Prehistory Ancient River Valleys


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • obles
  • Prehistory Ancient River Valleys

    1. 1. Prehistory & Ancient RiverPrehistory & Ancient River Valley CivilizationsValley Civilizations
    2. 2. Early Man - TimelineEarly Man - Timeline
    3. 3. Humans Populate All the MajorHumans Populate All the Major Land Masses of the WorldLand Masses of the World
    4. 4. Homo sapiens sapiens: Cave artHomo sapiens sapiens: Cave art
    5. 5. Distribution and design of cave artDistribution and design of cave art
    6. 6. Homo sapiens sapiens: ImportantHomo sapiens sapiens: Important archaeological sitesarchaeological sites
    7. 7. Stone Ages -Stone Ages - 5 MYA - 2500 BC5 MYA - 2500 BC  PALEOLITHIC: Old Stone Age, 2PALEOLITHIC: Old Stone Age, 2 million years agomillion years ago  MESOLITHIC: Middle Stone Age,MESOLITHIC: Middle Stone Age, 20-18,000 BCE to 12,150 BCE20-18,000 BCE to 12,150 BCE  NEOLITHIC :NEOLITHIC : 9000 BCE – 4500 BCE9000 BCE – 4500 BCE   
    8. 8. PaleolithicPaleolithic PeriodPeriod Beginnings of humans to 10,000 BCEBeginnings of humans to 10,000 BCE  people werepeople were nomadsnomads  lived in groups of 20 -30lived in groups of 20 -30  hunter - gatherershunter - gatherers
    9. 9. Paleolithic PeriodPaleolithic Period Division of LaborDivision of Labor men hunting game animalsmen hunting game animals women gathering fruits,women gathering fruits, berries, and other ediblesberries, and other edibles  Developed simple tools: spears &Developed simple tools: spears & axes made from bone, wood, &axes made from bone, wood, & stonestone
    10. 10. Paleolithic AgePaleolithic Age  2,000,000 years ago2,000,000 years ago  artifacts chipped stone andartifacts chipped stone and flintflint, use of wood, clay,, use of wood, clay, and animal partsand animal parts  tool kit was extensive:tool kit was extensive: knivesknives,, axesaxes,, scrapersscrapers,, hammershammers,, awlsawls,, needlesneedles, spears, harpoons, clubs,, spears, harpoons, clubs, blowguns, and bows and arrows, fireblowguns, and bows and arrows, fire  hominidshominids -- HomoHomo habilishabilis  nomadicnomadic hunters and food gatherershunters and food gatherers  lasted until thelasted until the introduction of agricultureintroduction of agriculture  Spirituality and Religion may have begun toSpirituality and Religion may have begun to developdevelop
    11. 11. Mesolithic Age – Middle Stone AgeMesolithic Age – Middle Stone Age  20-18,000 BC to 12,150 BC20-18,000 BC to 12,150 BC  small composite flint tools (microliths andsmall composite flint tools (microliths and microburins), fishing tackle, stone adzesmicroburins), fishing tackle, stone adzes and wooden objects such as canoes andand wooden objects such as canoes and bowsbows  characterized by the introduction ofcharacterized by the introduction of agricultureagriculture
    12. 12. NeolithicNeolithic RevolutionRevolution  Shift from hunting & gathering toShift from hunting & gathering to agricultureagriculture  Led toLed to permanent settlementspermanent settlements  Establishment ofEstablishment of social classessocial classes  EventualEventual rise of civilizationsrise of civilizations
    13. 13. Neolithic Revolution GreatNeolithic Revolution Great DiscoveriesDiscoveries  10,000 BCE: humans cultivate10,000 BCE: humans cultivate crops andcrops and domesticatedomesticate animalsanimals  Villages continued to divide workVillages continued to divide work between men and womenbetween men and women  Women's status declined menWomen's status declined men took lead in mosttook lead in most areas of earlyareas of early societiessocieties
    14. 14. NEOLITHIC : New Stone AgeNEOLITHIC : New Stone Age  9000 BC - 4500 BC9000 BC - 4500 BC  first permanent settlements appearfirst permanent settlements appear  domestication of plants (notably wheat),domestication of plants (notably wheat), animals (goats and sheep)animals (goats and sheep)  produced decorated pottery and figurinesproduced decorated pottery and figurines from clay may indicate they were a war-likefrom clay may indicate they were a war-like peoplepeople  irrigation systems and more advanced burialirrigation systems and more advanced burial sitesite  use of alien materials like lapis lazuli, indicateuse of alien materials like lapis lazuli, indicate a cultural diversity and the development ofa cultural diversity and the development of external tradingexternal trading   
    15. 15. Neolithic Age-NewNeolithic Age-New TechnologiesTechnologies  CalendarCalendar to keep track ofto keep track of planting and harvestingplanting and harvesting  SimpleSimple metalmetal toolstools suchsuch asas plowsplows  Used animals to pull plowsUsed animals to pull plows  Metal weaponsMetal weapons developed asdeveloped as villages needed to protect theirvillages needed to protect their valuable resources.valuable resources.
