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Indigenous Peoples of the
Philippines
Josefino T. Larena AB,CPS,CPE,MPA
• The Philippines consist of
a large number of
indigenous ethnic groups
living in the country.
They are the
descendants of the
original inhabitants of
the Philippines. They
were not absorbed by
centuries of Spanish and
United States
colonization of the
Philippines archipelago,
and in the process have
retained their customs
and traditions
Father of Cultural Anthropology
• Henry Otley Beyer was an
American anthropologist,
who spent most of his adult
life in the Philippines
teaching Philippine
indigenous culture. He is
known as the Father of
Philippine Anthropology.
Henry Otley Beyer
Ethnic groups Cultural Communities
Demographics
• In the 1990s, there were
more than 100 highland
tribal groups constituting
approximately 3% of the
population. The upland
tribal groups were a blend
in ethnic origin like other
lowland Filipinos, although
they did not have contact
with the outside world.
Culture and Arts
• Culture and Arts
• They displayed a variety of
social organization, cultural
expression and artistic skills.
They showed a high degree of
creativity, usually employed to
embellish utilitarian objects,
such as bowls, baskets,
clothing, weapons and spoons.
The tribal groups of the
Philippines are known for their
carved wooden figures,
baskets, weaving, pottery and
weapons.
Who are indigenous peoples?
• According to the United Nations, there are
approximately 400 million Indigenous people
worldwide, making up more than 5,000
distinct tribes. Together we are one of the
largest minority groups in the world, spanning
over 90 countries. While Indigenous Peoples
total only about 6% of the world’s population,
we represent 90% of the cultural diversity.
RA 8371: The Indigenous Peoples
Rights Act (IPRA)
• Some ten million people or 15% of the Philippine population belong to
distinct indigenous communities or cultures and retain a close link with
their traditions. To honor their identities, the Indigenous Peoples'
Rights Act (IPRA) was passed on October 29, 1997. This law recognized
the ancestral land rights of the indigenous people. This law also creates
the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) an office under
the Office of the President and shall be the primary government agency
responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies, plans
and programs to recognize, protect and promote the rights of
Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples.
• The Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA) is modeled on the provisions
of the UN Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
• The National Commission
on Indigenous Peoples
(NCIP) is a governmental
agency of the Philippines
that is responsible for
addressing issues regarding
and concerns of the
country's indigenous
peoples. The NCIP is
composed of seven
Commissioners, one of
whom is the Chairperson.
• The Republic Act 8371 or
Indigenous Peoples' Rights
Act of 1997 was enacted
into law on October 29,
1997, creating the National
Commission on Indigenous
Peoples (NCIP) merging the
ONCC and OSCC as its
organic offices
• The Austronesian-speaking
peoples are various
populations in Southeast Asia
and Oceania that speak
languages of the
Austronesian family. They
include Taiwanese
aborigines; the majority
ethnic groups of Malaysia,
East Timor, the Philippines,
Indonesia, Brunei,
Madagascar, Micronesia, and
Polynesia, as well as the
Polynesian peoples of New
Zealand and Hawaii, and the
non-Papuan people of
Melanesia
Luzon
Mountain Province
Igorot
• Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the
collective name of several
Austronesian ethnic groups in
The Philippines, who inhabit
the mountains of Luzon. These
highland peoples inhabit the
six provinces of the Cordillera
Administrative Region: Abra,
Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga,
Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya and
Mountain Province, as well as
Baguio City.
Mountain Province
Botoc Tribe
• Bontoc is home to the Bontoc
Tribe, a feared war-like group
of indigenous people who
actively indulged in tribal wars
with its neighbours up until
the 1930s. Every Bontoc male
had to undergo a rites of
passage into manhood, which
may include head hunting,
where the male has to journey
(Sometimes with companions)
and hunt for a human head
Mountain Province
Ifugao
• The Ifugao call themselves
as i-pugao or "inhabitants of
the known earth"; other
variations of the name are
Ifugaw, Ipugao, and Yfugao.
