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  1. 1. ResearchHypothesisand DefiningVariables
  2. 2. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS• simply an educated guess or hunch that can be supported by theory and previous research.• A wise guess that is formulated and temporarily adopted to explain the observed facts covered by the study (Calmorin and Calmorin,1999).• A declarative statement that is tentative in nature.• It must be tested, explained and measured06/09/12 Free template from
  3. 3. Two Types ofHypothesis
  4. 4. Two Types of Hypothesis• Null Hypothesis – a denial of an attribute, an existence, a difference or an effect or relationship expressed in negative statement.• Example: – “There is no significant difference in the perception of the different groups of respondents on the effectiveness of the program in terms of its vision”06/09/12 Free template from
  5. 5. Two Types of Hypothesis• Alternative Hypothesis – affirms the existence of a phenomenon, acceptance of the attribute of relationship, effects and differences.• Example: – “There is a significant difference in the perception of the different groups of respondents on the effectiveness of the program in terms of its vision.”06/09/12 Free template from
  6. 6. Characteristicsof Hypotheses
  7. 7. Characteristics of HypothesesA good hypothesis has several basic characteristics: – Testable – logical – directly related to the research problem – represents a single unit or subset of the problem06/09/12 Free template from
  8. 8. Characteristics of Hypotheses – factually or theoretically based - states a relationship between variables – sets limits of study - stated in a form that can be accepted or rejected06/09/12 Free template from
  9. 9. Sources ofHypothesis
  10. 10. Sources of Hypothesis• based on observation: – Environment – on literature – on other empirical data – personal experiences06/09/12 Free template from
  11. 11. Criteria for Evaluating ResearchHypothesis • stated in declarative form • be consistent with known facts, previous researches, and theories • statement should follow from the statement of the research problem06/09/12 Free template from
  12. 12. Criteria for Evaluating ResearchHypothesis • state the expected relationship between two or more variables • Testable • stated clearly and concisely • The level of significance must be indicated when stating the null hypothesis06/09/12 Free template from
  13. 13. Example of a Research Hypothesis:• The following hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance• There is no significant gain between the pre-test and post-test scores of students exposed to Computer-Aided Instruction in Analytic Geometry• There is no significant gain between the pre-test and post-test score of the students exposed to Classroom Information System in Analytic Geometry.• There is no significant difference in the performance of students exposed to Computer-Aided Instruction and Classroom Information System.06/09/12 Free template from
  15. 15. RESEARCH VARIABLES • are qualities, properties or characteristics of person, things or situations that change or vary.06/09/12 Free template from
  16. 16. Characteristics of Variables • Identify the concepts to be studied • Variables are measurable • Variables are usually specific in focus06/09/12 Free template from
  17. 17. DifferentClassification ofVariables
  18. 18. Different Classification of Variables 1. According to possible number of values – Dichotomous Variables • variables that take only two values – Example: » Religion (catholic or non-catholic) » Nature of employment (part-time or full-time) » Sex/Gender (Male or Female) – Polytomous Variables • variables that take more than two values – Example: » Nationality (Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Americans, and Malaysians) 06/09/12 Free template from
  19. 19. Different Classification ofVariables2. Independent or Dependent – Independent Variable • known as the presumed cause • it is the antecedent • it is the variable predicted from06/09/12 Free template from
  20. 20. Different Classification ofVariables2. Independent or Dependent – Dependent Variable • known as the presumed effect • it is the consequent • it is the variable predicted to06/09/12 Free template from
  21. 21. SAMPLE:• An experimenter might compare the effectiveness of four types of antidepressants.• The variable is – "type of antidepressant."• When a variable is manipulated by an experimenter, it is called an independent variable.• The experiment seeks to determine the effect of the independent variable on relief from depression.• In this example, relief from depression is called a – dependent variable.06/09/12 Free template from
  22. 22. Conclusion• In general, – the independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter and – its effects on the dependent variable are measured.06/09/12 Free template from