    16. 16. Catal Huyuk - ÇatalhöyükCatal Huyuk - Çatalhöyük  Remains of a Neolithic townRemains of a Neolithic town  9,000 years ago, one of the world's largest9,000 years ago, one of the world's largest settlements.settlements.
    17. 17. Catal HuyukCatal Huyuk Çatal Hüyük, Southern Anatolia, Turkey - Neolithic, from 6500 up to 5700 years BCE
    18. 18. Characteristics of CivilizationsCharacteristics of Civilizations  CitiesCities  Centralized government, law codes,Centralized government, law codes, organized religionorganized religion  System of writingSystem of writing  Specialized jobs – Division of LaborSpecialized jobs – Division of Labor  Social Class StructureSocial Class Structure  Advanced TechnologyAdvanced Technology
    19. 19. Four Early River ValleysFour Early River Valleys
    20. 20. How did they become civilizations?How did they become civilizations?  Neolithic Revolution – domestication ofNeolithic Revolution – domestication of plants & animalsplants & animals  Organized Farming & village lifeOrganized Farming & village life  Food Surplus was created led toFood Surplus was created led to specialization of laborspecialization of labor  Growth in populationGrowth in population  Creation of complex socieites requiringCreation of complex socieites requiring complex institutions which governed largecomplex institutions which governed large scale projects like irrigationscale projects like irrigation
    21. 21. Population Growth & DevelopmentPopulation Growth & Development of Civilizationsof Civilizations  Iron Age = new farms tools = food surplusIron Age = new farms tools = food surplus  Farming and Pastoral Nomads replaced hunter-Farming and Pastoral Nomads replaced hunter- gatherersgatherers  Domesticated animals = beasts of burden = foodDomesticated animals = beasts of burden = food surplussurplus  Increased, healthier population living closerIncreased, healthier population living closer together in new urban areastogether in new urban areas  Increased immunities based on close proximityIncreased immunities based on close proximity & better health& better health
    22. 22. Population Growth & DevelopmentPopulation Growth & Development of Civilizationsof Civilizations  Cultural connections increased throughCultural connections increased through new trade routesnew trade routes  Developments of empiresDevelopments of empires  Development of Writing systems to recordDevelopment of Writing systems to record taxes to pay for expanded governmentstaxes to pay for expanded governments  Development of great road buildingDevelopment of great road building projects to encourage trade, uniformprojects to encourage trade, uniform coinage, uniform weights & measurementscoinage, uniform weights & measurements (Lydian's & Persians)(Lydian's & Persians)
    23. 23. Early River Civilizations:Early River Civilizations: EGYPTEGYPT 3000BCE3000BCE  Egyptian Science and TechnologyEgyptian Science and Technology 1.1. IrrigationIrrigation – water from– water from NileNile RiverRiver (god) to grow wheat & other(god) to grow wheat & other foodsfoods 2.2. Preserving the human bodyPreserving the human body after death throughafter death through mummificationmummification 3. Physicians3. Physicians diagnose illnessdiagnose illness && performperform brain & body surgerybrain & body surgery
    24. 24. Egyptian Science andEgyptian Science and TechnologyTechnology  AccurateAccurate calendarcalendar  Hieroglyphics:Hieroglyphics: system of writing calledsystem of writing called  AdvancedAdvanced mathematicalmathematical geometry &geometry & engineeringengineering skills in the creation of theskills in the creation of the pyramidspyramids  irrigationirrigation systemssystems
    25. 25. EGYPTEGYPT  Monarchy – Kingdom/EmpireMonarchy – Kingdom/Empire  Pharaoh God/KingPharaoh God/King  Dynasty – ruling familyDynasty – ruling family  PolytheisticPolytheistic  Advances in medicine, math, calendars,Advances in medicine, math, calendars, irrigation, cosmetics, mummification,irrigation, cosmetics, mummification, building & architecture, pyramids, jewelry,building & architecture, pyramids, jewelry, metal workmetal work  Social Class Structure: Pharaoh,Social Class Structure: Pharaoh, Priest/Nobles, merchants/artisans (MiddlePriest/Nobles, merchants/artisans (Middle Class), peasants, slavesClass), peasants, slaves
    26. 26. Ancient EgyptAncient Egypt
    27. 27. MESOPOTAMIA – FERTILEMESOPOTAMIA – FERTILE CRESCENTCRESCENT  Sumerians 1Sumerians 1stst Civilization:Civilization: 11stst to buildto build wheeledwheeled vehiclesvehicles - 3500 BCE- 3500 BCE  builtbuilt irrigationirrigation systemssystems,, dykesdykes, and, and canalscanals for better farmingfor better farming  CuneiformCuneiform system of writing – 1stsystem of writing – 1st  Sumerian-Sumerian- algebraalgebra andand geometrygeometry  Sumerian: - city-states, Preist/KingsSumerian: - city-states, Preist/Kings polytheistic,polytheistic,
    28. 28. Fertile Crescent & MesopotamiaFertile Crescent & Mesopotamia