They live primarily in the
province of Ifugao in Central
Cordillera, in Northern
Luzon
Mountain Province
Kalinga:Head hunting
• Esteemed as “the strong
people of the Cordilleras”,
Kalingans, simultaneously,
profoundly cherish family and
kinship. A Kalinga household
consists of a nuclear family
and sometimes, an aged
grandparent; generally
speaking, they show great
respect towards elders and,
are clannish. Thus, the
household, extended
household of the kinship
circle, and territorial region
are significant units of Kalinga
society.
Mountain Province
Balangao ethnic group
• The Balangao, also known
as Boliwons were the early
settlers of the Eastern
Mountain Province in
central Cordillera.
Concentrations of this
ethnolinguistic group are
found in the towns of Barlig,
Natonin, and Paracelis.
Mountain Province
Ibaloi
• The Ibaloi or Nabaloi is an
indigenous ethnic group
found in the northern
Philippines. The Ibaloi are
one of the indigenous
peoples collectively known
as Igorot, who live in the
mountains of the Cordillera
Central on the island of
Luzon.
Mountain Province
Sagada
• led by the elders and
followed by the younger
men of Sagada.
Mountain Province
Pugot, N. Apayao
Mountain Province
Apayao Isnag
GA’DANG
• The Gaddang are an
indigenous people from the
area of Solano,
in the province of Nueva
Vizcaya, in the region of
Cagayan Valley
also known as region II, in
the Philippine Islands.
The Gaddang tribe was first
discovered by the Spaniards
in the early 1600’s.
SEA & ASIAN Games
• Jason Balabal made as
scene in the opening
ceremony wearing nothing
but a piece of loincloth of
his native Ifugao
Mountain Province
Bahag-ketball Police in Baguio wearing a Bahag
Sierra Madre
Ilongots
• the Ilongots in the southern
Sierra Madre and Caraballo
Mountains on the east side
of Luzon particularly Nueva
Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya.
Sierra Madre
The Remontados, identified as a
Negrito ethnolinguistic group
Aeta of Zambales
Ata of Pampanga
Ivatan of Batanes
Tagbanwa Palawan
Batak people (Philippines)
Northern Palawan
• The Batak are one of about 70
indigenous peoples of the
Philippines. They are located in
the northeastern portions of
Palawan, a relatively large
island in the southwest of the
archipelago. There are only
about 500 Batak remaining.
Also called Tinitianes, the
Batak are considered by
anthropologists to be closely
related to the Ayta of Central
Luzon, another Negrito tribe
Mangyan Tribe culture
Mangyan cultural practices are in
danger of vanishing because of the
influence of modern lowland culture.
The literature and traditions of the
different Mangyan groups are short of
documentation; thus, mainstream
society lacks awareness of the beauty
of Mangyan culture and its relevance
to Filipino culture as a whole.
Visayan I.P.
Magahat Bukidnon of Negros
ATA Community Boracay
• Boracay Island – The National
Commission on Indigenous Peoples
(NCIP), the primary government
agency responsible for the formulation
and implementation of policies, plans
and programs to promote and protect
the rights and well-being of Indigenous
Cultural Communities/Indigenous
Peoples (ICCs/IPs) and the recognition
of their ancestral domains as well as
their rights. In line with NCIPs
mandate, officials and staff led by
Chairperson Leonor O. Quintayo,
recently conducted an affirmation of
Ancestral Domain Sustainable
Development Protection Plan
(ADSDPP) and full delineation and
demarcation of Certificate of Ancestral
Domain Title (CADT) on the ground in
favor of the Ati in Boracay Island
covering approximately 2.1 hectares in
Manoc-Manoc, Boracay, Malay, Aklan.
SULODNON Tribe of Panay
• The Tumandok or Suludnon
(also known as Panay-
Bukidnon or Panayanon
Sulud) is an indigenous
Visayan group of people
who reside in the Capiz-
Lambunao mountainous
area of Panay in the Visayan
islands of the Philippines.
