Ed200 research chapter 3 methodology(jan282012)


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  • Dependent and independent variables: a concept which can take on different quantitative values is called a variable.A phenomena which can take on different qualitatively values even in decimal value are called continues. Extraneous VariableThat are not related to the purpose of the study but may effect on the dependent variables are termed as the extraneous variables. Suppose a researcher want to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between children gains in social studies achievement and their self concept.In this case self-concept =independent variable Social studies achievement =dependent variable. Intelligence may as well affect on the social achievement.But it is not related to the study undertaken by the researcher so it is a Extraneous variableControl variableOne important characteristic of a good research is to minimize the influence or effect. The terminal term used when we design the study minimizing the the effect of extraneous independent variableConformed relationshipsWhen the dependent variable is not free from the influence of extraneous variable .the relationship between the depended and independent v variable is said to be confused by an extraneous variable
  • 1.The survey of concerning literature- This is most simple and fruitful method of formulating the research problem .Hypothesis is taken earlier workers and their usefulness be evaluating as a basis for furtherResearch. 2. The experience survey- The experience survey means the survey of people who had practical experience .The object is to obtain new ideas relating to the research problem. 3. The analysis of ‘inside-stimulating- It is also a fruitful method of suggesting the hypothesis. It is particularly suitable in the areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide.In this method the existing records may be examined .in case of descriptive research study –one those studied which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular Individual , or a group.In diagnostic research study determine the frequency which some thing occur
  • Ed200 research chapter 3 methodology(jan282012)

    1. 1. RESEARCH DESIGN andMETHODOLOGY Presented by Dr. Maria Theresa Pilapil-Pelones Doctor in Management Human Resource Management Associate Professor IV Mindanao State University http://www.pinoyalert.com Mariatheresa_pelones@yahoo.com Chapter 3 Research Method 1
    2. 2. WHAT IS RESEARCH DESIGN ?  Task of defining the research problem is the preparation of the research project, popularly known as the ―research design".  Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what means concerning an inquiry or a research study constitute a research design. Chapter 3 Research Method 2
    3. 3. Meaning of research design 1 2 3• A research • Blueprint of the • A plan or design is the study. It guides structure of the arrangement of the collection, investigation in conditions for measurement order to obtain collection and and analysis of answers to analysis of data research data in a questions. It manner that outline what the aims to researcher combine would like to do relevance to until the final the research analysis of the purpose with data economy in procedure. Chapter 3 Research Method 3
    4. 4. Parts of Research DesignSampling Observational Statistical Operational Design design Design design Which Which Which deals with relates to concern the Which deals the the question of withmethods of condition the of How the techniques selecting under information by which theitems to be which the and data procedures observed observation gathered are satisfied in for the are to be to be analyzed sampling . study. create ? Chapter 3 Research Method 4
    5. 5. Features of Good RSA research design appropriate for a particular researchproblem, usually involves the following features.The mean of obtaining information.The availability and skills of the researcher and his staff,if any.The objective of the problem to be studied.The nature of the problem to be studied .The availability of time and money for the research work. Chapter 3 Research Method 5
    6. 6. Important Concepts of RS Dependent Conformed vs Extraneous Control relationshipIndependent variables variables s variables Chapter 3 Research Method 6
    7. 7. Research hypothesis  The researcher hypothesis is a predicative statement that relates an independent variable to dependent variable.Experimental and non-experimental hypothesistesting When the purpose of research is to test a research hypothesis, it us termed as hypothesis testing research .It can be experimental or non-experimentalExperimental and control groups  When a group is exposed to usual conditions, it is termed as a control group.  But when the group is exposed to be some special condition, it is termed as Experimental groupTreatments  The different conditions under which Experiment and control groups are put up usually referred to as treatment.Experiment  The process of examining the truth of a statistical hypothesis, relating to some research problem, is known as an Chapter 3 Research Method 7 Experiment.
