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2010 - Maurizio Tosi - In the Shadow of the Ancestors...

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2010 - Institut für Sozial Anthropologie Universität Wien - In the Shadow of the Ancestors...

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  • DOWNLOAD FULL eBOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookeBOOK Crime, eeBOOK Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
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2010 - Maurizio Tosi - In the Shadow of the Ancestors...

  1. 1. Maurizio Tosi Università di Bologna OCTOBER 4, 2010 INSTITUT FÜR SOZIAL ANTHROPOLOGIE UNIVERSITÄT WIEN IN THE SHADOW OF THE ANCESTORS….. ACHITECTURES OF TRIBAL ALLIANCE IN PREHISTORIC OMAN AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MAGAN CIVILIZATION DURING THE 3° MILLENNIUM BCE
  2. 2. FROM KINSHIP TO KINSHIP
  3. 3. A CHALLENGE TO A SINGLE …. A RESPONSE BY MANY
  4. 4. “LE TERRE DI MEZZO” TRA MESOPOTAMIA, INDIA E ASIA CENTRALE LA PENISOLA DI OMAN ESTREMO LEMBO ORIENTALE DELLA PENISOLA ARABA
  5. 5. IL PAESE DI MAGAN
  6. 6. LA CIVILTA’ DI MAGANLA CIVILTA’ DI MAGAN 2800-2000 a.C.2800-2000 a.C. • 5000-3400 cal BC: Una lunga facies neolitica che5000-3400 cal BC: Una lunga facies neolitica che prolunga per tutto l’Olocene Medio aspetti delle cultureprolunga per tutto l’Olocene Medio aspetti delle culture mesolitiche di cacciatori-raccoglitori con economie dimesolitiche di cacciatori-raccoglitori con economie di sussistenza, ma avvia l’integrazione culturale su tutto ilsussistenza, ma avvia l’integrazione culturale su tutto il territorio:territorio: • 3400-3100 cal BC :« 3400-3100 cal BC :« la Grande Trasformazionela Grande Trasformazione»: Una»: Una Transizione rapida alla società complessa e l’economia diTransizione rapida alla società complessa e l’economia di scambio:scambio: • 3100-2800 cal BC: Il consolidamento della alleanze tribali3100-2800 cal BC: Il consolidamento della alleanze tribali e la nucleazione in oasi nelle zone irrigate.e la nucleazione in oasi nelle zone irrigate. Si costruisce in un lungo arco evolutivo, che si articola in tre fasi principali
  7. 7. 1. Prima della Grande1. Prima della Grande TrasformazioneTrasformazione
  8. 8. 4500 et 3700 cal BC
  9. 9. inverno estate inverno estate Nord-Est Sud-Ovest Mobilità Verticale dei Cacciatori-Raccoglitori Olocenici
  10. 10. Umm al- Qawayn 2 Al-Buhais 18
  11. 11. Karimat al-Manahil
  12. 12. MANGROVES AS A RESOURCE-MANGROVES AS A RESOURCE- RICH BIOTOPERICH BIOTOPE Quriyat
  13. 13. Ra’s al-Hamra Khor Milkh Wadi Shab GAS-1
  14. 14. Ra’s al Khabbah KHB-1
  15. 15. KHB-1 4200-4000 cal BC
  16. 16. Al-Buhais 18Al-Buhais 18 SPRING CAMPSITE OF A COSTAL GROUPSPRING CAMPSITE OF A COSTAL GROUP 4800 - 4300 cal BC.4800 - 4300 cal BC. • 90 % OF FAUNAL REMAINS ARE FROM DOMESTIC90 % OF FAUNAL REMAINS ARE FROM DOMESTIC SPECIESSPECIES – Cattle (25 % of Total Meat Weight)Cattle (25 % of Total Meat Weight) – Goats (25 % of Total Meat Weight)Goats (25 % of Total Meat Weight) – Sheep (40 % of Total Meat Weight)Sheep (40 % of Total Meat Weight) • 10% OF WILD SPECIES10% OF WILD SPECIES – Gazella (Gazella (Gazella gazellaGazella gazella)) – OriX (OriX (Oryx leucorixOryx leucorix)) – Ass (Ass (Asinus africanusAsinus africanus))
  17. 17. 276 Individuals276 Individuals • Individual BurialsIndividual Burials • primaryprimary • secondarysecondary • Collective Burials(max 5 individui)Collective Burials(max 5 individui) • primaryprimary • secondarysecondary • No evident Repartitions for SexNo evident Repartitions for Sex and Ageand Age
  18. 18. UAQ 69 Hamriyah Akab UAQ 2 A Winter Station: Umm al Qowain 2
  19. 19. • 42 individuals42 individuals • 18 males18 males • 14 femals14 femals • 3 sub adults3 sub adults
  20. 20. SHELL ORNAMENTS Uerpmann, M. 1993 - Structuring the Late Stone Age of Oman, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 3 : 65-109.
