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The role of libraries in a networked world Lee Rainie – Director Pew Internet Project Texas Library Association April 17, ...
<ul><li>Eight hallmarks of  </li></ul><ul><li>the new digital ecosystem </li></ul>
Hallmark 1 <ul><li>Media and gadgets are ubiquitous parts of everyday life </li></ul>
Home media ecology - 1975 <ul><li>Product   Route to home   Display   Local storage </li></ul><ul><li>TV stations   phone ...
Home media ecology – now <ul><li>Product   Route to home   Display   Local storage </li></ul><ul><li>  cable TiVo (PVR) VC...
Hallmark 2 <ul><li>The internet, especially  broadband connectivity, is at the center of the revolution </li></ul>
Internet and broadband adoption 1995-2007 Internet users Broadband at home
Hallmark 3 <ul><li>People can enjoy media, gather information, and carry on communication anywhere. Wirelessness is its ow...
Wireless connectivity 2004-2007
Mobile devices – college student ownership <ul><li>88% of college students own cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>81% own digit...
Hallmark 4 <ul><li>Ordinary citizens have a chance to be publishers, movie makers, artists, song creators, and story telle...
<ul><li>62% of young adult internet users have uploaded photos to the internet </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>34...
<ul><li>58% of online teens have created their own profile on a social network site like MySpace or Facebook </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>39% of online teens share their own creations online, such as artwork, photos, stories, or videos </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>33% of college students keep blogs and regularly post </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>12% of online adult...
<ul><li>28% of young adult internet users have uploaded videos to the web </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>14% of ...
<ul><li>26% of online teens report keeping their own personal webpage </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>14% of onli...
<ul><li>26% of young adults have created or worked on webpages or blogs for others, including those for groups they belong...
Content creation 20% of online young adults say they remix content they find online into their own artistic creations ----...
<ul><li>19% of online young adults have created an avatar that interacts with others online </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></...
<ul><li>15% of young adult internet users have uploaded videos to the web </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>8% of a...
Hallmark 5 <ul><li>All those content creators have an audience.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>55% of young adult internet users use  video-sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>33% of all adul...
<ul><li>54% of college students have read blogs </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>36% of all adults do that </li></u...
<ul><li>44% of young adult internet users seek information at Wikipedia sites </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>36% ...
<ul><li>14% of young internet users download podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>12% of all adults do </li></...
Hallmark 6 <ul><li>Many are sharing what they know and what they feel online and that is building conversations and commun...
<ul><li>37% of young adult internet users have rated a person, product, or service online </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul>...
<ul><li>34% of online young adults have tagged online content </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>28% of all adults ha...
<ul><li>25% of younger internet users have commented on videos </li></ul><ul><li>They also post comments on blogs and phot...
Hallmark 7 <ul><li>Online Americans are customizing their online experiences thanks to Web 2.0 tools </li></ul>
<ul><li>~ 40% of younger internet users customize news and other information pages; ~ half are on specialty listservs </li...
<ul><li>~  A quarter to a third of younger internet users get RSS feeds </li></ul>Information customization
Hallmark 8 <ul><li>Different people use these technologies in different ways </li></ul>
Why a tech-user typology? Information & communications technology Applications
PIP’s tech-user typology <ul><li>Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet (and broadband at home) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
High end – Group 1 OMNIVORES   (8% of the population) <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: late 20s </li></ul><ul><...
High end – Group 2 CONNECTORS   (7% of the population) Between featured-packed cell phones and frequent online use, they c...
High end – Group 3 LACKLUSTER VETERANS   (8% of the population) They are frequent users of the internet and less avid abou...
High end – Group 4 PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCERS   (8% of population) They have strongly positive views about how technology lets...
Middle end – Group 1 MOBILE CENTRICS   (10% of the population) They fully embrace the functionality of their cell phones. ...
Middle end – Group 2 CONNECTED BUT HASSLED   (10% of population) They have invested in a lot of technology, but they find ...
Low end – Group 1 INEXPERIENCED EXPERIMENTERS   (8% of  pop.) They occasionally take advantage of interactivity, but if th...
Low end – Group 2 LIGHT BUT SATISFIED   (15% of  population) They have some technology, but it does not play a central rol...
Low end – Group 3 INDIFFERENTS   (11% of  population) Despite having either cell phones or online access, these users use ...
Low end – Group 4 OFF THE NETWORK   (15% of  population) Those with neither cell phones nor internet connectivity tend to ...
What all this connectivity does to us <ul><li>It changes our relationship to information </li></ul><ul><li>It changes our ...
Life changes in 10 important ways <ul><li>Volume  of info grows -- “long tail” expands </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity  of info...
<ul><li>Vigilance  for info transforms – attention is truncated (“continuous partial attention”)  and  elongated (“deep di...