    8. 8. Different research design  exploratory research method are also termed as formulative research studied. The main purpose is that of formulate the research problem .three methods are In case of 1. The survey of concerning literature Exploratory 2. The experience survey research study 3. The analysis of ‗inside-stimulating in case of descriptive research study –one those studied which in case of descriptive are concerned with describing and diagnostic the characteristics of a particular research Individual , or a group. In diagnostic research study determine the frequency which some thing occur In case of hypothesis- hypothesis-testing research studies known as experimental testing research studies are those researcher studies tests the hypothesis of casual relationship between variables. Chapter 3 Research Method 8
    9. 9. Difference betweenformulative= descriptive/diagnostic  Flexible design  No flexibility  Judgmental  Random sampling sampling  No pre-  Pre-determined determined design for design analysis  No fixed  Advanced decision about decisions the operational procedures Chapter 3 Research Method 9
    10. 10. Research Designs/Approaches Type Purpose Time frame Degree of Examples controlExperimental Test for cause/ current High Comparing two effect types of treatments relationships for anxiety.Quasi-experi- Test for cause/ Current or Moderate Gender differencesmental effect past to high in visual/spatial relationships abilities without full controlNon- Examine Current Low to Relationshipexperimental - relationship (cross- medium between studyingcorrelational between two sectional) style and grade variables or past point average.Ex post facto Examine the Past & Low to Relationship effect of past current medium between history of event on child abuse & current depression. functioning. Chapter 3 Research Method 10
    11. 11. Research Designs/Approaches Type Purpose Time frame Degree of Examples controlNon- Examine Future - Low to Relationship betexperiment relationship bet 2 predictive moderate history ofal var. where 1 is depression &correlationa measured later. development ofl cancer.Cohort- Examine change Future Low to How mother-childsequential in a var. over time moderate negativity in overlapping changed over groups. adolescence.Survey Assess opinions Current None or low Voting or characteristics preferences that exist at a before an given time. election.Qualitative Discover potential Past or current None or Low People‘s relationships; experiences of descriptive. quitting smoking. Chapter 3 Research Method 11
    12. 12. Research Methods:Historical Research Chapter 3 Research Method 12
    13. 13. What is Historical Research? Historical Research is the systematic collection and evaluation of data to describe, explain, and thereby understand actions or events that occurred sometime in the past. (J.M. Fraenkel & N.E. Wallen) The unique characteristic of historical research is that it focuses exclusively on past occurrences and events. (J.M. Fraenkel & N.E. Wallen)Advantages Disadvantages• It is the only research • The measures used in method that can study other methods to control evidence from the past. for threats to internal• Wider range of evidence validity are simply not than most other methods. possible in a historical study. • Bias Chapter 3 Research Method 13
    14. 14. USES OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH1. To make people aware of what has happened in the past so they may learn from past failures and successes.2. To learn how things were done in the past to see if they might be applicable to present-day problems and concerns.3. To assist in prediction.4. To test hypotheses concerning relationships or trends. Chapter 3 Research Method 14
    15. 15. MAJOR STEPS OF HISTORICAL DESIGNI. DEFINING THE PROBLEMII. LOCATING RELEVANT SOURCES Categories of Sources: 1.Documents– are written or printed materials that have been produced in some form or another—annual reports, artwork, bills, books, cartoons, circulars, court records, diaries, diplomas, legal records, newspapers, magazines, notebooks, school yearbooks, memos, tests , and so on. 2. Numerical records. Numerical, or quantitative, records can be considered either as a separate type of source in and of themselves or as a subcategory of documents—test scores, attendance figures, census reports, school budgets, and the like. Chapter 3 Research Method 15
