Introduction toEducationalResearchChapter IPrepared by:Ms. Huma & Ms. Afia
Research Research is a systematic process that is guided by accepted procedures to establish credibility Data collection Data analysis Interpretation The systematic, testable, and objective nature of research permits careful examination of the process and results
Research Itis a process of steps used to collect and analyze information in order to increase our understanding of a topic or issue.
Research as Scientific Inquiry Scientific inquiry is the search for knowledge using recognized methods in data collection, analysis, and interpretation. The purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop knowledge – Describe phenomena – Examine empirical relationships between or among phenomena – Test whether such relationships are causal in nature Knowledge is typically presented in the form of theories – A theory is a set of propositions that explain the relationships among phenomena. – A theory is a means of simplifying and understanding complex realities.
Steps of scientific inquiry Identify the Research Problem Evaluate Data and Review the Write Report Literature (Conclusion) Specify a Analyze and research Interpret Data purpose (Results) (Question) Collect Data (Method)
Two major approaches of Educational Research 1. Quantitative 2. Qualitative Quantitative Approach: Phenomena should be studied objectively. Single true reality, or reality within known probabilities. Empiricism is emphasized through the use of numbers. Qualitative Approach: Reality is socially constructed Emphasis is on language to most closely reflect participants perspectives.
Quantitative research Quantitative research is an inquiry approach useful for describing trends and explaining the relationship among variables found in the literature. To conduct this inquiry, the investigator specifies narrow questions, locates or develops instruments using statistics. From the results of these analyzes, the researcher interprets the data using prior predictions and research studies. The final report, presented in standard format, display researcher objectivity and lack of bias.
Qualitative research Qualitative research is an inquiry approach useful for exploring and understanding a central phenomenon. To learn about this phenomenon, the inquirer asks participants broad, general questions, collects the detailed views of participants in the form of words or images, and analyzes the information for description and themes. From this data, the researcher interprets the meaning of the information drawing on personal reflections and past research. The structure of the final report is flexible, and it displays the researcher’s biases and thoughts.
Differentiating Quantitative QualitativeCharacteristicsGoals Tests theories, establishes facts, Develops grounded theories, shows relationships predicts relationships, predicts, or statistically describes Understanding multiple realities, develops understanding, captures naturally occurring describes behavior.Research design Highly structured, formal, and Unstructured, flexible, evolving specificParticipants Many subjects representative of Few subjects chosen using non- the groups from which they were probabilistic sampling techniques chosen, using probabilistic for specific characteristics of sampling interest to the researchers. techniquesData, Data Collection Numerical data collected at specific times from tests or Narrative data collected over a long period of time from& Data analysis surveys and analyzed statistically observations and interviews and analyzed using interpretive techniquesResearcher’s role Detached, objective observers of Participant observers reporting events Control settings participant’s perspectives.and settings Develop long-term, close, trusting relationships with participants. Naturalistic settingsContext manipulated and controlled naturalistic settings settings
Naturalistic Settings Research Designs Quantitative Qualitative Analytical Study Mixed Method Case Study Concept AnalysisNon-Experimental Experimental Phenomenaology Historical Analysis Descriptive True Ethnography Comparative Quasi Grounded Theory Correlational Single Subject Causal Comparative
Quantitative Designs Two major categories Experimental The investigation of causal effects through direct manipulation of an independent variable and control of extraneous variables Non-experimental The investigation of the current state of a variable or the relationships, other than causal, between variables
Quantitative Designs Non experimental Experimental• Descriptive: Makes careful • True Experimental: Random description of the current situation or assignment of subjects to status od a Variable(s) of interest. random groups.• Comparative: Compare two or • Quasi Experimental: Non- more groups on some variable of random assignment of interest. subjects to random groups.• Correlational: Establish a non casual relationship between or among • Single subject: Non random variables. selection of a single subject.• Causal-Comparative: Single subject research is a Or study which aims to examine Ex Post Facto: Explore possible whether an intervention has causes and effects among variables the intended effect on an that cannot be manipulated by the individual, or on one group. researcher.
Case study: Phenomenology: orDeep study of a single Narrative Research:or fewprograms, events, activit the description ofies or groups in natural meaning of ancontext with perspective experience.of the participant. Qualitative DesignsEthnography:the description of Grounded Theory:the beliefs and Explore commonpractices of a experiences ofcultural group or individuals tosystem develop a theory
Analytical Designs Concept analysis : the study of educational concepts (e.g., co- operative learning, leadership, etc.) Analytical Designs: to describe the different Description of meanings and the uses of historical, legal or policy the concept issues through an analysis of documents, oral Historical analysis: histories and relics the systematic collection and criticism of documents that describe past events of relevance to education
Mixed Method Designs The use of quantitative and qualitative designs and methods within a single study Allows the researcher to better match the approach for gathering and analyzing data to answer the research questions Relative emphasis given to any particular method varies widely