They are the only culturally
indigenous group of Visayan
language-speakers in the
Western Visayas
the"tig-babai“ wedding dance
Eskaya people Bohol
• The Eskaya, less commonly
known as the Visayan-Eskaya, is
the collective name for the
members of a cultural minority
found in Bohol, Philippines,
which is distinguished by its
cultural heritage, particularly its
literature, language, dress and
religious observances
Negritos of Negros Oriental
• More than 100 tribal chieftains
and leaders from the two
major and recognized
indigenous groups in Negros
Oriental, namely the Ata
Negritos Tribe. The total
population of recognized IPs in
Negros Oriental has yet to be
determined by an ongoing
census but with the Ata
Negritos alone, there is a
rough estimated population of
about 260,000 in the province
Karay-a people Antique
• The Karay-a, are part of the
wider Visayan
ethnolinguistic group, which
constitute the largest
Filipino ethnolinguistic
group.
Suludnon People of Panay
• The Tumandok or Suludnon
(also known as Panay-
Bukidnon or Panayanon Sulud)
is an indigenous Visayan group
of people who reside in the
Capiz-Lambunao mountainous
area of Panay in the Visayan
islands of the Philippines.
They are the only culturally
indigenous group of Visayan
language-speakers in the
Western Visayas
Pre –Spanish in the Visayan
Mindanao
Yakan People Basilan
Basilan is home to the Yakan Tribes, also known
as one of the finest weavers in Philippines.
B’LAAN
The B’laan are one of the indigenous peoples
of Southern Mindanao in The Philippines.
They are famous for their brassworks,
beadwork and t’nalak weave.
BAGOBO
• The Bagobo are proud
people with proto Malayan
features.
They have ornate traditions
in weaponry and other
metal arts.
They are noted for their skill
in producing brass articles
through the ancient lost-
wax process.
MANDAYA
• The Mandayas are a group of
non-Christian tribe,
non-Islamic people living in
Eastern Mindanao, Philippines
They hand down from
generation to generation the
art of weaving cloth
from the fibers of abaca plant,
colored with root and mud
dyes with intricate
figures and patterns depicting
the folklore and religion of the
tribe
PULANGIYEN
• Living in the Pulangi
River headwaters in
the southern part of
Bukidnon,
the Pulangiyen is
one of the many
indigenous natives
of the province.
MATIGSALUG
• The Matigsalug are the
Bukidnon groups who are
found in the
Tigwa-Salug Valley in San
Fernando, Bukidnon.
“Matigsalug ” is a term,
which means “people along
the River Salug”
Samal
• The Samal are the poorest and
least independent of the
major Muslim groups.
They serve as the “loyal
commoners” in the hierarchy
of Muslim minorities.
Their lives are literally over the
sea, where the villages stand
on stilts above the coastal
waters
Badjao
• Widely known as the “Sea
Gypsies” of the Sulu and Celebes
Seas, the Badjao are scattered
along the coastal areas of Tawi
Tawi, Sulu, Basilan, and some
coastal municipalities of
Zamboanga del Sur in the ARMM.
Amongst themselves, they're
known as Sama Laus (Sea Sama)
and are found living on
houseboats where they make their
livelihood solely on the sea as
expert fishermen, deep sea divers,
and navigators
Tausug
• The Tausūg or Suluk people are
an ethnic group of the
Philippines, Malaysia and
Indonesia. The Tausūg are part
of the wider political identity of
Muslims of Mindanao, Sulu and
Palawan known as the Moro
ethnic group, who constitute
the third largest ethnic group of
Mindanao
Sarangani
Lumad People
• The Lumad is a group of
indigenous people of the
southern Philippines. It is a
Cebuano term meaning
"native" or "indigenous".
The term is short for
Katawhang Lumad (literally
"indigenous peoples"), the
autonym officially adopted
by the delegates of the
Lumad Mindanao Peoples
Federation (LMPF)
founding assembly on 26
June 1986
Maranao
• The life of the
Maranaos is
centered on Lake
Lanao, the largest in
Mindanao, and the
second largest and
deepest lake in the
Philippines
Maranao Royal Family
T’BOLI
• The T’boli Tribe is an
indigenous tribe living in the
highlands of Lake Sebu in
South Cotabato in the
Southern part of the
Philippines.