    16. 16. MAJOR STEPS OF HISTORICAL DESIGN 3. Oral statements– another valuable source of information for the historical researcher lies in the statements people make orally—stories, myths, tales, legends, chants, songs and other forms of oral; expression have been used by people down through the ages to leave a record for future generations. 4. Relics- is any object whose physical or visual characteristics can provide some information about the past—furniture, artwork, clothing, buildings, monuments, or equipment. PRIMARY VERSUS SECONDARY SOURCESPrimary Source Is one prepared by an individual who was a participant in or a direct witness to the event being described. Secondary Source Is a documents prepared by an individual who was not a direct witness to an event, but obtained his or her description of the event from someone else. Chapter 3 Research Method 16
    17. 17. MAJOR STEPS OF HISTORICAL DESIGNPRIMARY SOURCE1. A nineteenth-century teacher‘s account of what it was like to live with a frontier family.2. A photograph of an eight-grade graduating class in 1930.3. Essays written by students in response to the question, ―What do you like most and least about school?‖4. Minutes of a school board meeting taken by the secretary of the board.5. Songs composed by members of a high school glee club.SECONDARY SOURCE1. An encyclopedia describing various types of educational research conducted over a 10-year period.2. A magazine article summarizing Aristotle‘s views on education.3. A student‘s report to her counselor of why her teacher said she was being suspended from school.4. A book describing schooling in the New England colonies during the 1700s.5. A newspaper account of a school board meeting based on oral interviews with members of the board. Chapter 3 Research Method 17
    18. 18. MAJOR STEPS OF HISTORICAL DESIGNIII. SUMMARIZING INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM HISTORICAL SOURCESIV. THE EVALUATION OF HISTORICAL SOURCES External Criticism. Refers to the genuineness of any and all documents the researcher uses. Several questions come to mind in evaluating the genuineness of a historical source:  Who wrote this documents? Was the author living at that time?  For what purpose was the document written? For whom was it intended? And why?  When was the document written? Is the date on the document accurate? Could the details describes have actually happened during this time?  Where was the document written? Could the details described have occurred in this location? Chapter 3 Research Method 18
    19. 19. MAJOR STEPS OF HISTORICAL DESIGN Under what conditions was the document written? Is there any possibility that what was written might have been directly or subtly coerced? Do different forms or versions of the document exist? Internal Criticism. Once researchers have satisfiedthemselves that a source document is genuine, they need todetermine if the contents of the documents are accurate. Thisinvolves what is known as internal criticism. Both theaccuracy of the information contained in a document and thetruthfulness of the author need to be evaluated.With regard to the author of the document: Was the author present at the event he or she is describing? In other words, is the document a primary or a secondary source? Was the author a participant in or an observer of the event? Was the author competent to describe the event? Chapter 3 Research Method 19
    20. 20. Research Methods:Descriptive Design Chapter 3 Research Method 20
    21. 21. What Is Descriptive Research?The descriptive research is the most popular approach used in researchproject. Derived from the Latin word de meaning from and scribemeaning write.Descriptive research includes all studies that purport to present factsconcerning the nature and status of anything – a group of persons, anumber of objects, a set of conditions, a class of events, a system ofthought or any other kind of phenomena which one may wish to study(Manuel and Medici).Descriptive research is fact-finding with adequate interpretation. It issomething more and beyond just data-gathering; the latter is notreflective thinking nor research. The true meaning of the data collectedshould be reported from the point of view of the objectives and basicassumption of the project underway.As defined by Best (1963) – Descriptive research describes andinterprets what is. It is concerned with conditions of relationships thatexist, practices that prevail, beliefs and processes that are going on,effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing. Chapter 3 Research Method 21