    29. 29. Other Civilizations Fertile CrescentOther Civilizations Fertile Crescent  BabyloniansBabylonians:: astronomy,astronomy, Code ofCode of Hammurabi,Hammurabi, was the first writtenwas the first written laws in historylaws in history  HittitesHittites: first to: first to minemine ironiron oreore toto produceproduce iron weapons & toolsiron weapons & tools (Iron(Iron Age)Age)  Assyrians:Assyrians: new military equipment -new military equipment - moveable towers and battering rams, 1moveable towers and battering rams, 1stst library of cuneiform tablets, chariotlibrary of cuneiform tablets, chariot
    30. 30. Other Civilizations Fertile CrescentOther Civilizations Fertile Crescent Code on columns in each city-state Assyrian weapons & chariot
    31. 31. Other Civilizations Fertile CrescentOther Civilizations Fertile Crescent  Persians: controlled empire Asia Minor toPersians: controlled empire Asia Minor to India (to Indus River)India (to Indus River)  Persians: divided empire into provinces,Persians: divided empire into provinces, governor called agovernor called a satrapsatrap  Taxes on resources and wealthTaxes on resources and wealth  Single code of laws for the empireSingle code of laws for the empire  Royal Roads to unify empire, common setRoyal Roads to unify empire, common set of weights & measures, single coinageof weights & measures, single coinage  Zoroastrian Religion – good & evil &Zoroastrian Religion – good & evil & polytheistic faithspolytheistic faiths
    32. 32. Persian EmpirePersian EmpireCoins Royal Roads Weights & Measures
    33. 33. Other Civilizations Fertile CrescentOther Civilizations Fertile Crescent  Phoenicians: Manufacturing and trade,Phoenicians: Manufacturing and trade, colonization around Mediterranean Sea, glass,colonization around Mediterranean Sea, glass, sea snail-purple dye (royal purple), phoneticsea snail-purple dye (royal purple), phonetic alphabet-22 lettersalphabet-22 letters (adapted by(adapted by GreeksGreeks and Romans)and Romans)
    34. 34. Hebrews/JewsHebrews/Jews  Hebrews:Hebrews: JudaismJudaism - oldest known- oldest known monotheistic religionmonotheistic religion  FounderFounder--AbrahamAbraham  Moses-Prophet: Ten CommandmentsMoses-Prophet: Ten Commandments 2000 BCE – Laws2000 BCE – Laws  Significant WritingsSignificant Writings --TorahTorah andand TalmudTalmud Book of laws & beliefs, as well asBook of laws & beliefs, as well as Old Testament of the BibleOld Testament of the Bible  Places of WorshipPlaces of Worship -Jews worship in-Jews worship in temples called synagoguestemples called synagogues  One GodOne God who is the creator of all thingswho is the creator of all things
    35. 35. IndiaIndia  2500BCE: First cultivation of rice, cotton2500BCE: First cultivation of rice, cotton and teaand tea  built ships, navigated seas, internationalbuilt ships, navigated seas, international commerce (Indian Ocean & overland)commerce (Indian Ocean & overland)  well-planned towns, rectangular patternswell-planned towns, rectangular patterns  Art -copper, bronze, and pottery, includingArt -copper, bronze, and pottery, including a large collection of terra-cotta toysa large collection of terra-cotta toys  two-storied and spacious, lined the towntwo-storied and spacious, lined the town streets; they had drainage systems thatstreets; they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewersled into brick-lined sewers
    36. 36. Ancient IndiaAncient India Social Class Structure: Caste System: Brahmana (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaishya (traders and agriculturists), and Shudra (workers). Person's occupation or group depended upon Sanskrit: writing system
    37. 37. Ancient India - ReligionAncient India - Religion  HINDUISM:HINDUISM: polytheistic religion 3000polytheistic religion 3000 BCEBCE  Significant WritingsSignificant Writings --VedasVedas,, UpanishadsUpanishads,, RamayanaRamayana,, MahabharataMahabharata,, Bhagavad GitaBhagavad Gita  Oral 1Oral 1stst , Written in Sanskrit – history &, Written in Sanskrit – history & hymns, teachings of Hinduismhymns, teachings of Hinduism  spiritual oneness of the soul,spiritual oneness of the soul, atmanatman  soul obtainssoul obtains mokshamoksha or liberationor liberation
    38. 38. HinduismHinduism  Reincarnation: karmaReincarnation: karma you get whatyou get what you give new lifeyou give new life  Dharma:Dharma: Duties of allDuties of all Hindu’s in their casteHindu’s in their caste  Supports rigidSupports rigid social structuresocial structure Caste SystemCaste System  Cow SacredCow Sacred
    39. 39. BuddhismBuddhism  FounderFounder--Siddhartha GautamaSiddhartha Gautama  Buddha, which means "enlightened one."Buddha, which means "enlightened one." – he did not believe he was a god– he did not believe he was a god  Dalai LamaDalai Lama:spiritual leader of Buddhism:spiritual leader of Buddhism  Four Noble TruthsFour Noble Truths – beliefs – end– beliefs – end suffereing, end desiresuffereing, end desire  Eightfold PathEightfold Path : represents one of the: represents one of the teachings of theteachings of the Eightfold PathEightfold Path – right– right thinking, speaking etc.thinking, speaking etc.
