Design• a set of instructions for the researcher; to gather and analyze data in certain ways that will control who and what are to be studied (Brink).• Thus, the choice of design is made when the question is finalized.
Research Design • refers to a scheme or plan of action for meeting the objectives • a blueprint for conducting a study that maximizes control over factors that could interfere with the validity of the findings. • the researcher’s plan – how the study will be conducted, – type of data that will be collected, and – the means to be used to obtain these data, (which are determined after variables are identified and quantified.)
Research Design• Purpose – to provide a plan in answering research question.• Each design has its own applicability depending on the problems and objectives of the study.• Important consideration – to minimize possible errors and maximize the reliability and validity of data.
Threats to Validity1. History2. Selection3. Testing4. Instrumentation5. Maturation6. Mortality
Threats to Validity1. History• Refers to the events that may occur during the time frame of the study which are not actually part of the study.• They produce effects that influence the results of the study, either increasing or decreasing the expected results.
Threats to Validity2. Selection – Occurs when respondents of the study are chosen not only individually but as a group.
Threats to Validity1. Testing• refers to the pre-test given that results in an improved performance in the post-test.• To avoid this threat, a pre-test may not be needed for administration.• However, if a pre-test is given, another measure is recommended to use an as an alternate form of instrument.
Threats to Validity4.Instrumentation• It refers to unreliability in measuring instruments that may result to an invalid measurement of performance.• The change in instrument used between the pre-test and post-test may result in an effect not caused by a treatment introduced
Threats to Validity1. Maturation• This factor refers to the physiologic and psychologic changes that may happen to the respondents of the study over a period of time.• If the time frame of a training program is quite long and rigid, the participants may experience some psychological discomfort due to boredom, tiredness, hunger and the like.
Threats to Validity6. Mortality• It refers to loss of participants during the post-test stage or even during the implementation of the time frame of the study• when the same group of individuals is studied over a long period of time.• By the time a follow-up study is conducted on the same group, some members may have dropped out or may refuse to cooperate further in the study.
Characteristics of a ResearchDesign • The setting in which the research occurs a. Laboratory Studies – Designed to be more highly controlled in relation to both the environment in which the study is conducted and the control of extraneous and intervening variables.
Characteristics of a ResearchDesignb. Field Studies – occur outside laboratory setting. – This occurs in natural settings and use a variety of methods such as: • field experiments, • participant’s observations in village or hospital wards, • interviews in the home or office, • questionnaires, • anything at all that does not occur in a controlled laboratory setting.
Characteristics of a Research Design2. Timing of data collectiona. Prospective or Longitudinal studies – events that are underway or expected to occur in the future.b. Retrospective, ex post facto or historical studies – have occurred in the past.c. Cross-sectional studies – Those in which data collection is strictly in the present time.
Characteristics of a ResearchDesign3. The subjects to be included in the research• The sample size or number of subjects in the study• The method used to collect the data• The researcher’s plan for communicating the findings
Types of Basic Research Design• Descriptive Design• Experimental Design• Qualitative Method
Types of Basic Research Design1. Descriptive Design• Most common method used in researches.• used when the purpose of the study is to inquire about the prevailing conditions of events, objects or people.• The method describes “what is” in relation to the variables under consideration.
Types of Basic Research DesignCharacteristics of Descriptive Research1. It ascertains prevailing conditions of facts in a group or case study.2. It gives either a quantitative or qualitative, or both, description of the general characteristics of the group or case under study.3. What caused the prevailing conditions is not emphasized
Types of Basic Research DesignCharacteristics of Descriptive Research4. The study of conditions at different periods of time may be made and the change that took place between the periods may be evaluated for any value it gives.5. Comparison of the characteristics of two groups may be made to determine their similarities and differences.6. The variables involved in the study are not usually controlled.7. Studies on prevailing conditions may or can be repeated for purposes of comparison and verification.
Types of Descriptive Design 1. Exploratory Descriptive Design 2. Descriptive Survey Design 3. Correlational Design 4. Comparative Design 5. Case study 6. Fasibility Study
Types of Descriptive Design1. Exploratory Descriptive Design• This provides an in-depth exploration of a single process, variables, or concept.• The word “exploratory” indicates that not much is known• means that a survey of the literature failed to reveal any significant research in the area.
Types of Descriptive Design2. Descriptive Survey Design• used when you intend to gather a relatively limited data from a relatively large number of subjects.• This is used to measure existing phenomenon without inquiring into why it exists.