    22. 22. What Is Descriptive Research? Descriptive research can be either quantitative or qualitative. It can involve collections of quantitative information that can be tabulated along a continuum in numerical form, such as scores on a test or the number of times a person chooses to use a-certain feature of a multimedia program, or it can describe categories of information such as gender or patterns of interaction when using technology in a group situation. Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984). It often uses visual aids such as graphs and charts to aid the reader in understanding the data distribution. Because the human mind cannot extract the full import of a large mass of raw data, descriptive statistics are very important in reducing the data to manageable form. When in-depth, narrative descriptions of small numbers of cases are involved, the research uses description as a tool to organize data into patterns that emerge during analysis. Those patterns aid the mind in comprehending a qualitativeMost quantitative research falls into two areas: studies that describe events and studies aimed study and its implications.at discovering inferences or causal relationships. Descriptive studies are aimed at finding out"what is," so observational and survey methods are frequently used to collect descriptive data(Borg & Gall, 1989). Studies of this type might describe the current state of multimedia usage inschools or patterns of activity resulting from group work at the computer. An example of this isCochenour, Hakes, and Neals (1994) study of trends in compressed video applications witheducation and the private sector. Chapter 3 Research Method 22
    23. 23. VALUES OF DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES Descriptive studies are of great value in providing facts on which professional judgements may be based Descriptive studies contribute to science because they afford penetrating insights into the nature of what are dealt with and what to study Descriptive studies contribute to science as they help fashion many o It contributes to the establisment of standard norms of conduct, behavior or performance.f the tools for and of research.It reveals problems or abnormal conditions so that remedial measures may be instituted. It reveals to us what we do not want, what we want and how to acquire what we want.It makes possible the prediction of the future on the basis of findings on prevailing conditions, correlationsand on the basis of reaction of the people towards certain issue. Provides basis for decision-making. Chapter 3 Research Method 23
    24. 24. Types of Descriptive Research 1. Descriptive Survey 2. Descriptive Method Normative Method•Survey derived from the Latin sur or •Describes the status of events and super which means ―above‖ or ―view‖ people or subjects as they exist. Deals and vey which means ―to look‖ or ―to with standardized instruments like see‖. Survey means ―to look over or mental ability test, stress and beyond‖. Ussually used by graduate personality questionnaire, morale and and undergraduate students when they job satisfaction questionnaire. attemp to analyze, interpret, and report status od their subject matter or problem 4. Descriptive 3. Descriptive Evaluative Method Correlational Method•This study judges the goodness of an •Used to determine whether or not existing program. It is directed to there is a relationship that exist whether or not a particular program between two or more quantifiable achieved its goal or not. Value variables, and if there is, to what extent judgement in terms of effectiveness, or degree the relationship is desirability, or social validity. determined, the researcher must identify whether such relationship is positive (+) or negative (-) and the degree or extent (strength) of relationship. Chapter 3 Research Method 24
    25. 25. Types of Descriptive Research 5. Descriptive 6. Descriptive Trend and Assessment Method Perspective Method•A fact-finding activity that describes •This descriptive research id based upon coditions that exist at a particular time longitudinal consideration of recorded such as practices and beliefs. No data, indicating what has been happening hypothesis are preposed or tested. in the past, what the present situation reveals, and on the basis of these data it projects what is likely to happen in the future. 8. Descriptive Case 7. Descriptive Ex- study Method Post Facto Method•A case study is an intensive and descriptive analyss of a single subject. It • This type of research is also known examines a social units as a whole, and as causal-comparative research of the unit may be a single typical individual. after-the-fact research. In this It examines a social unit as a whole, and method, the researcher is trying to the unit may be a single typical individual, establish a causal effect between a family, a social group, a social existing conditions. institution, or a community. Chapter 3 Research Method 25