    40. 40. BuddhismBuddhism  Reincarnation: karmaReincarnation: karma you get whatyou get what you give, new life, continuous cycle of lifeyou give, new life, continuous cycle of life & death& death  RejectedRejected CasteCaste SystemSystem  Salvation possible inSalvation possible in this Lifetimethis Lifetime  NirvanaNirvana spiritualspiritual enlightenmentenlightenment
    41. 41. EarlyEarly ChinaChina  ShangShang DynastyDynasty: 2000BCE system of: 2000BCE system of writingwriting pictographspictographs - drawings of- drawings of objectsobjects ideographsideographs – thought or idea– thought or idea  Oracle BoneOracle Bone early writing:early writing:  ZhouZhou Dynasty:Dynasty: Mandate of HeavenMandate of Heaven rise & fall of dynastiesrise & fall of dynasties  QinQin Dynasty: Shi huangdi -Dynasty: Shi huangdi - new technologies warfare, cavalry,new technologies warfare, cavalry, Legalism – you will obey orders!Legalism – you will obey orders! Burned Confucian booksBurned Confucian books
    42. 42. Ancient ChinaAncient China  Qin China: standardized theQin China: standardized the language and writing of Chinalanguage and writing of China  currency became standardizedcurrency became standardized circular copper coincircular copper coin  Great Wall builtGreat Wall built in north toin north to protect Chinaprotect China  Roads andRoads and irrigation canalsirrigation canals builtbuilt –Burned books–Burned books
    43. 43. Classical ChinaClassical China  Han China:Han China: Emperor Wudi: governmentEmperor Wudi: government & economy, Golden Age of China& economy, Golden Age of China  Han scientists wrote textbooks fromHan scientists wrote textbooks from zoologyzoology toto botanybotany andand chemistrychemistry  AstronomersAstronomers accurate clocks &accurate clocks & calendars,calendars, PaperPaper,, wheelbarrow,wheelbarrow, AcupunctureAcupuncture alleviate pain & herbalalleviate pain & herbal remediesremedies  Silk Road:Silk Road: trade with the Romantrade with the Roman EmpireEmpire and later empires east & westand later empires east & west
    44. 44. Classical ChinaClassical China  Artists andArtists and architectsarchitects carvings incarvings in jade, wood, or ivory, & the elaboratejade, wood, or ivory, & the elaborate templestemples  Silk, Ceramics, lacquer andSilk, Ceramics, lacquer and bamboo waresbamboo wares Chinese Compass Silk Road – 1st journey
    45. 45. Chinese PhilosophiesChinese Philosophies  Ancestor worshipAncestor worship  Confucianism: social order andConfucianism: social order and mutual respectmutual respect - 500 BCE- 500 BCE  FounderFounder-Kong Fu Zi - Confucius-Kong Fu Zi - Confucius  Significant WritingsSignificant Writings -- The Analects - sayingsThe Analects - sayings
    46. 46. Chinese Philosophies -Chinese Philosophies - ConfucianismConfucianism Five RelationshipsFive Relationships :: – Ruler to ruled.Ruler to ruled. – Father to son.Father to son. – Older brother to younger brother.Older brother to younger brother. – Husband to wife.Husband to wife. – Friend to friendFriend to friend  JenJen-Human kindness should be shown-Human kindness should be shown towards one another.towards one another.  LiLi-Proper etiquette should always be used,-Proper etiquette should always be used, and one should strive to achieve perfectand one should strive to achieve perfect virtue.virtue.  Filial PietyFilial Piety -One should respect their elders-One should respect their elders
    47. 47. Legacies of River ValleysLegacies of River Valleys  Expanded populations & urbanizationExpanded populations & urbanization  New networks – roads & trade routesNew networks – roads & trade routes lined, sea routeslined, sea routes  Established systems of government, laws,Established systems of government, laws, & religion& religion  Established patterns of culture & culturalEstablished patterns of culture & cultural diffusiondiffusion