• The t’boli people believe in
many Gods, their high regards
with the spirits of nature is
very much evident in their way
of living.
Higaunon
• The Higaunon is
one of the
mountain tribes
in the
Philippines.
Most Higaunon
still have a rather
traditional way
of living. Farming
is the most
important
economic
activity.
• The Bilaan were in Mindanao
way before Islam came to the
islands in the 14th Century.
How about their right to self
detrmination? They were there
way before a single mosque
was built in Mindanao. Why not
their own "entity".
• Or should they rise up in arms
first?
• *Bilaan Broup from the Otley
Beyer Collection.
How to preserve our culture heritage
Photo Credited to
• Penn Larena & Jojo Larena
• St. Paul University Dumaguete
• Janica Tan & Nica Belnas
• Cultural Anthropology class of Josefino Larena Jr.
CPS,MPA
• National Commission on Indigenous Peoples
• National Commission for Culture and the Arts
• Michael Ocampo
• YAHOO.COM & Google.com
• Pinili Clan Association
Thank you so much God bless u

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Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines: A Guide to Their Diverse Cultures and Traditions

  • 1. Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines Josefino T. Larena AB,CPS,CPE,MPA
  • 2. • The Philippines consist of a large number of indigenous ethnic groups living in the country. They are the descendants of the original inhabitants of the Philippines. They were not absorbed by centuries of Spanish and United States colonization of the Philippines archipelago, and in the process have retained their customs and traditions
  • 3. Father of Cultural Anthropology • Henry Otley Beyer was an American anthropologist, who spent most of his adult life in the Philippines teaching Philippine indigenous culture. He is known as the Father of Philippine Anthropology. Henry Otley Beyer
  • 5. Demographics • In the 1990s, there were more than 100 highland tribal groups constituting approximately 3% of the population. The upland tribal groups were a blend in ethnic origin like other lowland Filipinos, although they did not have contact with the outside world.
  • 6. Culture and Arts • Culture and Arts • They displayed a variety of social organization, cultural expression and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity, usually employed to embellish utilitarian objects, such as bowls, baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. The tribal groups of the Philippines are known for their carved wooden figures, baskets, weaving, pottery and weapons.
  • 7. Who are indigenous peoples? • According to the United Nations, there are approximately 400 million Indigenous people worldwide, making up more than 5,000 distinct tribes. Together we are one of the largest minority groups in the world, spanning over 90 countries. While Indigenous Peoples total only about 6% of the world’s population, we represent 90% of the cultural diversity.
  • 8. RA 8371: The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) • Some ten million people or 15% of the Philippine population belong to distinct indigenous communities or cultures and retain a close link with their traditions. To honor their identities, the Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA) was passed on October 29, 1997. This law recognized the ancestral land rights of the indigenous people. This law also creates the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) an office under the Office of the President and shall be the primary government agency responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies, plans and programs to recognize, protect and promote the rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples. • The Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA) is modeled on the provisions of the UN Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
  • 9. • The National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) is a governmental agency of the Philippines that is responsible for addressing issues regarding and concerns of the country's indigenous peoples. The NCIP is composed of seven Commissioners, one of whom is the Chairperson. • The Republic Act 8371 or Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act of 1997 was enacted into law on October 29, 1997, creating the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) merging the ONCC and OSCC as its organic offices
  • 10. • The Austronesian-speaking peoples are various populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania that speak languages of the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of Malaysia, East Timor, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia
  • 11. Luzon
  • 12. Mountain Province Igorot • Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in The Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon. These highland peoples inhabit the six provinces of the Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City.
  • 13. Mountain Province Botoc Tribe • Bontoc is home to the Bontoc Tribe, a feared war-like group of indigenous people who actively indulged in tribal wars with its neighbours up until the 1930s. Every Bontoc male had to undergo a rites of passage into manhood, which may include head hunting, where the male has to journey (Sometimes with companions) and hunt for a human head
  • 14. Mountain Province Ifugao • The Ifugao call themselves as i-pugao or "inhabitants of the known earth"; other variations of the name are Ifugaw, Ipugao, and Yfugao. They live primarily in the province of Ifugao in Central Cordillera, in Northern Luzon
  • 15. Mountain Province Kalinga:Head hunting • Esteemed as “the strong people of the Cordilleras”, Kalingans, simultaneously, profoundly cherish family and kinship. A Kalinga household consists of a nuclear family and sometimes, an aged grandparent; generally speaking, they show great respect towards elders and, are clannish. Thus, the household, extended household of the kinship circle, and territorial region are significant units of Kalinga society.
