an nutritive substances in sludge (from wastewater) is extracted and reused. Organic waste in to biogas Rational planning and Sustainability
  26. 26. References: •Mckinsey report on urban •Indian country paper •Bharat nirman plan •Blogs on urban cities •Interim Report of the Expert Group on Low Carbon Strategies for Inclusive Growth • planning • Rational planning and Sustainability Thank you for listening…