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2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times

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2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times

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2012 - Tosi - Muscat - Materials for a History of consanguinity in Oman from earliest times

  1. 1. MATERIALS FOR A HISTORY OF CONSANGUINITY IN OMAN FROM EARLIEST TIMES THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF TRIBALALLIANCE IN PREHISTORIC OMAN AND THE EMERGENCE OF THE MAGAN CIVILIZATION DURING THE 3° MILLENNIUM BCE MAURIZIO TOSI MINISTRY OF HERITAGE & CULTURE OF OMAN SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONSANGUINITY “TOWARDS THE DISCOVERY OF GENES PREDISPOSING TO AND PROTECTING FROM DISEASE” BUSTAN PALACE MUSCAT 17-19 MARCH 2012
  2. 2. THE INTERWOVING OF FOUR MAIN FACTORS 1. THE INTERMEDIARY GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION IN BETWEEN THE MAIN DIVISIONS OF EARLY CIVILIZATION IN THE NEAR EAST, IRAN, INDIA, EAST AFRICA THAT HAS FAVOURED SOCIAL &CULTURAL EXCHANGES INTERSECTING PEOPLE &GOODS; 2. THE AL-HAJAR MOUNTAINS WHICH DETERMINED A NET DIVISION OF ECOLOGICAL NICHES BETWEEN OCEAN AND DESERT; 3. THE PERSISTENCE AND SUCCESS OF A SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF TRIBAL ALLIANCES BASED ON A TIGHT FABRIC OF CLAN STRUCTURES MADE POSSIBLE BY A SYSTEMATIC REFERENCE TO CONSANGUINITY; 4. THE FUNERARY RITUALITY INTRODUCED BY THE MAGAN CIVILIZATION AT THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM BCE IN ORDER TO LEGITIMIZE SUCH SUCH ALLIANCES WITH A BLENDING OF THE ANCESTORS’ REMAINS IN COLLECTIVE BURIALS SURVIVING TO THE PRESENT IN THOUSANDS OF STONE CAIRNS STILL STANDINS AS HBISTORICAL LANDAMARKS ACROSS THE WHOLE COUNTRY. WHY OMAN ?
  3. 3. “LE TERRE DI MEZZO” TRA MESOPOTAMIA, INDIA E ASIA CENTRALE LA PENISOLA DI OMAN ESTREMO LEMBO ORIENTALE DELLA PENISOLAARABA
  4. 4. FALAJ
  5. 5. FALAJ IRRIGATION SCHEMES
  6. 6. MONSOONS ENERGY LIFELINES
  7. 7. DHOWS ARABIAN TRADITIONAL WATERCRAFT
  8. 8. AFONSO DE ALBUQUERQUE 1453 – 1515
  9. 9. SAYYED SAID BIN SULTAN 1797 - 1856 ZANZIBAR THE GATE TO DARK AFRICA
  10. 10. SLAVE MERCHANTS
  11. 11. IL PAESE DI MAGAN
  12. 12. MAGAN CIVILIZATION 2800-2000 BCE • 5000-3400 cal BC: THE LONG PRE-POTTERY NEOLITHIC ESTABLISHES CULTURAL INTEGREATION THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE TERRITORY OF EASTERN ARABIA; • 3400-3100 cal BC :THE GREAT TRANSFORMATION FROM SUBSISTENCE TO EXCHANGE ECONOMY • 3100-2800 cal BCE: FINAL CONSOLIDATION OF TRIBAL ALLIANCES AND SETTLEMENT NUCLEATION IN OASES.
  13. 13. 4500 et 3700 cal BC
  14. 14. inverno estate inverno estate Nord-Est Sud-Ovest Mobilità Verticale dei Cacciatori-Raccoglitori Olocenici
  15. 15. Umm al- Qawayn 2 Al-Buhais 18
  16. 16. Karimat al-Manahil
  17. 17. MANGROVES AS A RESOURCE-RICH BIOTOPE Quriyat
  18. 18. KHB-1 4200-4000 cal BC
  19. 19. 276 Individuals • Individual Burials • primary • secondary • Collective Burials(max 5 individui) • primary • secondary • No evident Repartitions for Sex and Age