  • 16. Mountain Province Balangao ethnic group • The Balangao, also known as Boliwons were the early settlers of the Eastern Mountain Province in central Cordillera. Concentrations of this ethnolinguistic group are found in the towns of Barlig, Natonin, and Paracelis.
  • 17. Mountain Province Ibaloi • The Ibaloi or Nabaloi is an indigenous ethnic group found in the northern Philippines. The Ibaloi are one of the indigenous peoples collectively known as Igorot, who live in the mountains of the Cordillera Central on the island of Luzon.
  • 18. Mountain Province Sagada • led by the elders and followed by the younger men of Sagada.
  • 21. GA’DANG • The Gaddang are an indigenous people from the area of Solano, in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, in the region of Cagayan Valley also known as region II, in the Philippine Islands. The Gaddang tribe was first discovered by the Spaniards in the early 1600’s.
  • 22. SEA & ASIAN Games • Jason Balabal made as scene in the opening ceremony wearing nothing but a piece of loincloth of his native Ifugao
  • 23. Mountain Province Bahag-ketball Police in Baguio wearing a Bahag
  • 24. Sierra Madre Ilongots • the Ilongots in the southern Sierra Madre and Caraballo Mountains on the east side of Luzon particularly Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya.
  • 25. Sierra Madre The Remontados, identified as a Negrito ethnolinguistic group
  • 30. Batak people (Philippines) Northern Palawan • The Batak are one of about 70 indigenous peoples of the Philippines. They are located in the northeastern portions of Palawan, a relatively large island in the southwest of the archipelago. There are only about 500 Batak remaining. Also called Tinitianes, the Batak are considered by anthropologists to be closely related to the Ayta of Central Luzon, another Negrito tribe
  • 31. Mangyan Tribe culture Mangyan cultural practices are in danger of vanishing because of the influence of modern lowland culture. The literature and traditions of the different Mangyan groups are short of documentation; thus, mainstream society lacks awareness of the beauty of Mangyan culture and its relevance to Filipino culture as a whole.
  • 34. ATA Community Boracay • Boracay Island – The National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), the primary government agency responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies, plans and programs to promote and protect the rights and well-being of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples (ICCs/IPs) and the recognition of their ancestral domains as well as their rights. In line with NCIPs mandate, officials and staff led by Chairperson Leonor O. Quintayo, recently conducted an affirmation of Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development Protection Plan (ADSDPP) and full delineation and demarcation of Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT) on the ground in favor of the Ati in Boracay Island covering approximately 2.1 hectares in Manoc-Manoc, Boracay, Malay, Aklan.
  • 35. SULODNON Tribe of Panay • The Tumandok or Suludnon (also known as Panay- Bukidnon or Panayanon Sulud) is an indigenous Visayan group of people who reside in the Capiz- Lambunao mountainous area of Panay in the Visayan islands of the Philippines. They are the only culturally indigenous group of Visayan language-speakers in the Western Visayas the"tig-babai“ wedding dance
  • 36. Eskaya people Bohol • The Eskaya, less commonly known as the Visayan-Eskaya, is the collective name for the members of a cultural minority found in Bohol, Philippines, which is distinguished by its cultural heritage, particularly its literature, language, dress and religious observances
  • 37. Negritos of Negros Oriental • More than 100 tribal chieftains and leaders from the two major and recognized indigenous groups in Negros Oriental, namely the Ata Negritos Tribe. The total population of recognized IPs in Negros Oriental has yet to be determined by an ongoing census but with the Ata Negritos alone, there is a rough estimated population of about 260,000 in the province
  • 38. Karay-a people Antique • The Karay-a, are part of the wider Visayan ethnolinguistic group, which constitute the largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.