Types of Descriptive Design3. Correlational Design• studies the relationship of two or more variables.• has a conceptual base and is looking for cause and effect relationships in the results• but can not specify the direction of the relationship at the beginning of the study.
Types of Descriptive Design4. Comparative Design• examines and describes differences in variables in two or more groups that occur naturally in the setting.• specifies cause and effect at the beginning of a study and is based on a theoretical framework.
Types of Descriptive Design5. Case study• extensive exploration of a single unit of study, such as: – Persons – family groups – communities or institutions – very small number of subjects who are examined intensively
Types of Descriptive Design6. Feasibility Study – study tries to determine the viability of an undertaking or a business venture like establishing an institution or constructing an infrastructure.
2. Experimental Design• 1 central characteristic: – manipulating the independent variable and measuring the effect on the dependent variable.• The classical experimental designs consist of the experimental group and the control group.
2. Experimental Design• Experimental Group – independent variable that can be manipulated – while in the control group, the dependent variable is measured when no alteration has been made on the independent variable.
2. Experimental Design• Control Group – The dependent variable is measured in the experimental group the same way, and at the same time, as in the control group.
Independent Dependent Variable variableExperimental Changed MeasuredGroupControl Group Unchanged Measure
Manipulation• Means the researcher works on the independent variables so that some of the subjects are affected.• Some variables in the experiment may not be manipulated.
Control• The researcher uses one or more measures to control the experiment, including the use of an unmanipulated control group that is compared with an experimental group.
Control• Control is attained by: – Allowing for no variables – Specifying the variations to be allowed – Distributing the variations equally
Types of Experimental Design1. Pre-Experimental2. True-Experimental3. Quasi-Experimental
Types of Experimental Design1. Pre-Experimental• One-Shot Case Study - involves one group that is exposed to a treatment (x) and then post- tested (o).• None of the threats to validity that are relevant is controlled.
Types of Experimental Design1. Pre-Experimental• One Group Pre-Test Post-Test Design – involves one group that is pre-tested (o), exposed to a treatment (x), and post-tested (o). – Although it controls several sources of validity not controlled by one-shot case study, a number of additional factors are relevant to this are not controlled.
Types of Experimental Design2. True-Experimental 2.1 Pre-Test Post-Test Control Group Design • involves at least two groups, • both of which are formed by random assignment; • both groups are administered a pre-test of the dependent variable, • one group receives a new or unusual treatment and • both groups are post-tested.
Types of Experimental Design2. True-Experimental 2.2 Post-Test Only Control Group Design – same as the pre-test post-test control group design except that there is no pre-test; – subject are randomly assigned to groups, – exposed to the independent variable and – post-tested.
Types of Experimental Design2. True-Experimental 2.3 Solomon Four-Group Design – It involves random assignment of subjects to one of the four groups. – Two groups are post-tested and the other two are not; – one of the pre-tested groups and one of the unpre-tested groups receive the experimental treatment.
Types of Experimental Design3. Quasi-Experimental 3.1 Non-Equivalent Control Group Design - like the pre-test post-test control group design; - does not involve random assignment. - The lack of random assignment adds a source of invalidity not associated with the pre-test post-test control group design
Types of Experimental Design3. Quasi-Experimental 3.2 Time Series Analysis - it is an elaboration of the one-group pre-test pos-test design in which one group is: - repeatedly pre-tested, - exposed to a treatment, and - Repeatedly post-tested.
Types of Experimental Design3. Quasi-Experimental 3.3 Counter-Balance Design - all groups receive all treatments but in a different order. - The only restriction is that the number of groups equals the number of controlled
Qualitative Method• Historical Method – this method is past oriented – objective is to interpret events in the light of the present situation.
Qualitative Method• Ethnographic Method – defined as the environment or setting where the behavior occurs (Hutchinson, 1906); – as the larger domain of which a given phenomenon is a part (Wards, 1900); – as immediately relevant aspects of a situation (Miles and Huberman, 1904); – as lack of experience that incorporates thoughts, acts, and the past (Kuhms and Martorana, 1902); and – as a frame of reference that directly influences current decision-making about specific issues (Weshmer and Carp, 1909).
Qualitative Method• Phenomenological Method - described as an approach in sociology that is based on human character as the subject matter of the discipline. - It is also described as an interpretative, intuitive, and dialectic approach.