<ul><li>Viewing  of info is disaggregated and becomes more “horizontal” (Allen Renear UI-Champaign-Urbana) – new reading s...
<ul><li>in V ention  of info and the  visibility  of new creators is enhanced – the read/write, Web 2.0 world is about par...
What role does this leave for libraries? <ul><li>Libraries can plug into people’s social networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be...
Background of research <ul><li>Institute for Museum and Library Services grant  </li></ul><ul><li>UIC partnership </li></u...
Visited library in the past year <ul><li>53% of American adults  </li></ul>42% Matures (62-71) % who visited a public libr...
Who turns to libraries for problem solving <ul><li>Young adults (18-29) = 21% </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest (over 70) = 15% </l...
Once they are at the library, they are active AND happy <ul><li>69% got help from library staff </li></ul><ul><li>68% used...
What role does this leave for libraries? <ul><li>Libraries can plug into people’s social networks </li></ul><ul><li>They c...
<ul><li>Graphic literacy – the language of the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation – the transition to non-linear format....
<ul><li>Personal literacy – understanding your digital footprints </li></ul>Pew Internet’s add-on
Thank you! <ul><li>Lee Rainie </li></ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Internet & American Life Project </li></ul>...
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The Role Of Libraries In A Networked World (2008)

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4/17/2008: This presentation was an overview of Pew Internet Project findings about the changing structure of information and communication in the digital age, the role that libraries play in helping people solve problems, and the broader roles that libraries might fill in people's lives.

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The Role Of Libraries In A Networked World (2008)

  1. 1. The role of libraries in a networked world Lee Rainie – Director Pew Internet Project Texas Library Association April 17, 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Eight hallmarks of </li></ul><ul><li>the new digital ecosystem </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hallmark 1 <ul><li>Media and gadgets are ubiquitous parts of everyday life </li></ul>
  4. 4. Home media ecology - 1975 <ul><li>Product Route to home Display Local storage </li></ul><ul><li>TV stations phone TV Cassette/ 8-track </li></ul><ul><li> broadcast TV radio </li></ul><ul><li> broadcast radio stereo Vinyl album </li></ul><ul><li>News mail </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising newspaper delivery phone </li></ul><ul><li> paper </li></ul><ul><li>Radio Stations non-electronic </li></ul>Tom Wolzien, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
  5. 5. Home media ecology – now <ul><li>Product Route to home Display Local storage </li></ul><ul><li> cable TiVo (PVR) VCR </li></ul><ul><li>TV stations DSL TV </li></ul><ul><li>Info wireless/phone radio DVD </li></ul><ul><li>“ Daily me” broadcast TV PC Web-based storage </li></ul><ul><li>content iPod /MP3 server/ TiVo (PVR) </li></ul><ul><li>Cable Nets broadcast radio stereo PC </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites satellite monitor web storage </li></ul><ul><li>Local news mail headphones CD/CD-ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Content from express delivery pager </li></ul><ul><li>individuals iPod / storage portable gamer MP3 player / iPod </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer subcarriers / WIFI cell phone pagers - PDAs </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising newspaper delivery phone cable box </li></ul><ul><li>Radio stations camcorder/camera PDA/Palm game console </li></ul><ul><li>game console paper </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite radio non-electronic storage sticks/disks </li></ul>Adapted from Tom Wolzien, Sanford C. Bernstein & Co
  6. 6. Hallmark 2 <ul><li>The internet, especially broadband connectivity, is at the center of the revolution </li></ul>
  7. 7. Internet and broadband adoption 1995-2007 Internet users Broadband at home
  8. 8. Hallmark 3 <ul><li>People can enjoy media, gather information, and carry on communication anywhere. Wirelessness is its own adventure. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Wireless connectivity 2004-2007
  10. 10. Mobile devices – college student ownership <ul><li>88% of college students own cell phones </li></ul><ul><li>81% own digital cameras </li></ul><ul><li>63 own MP3 players </li></ul><ul><li>55% own video cameras </li></ul><ul><li>55% own laptops </li></ul><ul><li>27% of college students own a PDA or Blackberry </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>77% of college students play games online </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hallmark 4 <ul><li>Ordinary citizens have a chance to be publishers, movie makers, artists, song creators, and story tellers </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>62% of young adult internet users have uploaded photos to the internet </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>34% of all users have done this </li></ul>Content creation
  13. 13. <ul><li>58% of online teens have created their own profile on a social network site like MySpace or Facebook </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>33% of online adults have such profiles </li></ul>Content creation
  14. 14. <ul><li>39% of online teens share their own creations online, such as artwork, photos, stories, or videos </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>21% of online adults have done this </li></ul>Content creation
  15. 15. <ul><li>33% of college students keep blogs and regularly post </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>12% of online adults have a blog </li></ul>Content creation
  16. 16. <ul><li>28% of young adult internet users have uploaded videos to the web </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>14% of all adult internet users have done this </li></ul>Content creation
  17. 17. <ul><li>26% of online teens report keeping their own personal webpage </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>14% of online adults have their own page </li></ul>Content creation
  18. 18. <ul><li>26% of young adults have created or worked on webpages or blogs for others, including those for groups they belong to, friends or school assignments </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>13% of online adults do this </li></ul>Content creation
  19. 19. Content creation 20% of online young adults say they remix content they find online into their own artistic creations ---- 11% of online adults have done this
  20. 20. <ul><li>19% of online young adults have created an avatar that interacts with others online </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>6% of all adult internet users have done this </li></ul>Content creation
  21. 21. <ul><li>15% of young adult internet users have uploaded videos to the web </li></ul><ul><li>---- </li></ul><ul><li>8% of all adult internet users have done this </li></ul>Content creation
  22. 22. Hallmark 5 <ul><li>All those content creators have an audience. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>55% of young adult internet users use video-sharing sites </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>33% of all adults go to such sites </li></ul>Accessing new information content