  21. 21. Ra’s al-Hamra Qurum RAS AL-HAMRA 3800-3200 cal BC
  22. 22. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  23. 23. AIR VIEW OF RAS AL-HAMRA HEADLAND WITH SITE RH-5 AT THE BEGINNING OF EXCAVATIONS 1981-1982
  24. 24. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  25. 25. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  26. 26. RH-5 : 3700-3300 cal BC • 122 tombe • Una collettiva (43 individui) • 170 individuali
  27. 27. STONE COVERS
  28. 28. Salvatori, S. 1996 – Death and ritual in a population of coastal food foragers in Oman, in Afanas’ev, G., S. Cleuziou, J.R. Lukacs et M. Tosi (dir.), The Prehistory of Asia and Oceania, colloque 16, XIII°, congrès de l’UISPP, ABACO, Forli, p. 205-222.
  29. 29. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Fouille Salvatori 1981-1985
  30. 30. STEATITE EARRINGS (4000-3300 BCE
  31. 31. RH-5, TOMBA 82
  32. 32. Wadi Shab GAS-1
  33. 33. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 3 •1 femme adulte •1 adulte (sexe indeterminé) •1 fœtus de environ 9-9 ½ mois lunaires •1 enfant de 5-6 ans •1 enfant de 1-3 mois
  34. 34. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 6 •1 femme de 18-20 ans •1 fœtus de environ 9-9 ½ mois lunaires •1 fœtus de environ 8 ½ - 9 mois lunaires
  35. 35. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Traces de calcite, vestiges de matières végétales •Retrouvés sur plusieurs tombes •Vêtements, linceuls, …?
  36. 36. RH-5 CALCITE IMPRESSIONS OF ROPES AND STRINGS
  37. 37. G. 38 AN ADULT MALE WITH A TURTLE SKULL
  38. 38. ? THE GREEN TURTLE Chelonia mydas
  39. 39. RH-5 SECONDARY BURIALS RECOMPOSED IN THE SHAPE OF TURTLES
  40. 40. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Spina bifida Arthrose …
  41. 41. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 20 •3 adultes •2 enfants
  42. 42. Santini, G. 2002 – Burial complex 43 at the prehistoric graveyard of Ra’s al-Hamra in northern Oman, in S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi et J. Zarins (dir.) : Essays in the late prehistory of the Arabian peninsula, Serie Orientale Roma XCIII, Rome, IsIAO, p. 147-167.
  43. 43. RH-5, tombe 82
  44. 44. PART 2PART 2 THE GREATTHE GREAT TRANSFORMATIONTRANSFORMATION
  45. 45. Alla fine del IV millennio a.C.Alla fine del IV millennio a.C. • DAL 3700 a.C. LE CONDIZIONI CLIMATICHE MUTANO PER DIVENIRE SIMILI ALLE ATTUALI: RIDUZIONE DELLE PIOGGE INVERNALI, CLIMA ARIDO •CONTATTI CON IL SUDEST IRANICO: CERAMICA E METALLURGIA •INIZIO SFRUTTAMENTO MASSIVO RISORSE MINERARIE, CONSEGUENTE INSERIMENTO NEI CIRCUITI COMMERCIALI DELLE GRANDI POTENZE: MESOPOTAMIA E – IN PIENO III MILLENNIO – VALLE DELL’INDO
  46. 46. Ra’s al- Hamra Jiroft
  47. 47. Marhashii Dilmoun Magan
  48. 48. Uruk, 3400 BC
  49. 49. Suse D: vase à la cachette (Musée du Louvre) vers 2600 av. J.-C.