  20. 20. SHELL ORNAMENTS Uerpmann, M. 1993 - Structuring the Late Stone Age of Oman, Arabian Archaeology and Epigraphy 3 : 65-109.
  21. 21. Ra’s al-Hamra Qurum RAS AL-HAMRA 3800-3200 cal BC
  22. 22. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  23. 23. RH-5 / 2005 – Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires
  24. 24. RH-5 : 3700-3300 cal BC • 122 tombe • Una collettiva (43 individui) • 170 individuali
  25. 25. Salvatori, S. 1996 – Death and ritual in a population of coastal food foragers in Oman, in Afanas’ev, G., S. Cleuziou, J.R. Lukacs et M. Tosi (dir.), The Prehistory of Asia and Oceania, colloque 16, XIII°, congrès de l’UISPP, ABACO, Forli, p. 205-222.
  26. 26. RH-5, TOMBA 82
  27. 27. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 3 •1 femme adulte •1 adulte (sexe indeterminé) •1 fœtus de environ 9-9 ½ mois lunaires •1 enfant de 5-6 ans •1 enfant de 1-3 mois
  28. 28. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 6 •1 femme de 18-20 ans •1 fœtus de environ 9-9 ½ mois lunaires •1 fœtus de environ 8 ½ - 9 mois lunaires
  29. 29. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Traces de calcite, vestiges de matières végétales •Retrouvés sur plusieurs tombes •Vêtements, linceuls, …?
  30. 30. RH-5 CALCITE IMPRESSIONS OF ROPES AND STRINGS
  31. 31. G. 38 AN ADULT MALE WITH A TURTLE SKULL
  32. 32. ? THE GREEN TURTLE Chelonia mydas
  33. 33. RH-5 SECONDARY BURIALS RECOMPOSED IN THE SHAPE OF TURTLES
  34. 34. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Spina bifida Arthrose …
  35. 35. RH-5 / 2005 - Données anthropologiques – Résultats préliminaires Introduction Présentation de quelques tombes Pathologies Perspectives Tombe 20 •3 adultes •2 enfants
  36. 36. Santini, G. 2002 – Burial complex 43 at the prehistoric graveyard of Ra’s al-Hamra in northern Oman, in S. Cleuziou, M. Tosi et J. Zarins (dir.) : Essays in the late prehistory of the Arabian peninsula, Serie Orientale Roma XCIII, Rome, IsIAO, p. 147-167.
  37. 37. FROM KINSHIP TO KINSHIP
  38. 38. HIGH LY SUSTAINABLE ARTIFICIAL ENVIRONMENTS DEVELOPMENT OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS WATER SUPPLY DATE PALMS PROVIDE NECESSARY SHADOW CONDITIONS FOR • FRUITS • LEGUMES + CROPS IN SURROUNDING AREAS END 4TH MILLENNIUM BCE OASES DEVELOPMENT
  39. 39. Hili 8
  40. 40. datteri Grano Orzo
  41. 41. Hili 8
  42. 42. Jabal Haqlah (Buraimi) : 914 cairns
  43. 43. Cairns Hafit graves Beehive graves
  44. 44. Jebel Hafit, Cairns 5 and 6
  45. 45. FINDINGS Gr 109 Small biconical buff jar Cilyndrical neck, brocken everted rims Abraded, no decoration
  46. 46. VIEWSHED?
  47. 47. CLUSTER OF GRAVES OVERLOOKING THE IZKI PASSAGES ZUKAYT
  48. 48. ………OVERLOOKING CROPS AND PASTURES
  49. 49. ….OVERLOOKING FISHING GROUNDS AND MARINE PASSAGES
  50. 50. TYPES OF PLAN IN UMM AN-NAR GRAVES
  51. 51. Hili N (2200-2000 BC), une fosse longue de 6 m, profonde et large de 2 Juste à côté de la tombe J (trouvée presque vide)
  52. 52. Entre 600 et 1000 individus

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