  24. 24. <ul><li>54% of college students have read blogs </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>36% of all adults do that </li></ul>Accessing new information content
  25. 25. <ul><li>44% of young adult internet users seek information at Wikipedia sites </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>36% of all adults use them </li></ul>Accessing new information content
  26. 26. <ul><li>14% of young internet users download podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>12% of all adults do </li></ul>Accessing new information content
  27. 27. Hallmark 6 <ul><li>Many are sharing what they know and what they feel online and that is building conversations and communities </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>37% of young adult internet users have rated a person, product, or service online </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>32% of all adults have done so </li></ul>Information sharing and evaluation
  29. 29. <ul><li>34% of online young adults have tagged online content </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>28% of all adults have done that </li></ul>Information sharing and evaluation
  30. 30. <ul><li>25% of younger internet users have commented on videos </li></ul><ul><li>They also post comments on blogs and photos </li></ul><ul><li>--- </li></ul><ul><li>13% of all adults have commented on videos </li></ul>Information sharing and evaluation
  31. 31. Hallmark 7 <ul><li>Online Americans are customizing their online experiences thanks to Web 2.0 tools </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>~ 40% of younger internet users customize news and other information pages; ~ half are on specialty listservs </li></ul>Information customization
  33. 33. <ul><li>~ A quarter to a third of younger internet users get RSS feeds </li></ul>Information customization
  34. 34. Hallmark 8 <ul><li>Different people use these technologies in different ways </li></ul>
  35. 35. Why a tech-user typology? Information & communications technology Applications
  36. 36. PIP’s tech-user typology <ul><li>Assets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet (and broadband at home) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer use (laptop & desktop) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web cams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video recorders & digital cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User-generated content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phone applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help me be productive? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give me more control? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload? </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. High end – Group 1 OMNIVORES (8% of the population) <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: late 20s </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Male dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 89% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo and video freaks </li></ul></ul>They have the most information gadgets and services, which they use voraciously to participate in cyberspace and express themselves online and do a range of Web 2.0 activities such as blogging or managing their own Web pages.
  38. 38. High end – Group 2 CONNECTORS (7% of the population) Between featured-packed cell phones and frequent online use, they connect to people and manage digital content using ICTs – all with high levels of satisfaction about how ICTs let them work with community groups and pursue hobbies. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: late 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Female dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Diverse (blacks) </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Upscale </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 86% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email fanatics + IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media experiences by other means </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suspect their gadgets can do more; sometimes need help </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. High end – Group 3 LACKLUSTER VETERANS (8% of the population) They are frequent users of the internet and less avid about cell phones. They are not thrilled with ICT-enabled connectivity. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 40ish </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Male dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Diverse, trending white </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Upscale </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 77% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech is necessary, not exiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislike “always on” world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents (child at home) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trad. channels of chatter and info predominate </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. High end – Group 4 PRODUCTIVITY ENHANCERS (8% of population) They have strongly positive views about how technology lets them keep up with others, do their jobs, and learn new things. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 40ish </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Parity </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Diverse (Latino) </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Upscale </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 71% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flip side of lackluster vets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love tech for work use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have time or inclination to create or browse for fun </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Middle end – Group 1 MOBILE CENTRICS (10% of the population) They fully embrace the functionality of their cell phones. They use the internet, but not often, and like how ICTs connect them to others. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: early 30s </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Parity </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Minorities rule </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Middle income </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 37% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone texters and photo takers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not early adopters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be single </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as many gadgets </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Middle end – Group 2 CONNECTED BUT HASSLED (10% of population) They have invested in a lot of technology, but they find the connectivity intrusive and information something of a burden. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: mid-40s </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Female dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Race: White </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Middle income </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Go online less frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech is not fun – it’s stressful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience info overload </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Low end – Group 1 INEXPERIENCED EXPERIMENTERS (8% of pop.) They occasionally take advantage of interactivity, but if they had more experience, they might do more with ICTs. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 50ish </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Female dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Diverse </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Middle income </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less online experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer tech assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fascinated with tech, and willing to try gadgets with coaching </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Low end – Group 2 LIGHT BUT SATISFIED (15% of population) They have some technology, but it does not play a central role in their daily lives. They are satisfied with what ICTs do for them. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: mid-50s </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Parity </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Whites </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Below average </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional media occupies time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech doesn’t do much for them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Late adopters </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Low end – Group 3 INDIFFERENTS (11% of population) Despite having either cell phones or online access, these users use ICTs only intermittently and find connectivity annoying. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: late 40s </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Parity </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Whites </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Below average </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 12% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active tech resistors surrounded by gadgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time pressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truthful? </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Low end – Group 4 OFF THE NETWORK (15% of population) Those with neither cell phones nor internet connectivity tend to be older adults who are content with old media. <ul><li>Data Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Age: mid-60s+ </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: Female dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Race: Diverse (blacks) </li></ul><ul><li>SES: Poorest group </li></ul><ul><li>Home b-band: 0% </li></ul><ul><li>Special traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old media and tech are everything </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech wary or even hostile </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. What all this connectivity does to us <ul><li>It changes our relationship to information </li></ul><ul><li>It changes our relationship to each other </li></ul>
  48. 48. Life changes in 10 important ways <ul><li>Volume of info grows -- “long tail” expands </li></ul><ul><li>Velocity of info increases – “smart mobs” emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Venues of intersecting with info and people multiply – place shifting and time shifting occurs… “absent presence” occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Venturing for info changes – search strategies and search expectations spread in the Google era </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Vigilance for info transforms – attention is truncated (“continuous partial attention”) and elongated (“deep dives”) </li></ul><ul><li>Valence (relevance) of info improves – “Daily Me” and “Daily Us” gets made </li></ul><ul><li>Vetting of info becomes more “social” – credibility tests change as people ping their social networks </li></ul>Life changes in 10 important ways – cont.
  50. 50. <ul><li>Viewing of info is disaggregated and becomes more “horizontal” (Allen Renear UI-Champaign-Urbana) – new reading strategies emerge as coping mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Voting on and ventilating about info proliferates – tagging, rating, and commenting on material is enabled – collective intelligence emerges </li></ul>Life changes in 10 important ways – cont.
  51. 51. <ul><li>in V ention of info and the visibility of new creators is enhanced – the read/write, Web 2.0 world is about participation </li></ul>Life changes in 10 important ways – cont.
  52. 52. What role does this leave for libraries? <ul><li>Libraries can plug into people’s social networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a “node” in people’s networks – or “weak tie” </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Background of research <ul><li>Institute for Museum and Library Services grant </li></ul><ul><li>UIC partnership </li></ul><ul><li>Government Printing Office query </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/231/report_display.asp </li></ul>
  54. 54. Visited library in the past year <ul><li>53% of American adults </li></ul>42% Matures (62-71) % who visited a public library Gen. (ages) 32% 46% 57% 59% 62% After Work (72+) Leading Boomers (53-61) Trailing Boomers (43-52) Gen X (31-42) Gen Y (18-30)
  55. 55. Who turns to libraries for problem solving <ul><li>Young adults (18-29) = 21% </li></ul><ul><li>Oldest (over 70) = 15% </li></ul><ul><li>Blacks = 26% </li></ul><ul><li>Latinos = 22% </li></ul><ul><li>Lower income (HH <$40,000) = 17% </li></ul>
  56. 56. Once they are at the library, they are active AND happy <ul><li>69% got help from library staff </li></ul><ul><li>68% used computers – 38% got one-on-one instruction </li></ul><ul><li>58% sought reference materials </li></ul><ul><li>42% used newspapers and magazines </li></ul>
  57. 57. What role does this leave for libraries? <ul><li>Libraries can plug into people’s social networks </li></ul><ul><li>They can help teach new literacies </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Graphic literacy – the language of the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation – the transition to non-linear format. </li></ul><ul><li>Context – the importance of seeing connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus – the value of reflection. </li></ul><ul><li>Skepticism – the capacity to evaluate </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical behavior – the will to be responsible </li></ul>Librarian blogger Pam Berger’s list http://www.infosearcher.com/
  59. 59. <ul><li>Personal literacy – understanding your digital footprints </li></ul>Pew Internet’s add-on
  60. 60. Thank you! <ul><li>Lee Rainie </li></ul><ul><li>Director </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Internet & American Life Project </li></ul><ul><li>1615 L Street NW </li></ul><ul><li>Suite 700 </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, DC 20036 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>202-419-4500 </li></ul>

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