  50. 50. THE EXPANSION OF TRIBAL ALLIANES MAKESTHE EXPANSION OF TRIBAL ALLIANES MAKES POSSIBLE THE INTENSIFICATION OFPOSSIBLE THE INTENSIFICATION OF SHRINKING REOURCES SCATTERED IN TIMESHRINKING REOURCES SCATTERED IN TIME AND SPACEAND SPACE Water and Plants: OasesWater and Plants: Oases Animals: Stock BreedingAnimals: Stock Breeding Marine Resources : FishingMarine Resources : Fishing Rocks and Minerals: MiningRocks and Minerals: Mining
  51. 51. FROM THE END OF THE 4° MILLENNIUM BCEFROM THE END OF THE 4° MILLENNIUM BCE MERGENCE OF OASIS ANDMERGENCE OF OASIS AND ACRICULTUREACRICULTURE
  52. 52. HIGH LY SUSTAINABLE ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTSHIGH LY SUSTAINABLE ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTS DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS WATER SUPPLY DATE PALMS NECESSARY SHADOW/CONDITIONS FOR • FRUITS • LEGUMES + CROPS IN SURROUNDING AREAS END 4 MILLENNIUM BC. OASES DEVELOPMENT
  53. 53. Hili 8
  54. 54. DATE S WHEAT BARLEY
  55. 55. GROWTH OF SOCIALGROWTH OF SOCIAL COMPLEXITYCOMPLEXITY • LABOUR RE-ORGANIZATION & TASKLABOUR RE-ORGANIZATION & TASK DIVISIONDIVISION • UP KEEPING, EXPANSION & DEFENSE OFUP KEEPING, EXPANSION & DEFENSE OF OASESOASES ALLEANCES AMONG SEGFMENTARY GROUPS OF LINEAGE TRANSFORMATION OF FUNERARY RITUAL TO ENSURE & CONFIRM ALLIANCES THROUGH THE MERGING OF ANCESTORS
  56. 56. Hili 8
  57. 57. Jabal Haqlah (Buraimi) : 914 cairns
  58. 58. Hafit Graves Beehive-shaped Cairns 3000-2600 BCE
  59. 59. HAFIT-TYPE TOMBSHAFIT-TYPE TOMBS Grave 199 w Grave 8 s
  60. 60. Jebel Hafit, Cairns 5 and 6 EMDET NASR JARS IMPORTED FROM SOUTHERN MESOPOTAMIA AND RECURRENTLY USED AS BURIAL FURNISHINGS (3000-2800 BCE)
  61. 61. THE BURIAL CAIRNS OVERLOOKING MAIN POINTS OF RASSAGE ZUKAYT
  62. 62. VIEWSHED?
  63. 63. FINDINGSFINDINGS Gr 109 Small biconical buff jar Cilyndrical neck, brocken everted rims Abraded, no decoration
  64. 64. Tomb Types Umm an-Nar
  65. 65. Bat > 500
  66. 66. 7 METERS ACROSS DEPOSIT & STRUCTURES
  67. 67. BATBAT
  68. 68. Incluant de la cornaline importée d’Inde De l’argent 4 petites perles en or
  69. 69. Plus de 8500 perles déjà comptabiliséesPlus de 8500 perles déjà comptabilisées
  70. 70. RJ-2 RJ-3 RJ-4 RJ-11 10 tombes 5 siècles minimum 1000, plus de 2000 ? RJ-11 RJ-1
  71. 71. 4 graves, excavations by G. Santini, 1989 RJ-2 southern compound
  72. 72. I resti corrispondenti sono distribuiti in tre fosse Le fosse contengono i resti di circa 400 individui, maschi e femmine e di tutte le classi di età
  73. 73. Hili N (2200-2000 BC), une fosse longue de 6 m, profonde et large de 2 Juste à côté de la tombe J (trouvée presque vide)
  74. 74. Entre 600 et 1000 individus
  75. 75. EGUALITARISM ANDEGUALITARISM AND HETERARCHYHETERARCHY • NOBODY was buried with a different ritual;NOBODY was buried with a different ritual; • Even if at the moment of burial the accompaning objectsEven if at the moment of burial the accompaning objects were different in kind or quantity immediately after theywere different in kind or quantity immediately after they were merged together;were merged together; • Tall bodies were mixed together and objects were blendedTall bodies were mixed together and objects were blended in a kind of single deposition they unified the anestor in ain a kind of single deposition they unified the anestor in a single community.single community.
  76. 76. Crise interne (Fattori che limitano la crescita) Destabilizzazione dall’esterno Crisi interne Fattori esterni a rinforzo delle gerarchie STATO Consolidamento delle allenze tribali su base eterarchica « La Grande Trasformazione » Conferma delle Alleanze Tribali Hafit Umm an-Nar

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