    26. 26. Types of Descriptive Research 9. Descriptive Comparative Method Descriptive Comparative Method. This method provides an • The researcher is knowledgeable about the operation of natural or social forceswhich maybe explanation about the extent of obtained by watching them analytically at stated relationship between two or more intervals in their development over a long variables. The researcher periood of time as seen desirable and possible. examines the relationsships Also called a genetic method. including similarities or differences among several variables. Advantages of Comparative Disadvantages of Comparative Study: Study:Intervening variables of comparative The findings of the study are very muchstudy can easily be noted and discerned limited because it cannot show the cause of a change in another variable.Research variables can easily beselected. Variables to be selected are likewiseComparative results of this study can be limited.known immediately It is difficult to get samples which haveComparative method is easily conducted. the same characteristics or attributes. Chapter 3 Research Method 26
    27. 27. Research Methods:Experimental Design Chapter 3 Research Method 27
    28. 28. problem solving can be a basic, a research used to find out1 2 3 4 approach that applied, or wherein a what caused the the study is developmental researcher change in the described in the research manipulates and characteristics future on what controls one or or behavior of will be when more the subjects and variables are independent what change or carefully variables for effect has been controlled or variation made then manipulated concomitant to the manipulation of the dependent variable Chapter 3 Research Method 28
    29. 29. Control group – not exposed to the same factor to which Experimental experimentalgroup – exposed group is exposed to the influence to, or it receives of a factor a different- an intervention treatment, or it is or treatment left to its usual under way of doing consideration things Chapter 3 Research Method 29
    30. 30. Experimental design involves the 7 MsManpowerMoneyMethodsMaterialsMachineryMoment of timeMarketing Chapter 3 Research Method 30
    31. 31. • Also known as one shot case study Experimental Group O1 X O2 • involves just one group of subjects which is exposed to an intervention or treatment. After sometime it is given a posttest or is • As to posttest-only, this subject for observation. design is without a control Posttest only group. • However, a pretest or baseline design observation (O1) which allows the investigator to determine the effects of the treatment byExperimental Group X O comparing pretest and posttest (O2) results. The one-group pretest- posttest design Chapter 3 Research Method 31
    32. 32. • It has a control or • this design involves the comparison group. random assignment of • Experimental group is subjects from a single exposed to an intervention or population the experimental treatment (X) which is and the control groups. derived of the control group. • this two groups receive initial • After some time the observations or pretests (O1 & experimental group and the O3) and posttest (O2 & O4) to control group are observed determine the differences. The static-group The pretest-posttest comparison design control group designExperimental Group X O R Experimental Group O1 X O2Control Group O R Control Group O3 O4 Chapter 3 Research Method 32
    33. 33. • Involves both the • The subjects are randomly experimental and the control assigned to four groups. groups which were created • Two groups are experimental through random assignment and the other two groups are (R) subjects from a study control groups. population. • One experimental group and • both are not given pretest; both one control group is subject to receives posttest after the pretest, and all four are subject experimental group has been to posttest. exposed to intervention or treatment The Solomon four-group The posttest-only control design group designR Experimental Group X O1 R Experimental Group O1 X O2 O2 R Control Group O3 O4R Control Group R Experimental Group X O5 R Control Group O6 Chapter 3 Research Method 33