  • 39. Suludnon People of Panay • The Tumandok or Suludnon (also known as Panay- Bukidnon or Panayanon Sulud) is an indigenous Visayan group of people who reside in the Capiz-Lambunao mountainous area of Panay in the Visayan islands of the Philippines. They are the only culturally indigenous group of Visayan language-speakers in the Western Visayas
  • 40. Pre –Spanish in the Visayan
  • 42. Yakan People Basilan Basilan is home to the Yakan Tribes, also known as one of the finest weavers in Philippines.
  • 43. B’LAAN The B’laan are one of the indigenous peoples of Southern Mindanao in The Philippines. They are famous for their brassworks, beadwork and t’nalak weave.
  • 44. BAGOBO • The Bagobo are proud people with proto Malayan features. They have ornate traditions in weaponry and other metal arts. They are noted for their skill in producing brass articles through the ancient lost- wax process.
  • 45. MANDAYA • The Mandayas are a group of non-Christian tribe, non-Islamic people living in Eastern Mindanao, Philippines They hand down from generation to generation the art of weaving cloth from the fibers of abaca plant, colored with root and mud dyes with intricate figures and patterns depicting the folklore and religion of the tribe
  • 46. PULANGIYEN • Living in the Pulangi River headwaters in the southern part of Bukidnon, the Pulangiyen is one of the many indigenous natives of the province.
  • 47. MATIGSALUG • The Matigsalug are the Bukidnon groups who are found in the Tigwa-Salug Valley in San Fernando, Bukidnon. “Matigsalug ” is a term, which means “people along the River Salug”
  • 48. Samal • The Samal are the poorest and least independent of the major Muslim groups. They serve as the “loyal commoners” in the hierarchy of Muslim minorities. Their lives are literally over the sea, where the villages stand on stilts above the coastal waters
  • 49. Badjao • Widely known as the “Sea Gypsies” of the Sulu and Celebes Seas, the Badjao are scattered along the coastal areas of Tawi Tawi, Sulu, Basilan, and some coastal municipalities of Zamboanga del Sur in the ARMM. Amongst themselves, they're known as Sama Laus (Sea Sama) and are found living on houseboats where they make their livelihood solely on the sea as expert fishermen, deep sea divers, and navigators
  • 50. Tausug • The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Tausūg are part of the wider political identity of Muslims of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan known as the Moro ethnic group, who constitute the third largest ethnic group of Mindanao
  • 52. Lumad People • The Lumad is a group of indigenous people of the southern Philippines. It is a Cebuano term meaning "native" or "indigenous". The term is short for Katawhang Lumad (literally "indigenous peoples"), the autonym officially adopted by the delegates of the Lumad Mindanao Peoples Federation (LMPF) founding assembly on 26 June 1986
  • 53. Maranao • The life of the Maranaos is centered on Lake Lanao, the largest in Mindanao, and the second largest and deepest lake in the Philippines
  • 55. T’BOLI • The T’boli Tribe is an indigenous tribe living in the highlands of Lake Sebu in South Cotabato in the Southern part of the Philippines. • The t’boli people believe in many Gods, their high regards with the spirits of nature is very much evident in their way of living.
  • 56. Higaunon • The Higaunon is one of the mountain tribes in the Philippines. Most Higaunon still have a rather traditional way of living. Farming is the most important economic activity.
  • 57. • The Bilaan were in Mindanao way before Islam came to the islands in the 14th Century. How about their right to self detrmination? They were there way before a single mosque was built in Mindanao. Why not their own "entity". • Or should they rise up in arms first? • *Bilaan Broup from the Otley Beyer Collection.
  • 58. How to preserve our culture heritage
  • 59. Photo Credited to • Penn Larena & Jojo Larena • St. Paul University Dumaguete • Janica Tan & Nica Belnas • Cultural Anthropology class of Josefino Larena Jr. CPS,MPA • National Commission on Indigenous Peoples • National Commission for Culture and the Arts • Michael Ocampo • YAHOO.COM & Google.com • Pinili Clan Association
  • 60. Thank you so much God bless u