  23. 23. SITUATION…• Can blueberries slow down aging? A study indicates that antioxidants found in blueberries may slow down the process of aging. In this study, 19-month old rats (equivalent to 60-year old humans) were fed either their standard diet or a diet supplemented by either blueberry, strawberry, or spinach powder. After eight weeks, the rats were given memory and motor tests. Although all supplemented rats showed improvement, those supplemented with blue berry powder showed the most notable improvement.06/09/12 Free template from
  24. 24. QUESTION…1. What is the independent variable?3. What are the dependent variables?06/09/12 Free template from
  25. 25. ANSWER. . .1. What is the independent variable? (diet: blueberries or no blueberries)4. What are the dependent variables? (memory test and motor skills test)06/09/12 Free template from
  26. 26. Different Classification of Variables3. Quantitative or Qualitative – Qualitative Variables - variables that express characteristics or properties - express a qualitative attribute - Ex. hair color, eye color, religion, favorite movie, gender, age, socio-economic status of respondents – Quantitative Variables - variables that express amount and those numerical in nature – Ex. height, weight, and shoe size.06/09/12 Free template from
  27. 27. Sample:• In the study on the effect of diet – the independent variable = type of supplement: none, strawberry, blueberry, and spinach. • The variable "type of supplement" is a qualitative variable – the dependent variable "memory test" is a quantitative variable • memory performance can be measured on a quantitative scale.06/09/12 Free template from
  28. 28. Different Classification ofVariables4. Continuous or Categorical – Categorical Variables/Discrete Variables • qualitative in nature • variables with no infinite set of values within the category. • Qualitative variables are always considered categorical variables • ALL OR NONE (ex. Age, sex, blood type) – Continuous Variables • infinite in nature • can take an ordered set of values within a certain range • Reflect a rank order06/09/12 Free template from
  29. 29. Sample:• Discrete Variables – number of children in a household – Your possible answer may be??? • Answer = 1, 2, 3, 4• Continuous Variables – Time – Possible time? What time is it? • Answer = 9:00am or 9:00:36am or 9:00:36:3706/09/12 Free template from
  30. 30. Other Kinds ofVariables
  31. 31. Other Kinds of Variables• Extraneous or exogenous variables – not the direct interest of the researcher and should be controlled in order that the hypothesis can be validly tested.06/09/12 Free template from
  32. 32. Extraneous or exogenous variables• are variables other than the independent variable that may bear any effect on the behavior of the subject being studied.• How to control: – variable is kept the same for all subjects in the research, or – they balance the variables in a group.06/09/12 Free template from
  33. 33. Sample:• An experiment, in which a salesperson sells clothing on a door-to-door basis.• The independent variable is – the salesperson• the dependent variable is – the clothing sales• The extraneous variables are – the salespersons gender, age, or price.06/09/12 Free template from
  34. 34. Other Kinds of Variables• Abstract Variables – These are factors that have different values which are quantitatively measured and statistically tested to prove the hypotheses. 06/09/12 Free template from
  35. 35. Other Kinds of Variables• Active Variables – the researcher creates and /or manipulates – commonly used in experimental studies. – Can ONLY be an independent variable06/09/12 Free template from
  36. 36. Other Kinds of Variables• Attribute Variables – pre-existing characteristics of the subjects which the researcher simply observes and measures. – It can be an independent and dependent variable – Cannot be manipulated by the researcher – Ex. Intelligence, sex, attitude06/09/12 Free template from
  37. 37. Definition ofVariables
  38. 38. Definition of Variables• Conceptual definition – A universal definition of a term understood by people.• Operational definition – The researcher’s own definition of terms as used in his/her study. – It is concrete and measurable, based on observable characteristics of what is being defined within the context of the study.06/09/12 Free template from
  39. 39. Variable Conceptual Operational Definition Definition (as used in the study)A professional An individual who Any individual with practices a particular four years of College profession educationCourtesy Civility, politeness The use of polite words and expressions when06/09/12 greeting elders and Free template from authorities
  40. 40. ACTIVITY
  41. 41. 1. MAKE A HYPOTHESIS OF YOUR STUDY.3. After formulating the research hypothesis, the group should identify the variables in their study and give its operational and conceptual definition.3. Expected output will be submitted and presented to the class the following meeting.06/09/12 Free template from