    34. 34. • involves two groups which • involves two groups, the are the experimental and the creation of which was done by control groups. a random selection (R) of samples. • like pretest-posttest control group design both experimental • one group is subject to a and control group undergo baseline pretest (O1), and pretest and posttest, the only another group is used for the difference is that, in this design posttest measurement (O2). the assignment of subjects into these groups is not done randomly Separate Sample pretest- The non-equivalent posttest group design control group designExperimental Group O1 X O2 R Pretest Group O1 XControl Group O3 X O4 R Posttest Group O2 X Chapter 3 Research Method 34
    35. 35. • an improvement of the one- group pretest-posttest design because it has the advantage of repeated observations before and after the intervention or treatment has been introduced to the study group. • the more number of pretest and posttest the better it will be for study. The time-series designExperiment al Group O1 O2 O3 O4 X O 5 O6 O7 O8 Chapter 3 Research Method 35
    36. 36. 7. Selecting or constructing appropriate instruments to measure the results of the experiment 8. Conducting the experiment1. Determining the  History experimental problem  Maturation or topic  Testing2. Surveying related  Biases in the selection of literature and studies the respondents3. Formulating the  Experimental mortality  Interaction effects hypothesis or 9. Measuring the results and hypotheses applying statistical4. Identifying the procedures experimental variables 10. Writing the reports of the5. Select the appropriate experiment experimental design6. Selecting the sample Chapter 3 Research Method 36
    37. 37. Counterbalanced or Latin square design Complete RandomizedSingle – group design Design (CRD) Randomized Complete Two – group design Block Design (RCBD) Two – pair group Correlational Design design Pre-test – Post-test Parallel – group design design Chapter 3 Research Method 37
    38. 38. Single – group design Involves a single treatment with two or more levels. TABLE 5. 1 Effect of fish meal as supplemental Suppose a feed upon the Yield of Mudcrab (S. serrata)researcher wishes to Cultured in the Fishpondstudy on the effect offish meal as Fish Meal Yield of Mudcrub (S. serrata)supplemental feed Treatment (kg)upon the yield of (T) Replicationmudcrab cultured inthe fishpond. In thisexperimental study, T1 (5%) 1 2 3fish meal is subjected T2 x x xto single treatment (10%) x x xwith different levels T3 x x xsuch us 5%, 10%, and (15%)15% based on thebody weight ofmudcrab. Chapter 3 Research Method 38
    39. 39. Single – group design TABLE 5.2 Effectiveness of Teaching English using Three Methods to Single Group of Fisheries Students as Subjects of State Universities and Colleges (SUC) in Region 9 (Western Methods of Teaching English Mindanao) Method Method Method Two Methods of Teaching English Subjects One Three Score (X2) Score (X1) Score (X3) Method Method Method Subject 1 X X X One Two Three s 2 X X X Score (X1) Score (X2) Score (X3) 3 X X X 16 X X X 4 X X X 17 X X X 5 X X X 18 X X X 6 X X X 19 X X X 7 X X X 20 X X X 8 X X X 21 X X X 9 X X X 22 X X X 10 X X X 23 X X X 11 X X X 24 X X X 12 X X X 25 X X X 13 X X X 14 X X X 15 X X X Chapter 3 Research Method 39
    40. 40. Two comparable groups are employedTwo – group design as experimental and control groups or two comparable groups are both experimental groups. TABLE 5.3 Group rate of cultivating Eucheuma using Broadcasting (Control An investigator wants to group) and Lantay (Experimental group) conduct a study on the Methods growth rate of cultivating Eucheuma using Broadcasting Lantay broadcasting and Research Method Method lantayan method. (Control (Experimental Stations Group) Group) Broadcasting Method of kg kg cultivating Eucheuma is 1 X X the control group because this method has 2 X X been practiced or existed 3 X X for quite a long time. 4 X X Lantayan Method is the 5 X X experimental group 6 X X because this method is 7 X X novel or new. 8 X X 9 X X 10 X X Chapter 3 Research Method 40
    41. 41. TABLE 5.4 (Both Experimental groups) onTwo – group design the Flavor Acceptability of Milkfish and Goatfish Luncheon Meat (Fictitious Data) Flavor Acceptability Panelists Milkfish Goatfish Luncheon Meat Luncheon Meat A researcher 1 9 8 wishes to conduct a study 2 8 8 on the acceptability of milkfish offal and goatfish 3 9 8 offal into luncheon meat. 4 8 8 The two 5 8 8 comparable groups are 6 8 8 both experimental groups 7 9 9 because no study yet has 8 8 8 been conducted on the 9 8 8 utilization of offal from 10 9 8 boneless and goatfish tapa into fish value added 11 9 8 product, luncheon meat. 12 8 8 13 9 9 14 8 8 15 8 8 Chapter 3 Research Method 41
    42. 42. Two – group design Milkfish Luncheon Meat Goatfish Luncheon Meat X = ∑fx = 126 X = ∑fx = 121 ∑f 15 ∑f 15 X = 8.4 (like very much) X = 8.07 (like very much) Chapter 3 Research Method 42
    43. 43. An elaboration of the two – group designTwo – pair group design wherein there are two control groups and two experimental groups. TABLE 5.5 Acceptability of Canned Milkfish Bone Meal in Salmon and French Styles with and without Sea Vegetable A researcher wishes to study acceptability of canned milkfish bone meal Canned Milkfish Bone Meal in Salmon and French Control Group Experimental Group styles with and without sea Panelist (Without Sea (With Sea Vegetable) vegetable. s Vegetable) 1 1 2 2 Salmon Salmon The pair of control groups Style French Style Style French Style are canned milkfish bone 1 X X X X meal in Salmon and French styles without sea 2 X X X X vegetable. 3 X X X X 4 X X X X The pair of experimental 5 X X X X groups are canned milkfish 6 X X X X bone meal in Salmon and 7 X X X X French styles with sea 8 X X X X vegetable. to X X X X 23 X X X X Chapter 3 Research Method 43
    44. 44. Two – pair group design TABLE 5.6 Effectiveness of Teaching Literature Using Two Conventional Methods (Control) and Two Modern Methods (Experimental) to Computer Students in Region VI Methods of Teaching Literature Conventional Methods Modern Methods Students A B C D Scores (XA) Scores (XB) Scores (XC) Scores (XD) 1 X X X X 2 X X X X 3 X X X X 4 X X X X 5 X X X X 6 X X X X 7 X X X X 8 X X X X 9 X X X X 10 X X X X to X X X X 25 X X X X Chapter 3 Research Method 44
    45. 45. Two or more groups are used as theParallel – group design same time with only a single variable (control group) manipulated or changed. The experimental group varies while the parallel group serves as control for comparative purposes. TABLE 5.7Acceptability of Canned Commercial Liver Spread, Milkfish Bone Meal Spread and •A researcher wishes to Goatfish Bone Meal Spread determine the Canned Commercial Liver Spread & Fish Bone Meal Spread acceptability of canned Panelists Control Group Experimental Groups commercial liver spread Commercial Milkfish Goatfish and milkfish bone 1 X X X spread and goatfish 2 X X X bone meal spread. 3 X X X •The control group is the 4 X X X canned commercial 5 X X X liver spread. 6 X X X •The experimental 7 X X X groups are milkfish 8 X X X bone meal and goatfish 9 X X X bone meal spread. to X X X 24 X X X Chapter 3 Research Method 45
    46. 46. Parallel – group design TABLE 5.8 Effectiveness of Teaching Mathematics Using Traditional and Two Modern Approaches Approaches of Teaching Mathematics Control 11 X X X Experimental Groups Group 12 X X X Modern Approaches Studen Traditional 13 X X X ts B C A 14 X X X Scores Scores Scores (XA) (XB) (XC) 15 X X X 1 X X X 16 X X X 2 X X X 17 X X X 3 X X X 18 X X X 4 X X X 19 X X X 5 X X X 20 X X X 6 X X X 21 X X X 7 X X X 22 X X X 8 X X X 23 X X X 9 X X X 24 X X X 10 X X X 25 X X X Chapter 3 Research Method 46
    47. 47. Counterbalanced or -Also called “rotation design” Latin square design -Involves an exchange of two or more treatments taken by the subjects during the experiment. - arrangement employed is Latin Square in which each variable is a form of square occurring once in each row or column. TABLE 5.9 Culturing - also called quasi-experimental design of Grouper Using Four Supplemental Feeds to An investigator wishes to determine Four Fish Cages the effectiveness of culturing grouper (lapu- lapu) using four different supplemental feeds to four different fish cages. FC1 FC2 FC3 FC4 The first treatment combination consists of SF1, FC1 and G1, second combinationSF1 G1 G2 G3 G4 is SF2, FC2 and G2 and so on. SF stands for Supplemental FeedSF2 G2 G3 G4 G1 FC – Fish Cage G – Grouper (lapu-lapu)SF3 G3 G4 G1 G2SF4 G4 G1 G2 G3 Chapter 3 Research Method 47
    48. 48. Counterbalanced orLatin square design P1 P2 P3 P4 •A researcher wants to M1 S1 S2 S3 S4 determine the TABLE 5.10 effectiveness of the Teaching four methods of Biology Using M2 S2 S3 S4 S1 teaching Biology taught Four Methods of by four professors to Teaching by M3 S3 S4 S1 S2 four groups of Four Professors students. Each M4 S4 S1 S2 S3 professor is required to use each method of instruction. •The first treatment consist of M1, P1, S1, Note: “S4” is the diagonal in a square second is M2, P2, S2 and and it appears in each position from the so on. position to the forth method M stands for method P for professor S for student Chapter 3 Research Method 48
    49. 49. Complete Randomized - A group of test plants or animals is Design (CRD) studied only once but subsequent treatment is applied to determine the cause of change - there is no control in this design but •A researcher wants to the subjects will undergo determine if there is a randomization procedures. significant difference in the treatment of bread meal as TABLE 5.11 Teaching Biology supplemental feed upon the Using Four Methods of Teaching by yield of mudcrab cultured in the fishpond. Four Professors % Supplemental Sampling •He uses 500 pieces of Feed mudcrab fingerling and five 1 2 3 Per Compartment compartments in the pond. The 500 fingerlings are placed 1 (3%) X X X at random, 100 pieces each 2 (5%) X X X compartment. 3 (7%) X X X •The weight of mudcrab 4 (10%) X X X should be observed carefully 5 (15%) X X X and ecological parameters should be considered. Chapter 3 Research Method 49
    50. 50. Randomized Complete - uses a group of test plants and animals asBlock Design (RCBD) subjects of the study which are studied once but subsequent treatments applied are replicated to determine the cause of change. - there is control in this design and the subjects will undergo randomization process The researcher TABLE 5.12Culturing Abalone (Haliotis asinina) in wishes to determine Fish Cages Using Fish Meal, Shrimp Meal, and Fish Silage as Supplemental Feeds the effectiveness of culturing abalone in Replications Supplemental fish cages using fish Feed 1 2 3 meal, shrimp meal, and fish silage as Fish Meal X X X supplemental feeds. Each supplemental Shrimp Meal X X X feed is replicated Fish Silage X X X thrice. In other words there are nine fish cages in all in culturing of abalone. Chapter 3 Research Method 50
    51. 51. - used to determine the relationship of Correlational design two dependent variables, X and Y, on how they are manipulated by the independent variable.The investigator wishes to determine TABLE 5.13 Culturing Milkfishthe weight and length relationship of on the Fishpond Using Fishmilkfish cultured in the fishpond using Silage as Supplemental Feedfish silage as supplemental feed. Weight (X) Length (Y) Milkfish (grams) (centimeters)Fish silage is the is the independent 1 X Xvariable 2 X XWeight and Length of milkfish are the 3 X Xdependent variables 4 X X 5 X XTherefore, the weight and length of 6 X Xmilkfish is dependent on the feed used. 7 X X Independent Dependent 8 X X Variables Variables 9 X X 10 X X Supplemental Weight (X) 11 X X Feed Length (Y) 12 X X (Fish Silage) Chapter 3 Research Method 51
    52. 52. Involves the experimental groupPre-test – Post-test and the control group which are design carefully selected through randomization procedures. Both groups are given pretest at the beginning of the semester and TABLE 5. 14 Effect of Traditional and posttest at the end of the semester. Modern Methods of Teaching - The control group is isolated from Mathematics all experimental influence. Post- Pre-test test Mean An investigator wishes to determine the Mean effect of traditional and modern methods (X1) Method of Teaching (X2) of teaching Mathematics. He takes two groups which are carefully Traditional X X chosen through randomization (Control Group) procedures. Modern X X Control group will undergo the traditional method and the experimental group will (Experimental Group) undergo the modern method of teaching Mathematics. Both the control and experimental groups are given pre-test at the beginning and post-test at the end of the semester. Chapter 3 Research Method 52
    53. 53. - intensive investigation of a particular individual, - a problem solving institution, community, ortechnique wherein the any group considered as astudy is described from unit which includes thepast, present, and future. developmental, adjustment, remedial, or corrective procedure that suitably follows the diagnose of the - usually applied by causes of maladjustment or guidance counselors, of favorable development. midwives, nurses,physicians, psychologists, and educators. Chapter 3 Research Method 53
    54. 54. Recognition and determination of the status of the phenomenon to be investigatedSubsequent follow-up Collection of data to determine the related to the factors effectiveness of the or circumstances corrective or associated with the developmental given phenomenon measures applied Diagnosis or identification of Application of casual factors as remedial or basis for remedial or adjustment measures developmental treatment Chapter 3 Research Method 54