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Art in the caves
• Art in Altamira Spain
– Discovered in 1879
– Around 18,000 years old
– Art were once considered as forgeries for
they were too good for that time
Lascaux Cave (France)
Discovered in 1940 by 4 local
boys and robot
More than 2000 animal figures
Most famous for The Hall of the
Bulls
Chauvet cave
Discovered 1994
Images date up to 31,000 years
ago
Notable for the images of
stencilled hands
Art outside of the caves
The mask of la roche cotard
From the Loire River, France
33,000 years old
Venus of Willendorf
Found in Austria
30,000 years old
Venus of Berekhat Ram
Golan Heights, Israel
1.4 inches long
230,000 years old
Venus of Tan-Tan
Morocco
6cm in height
Found in the Draa River
Venus of Hohle
Fels
Also called the venus of
Schelkingen
6cm in height
Found in Germany
40,000 years old
Made from mammoth
tusk
Stonehenge Builders' Village Found
Durrington
Walls and
its position in
relation to
Stonehenge.
The people who excavated the immense
stones and the smaller bluestones and
then arranged them into a circular
monument, came and went many
centuries ago, without leaving any
explanation.
A theory suggested that those are healing
stones that came from Africa.
Stonehenge Secrets
American astronomer Gerald Hawkins used
a computer to do a much more elaborate and
exacting study of Stonehenge's astronomical
alignments. In his analysis, he found 165
points on the structure associated with
movements of the Sun and Moon (but not any
stars or visible planets). He proposed that
Stonehenge was in itself a sort of ancient
computer, designed to predict lunar eclipses.
Stonehenge Theories
The site appears to have been intended as a cemetery from the
very start, around 5,000 years ago—centuries before the giant
sandstone blocks were erected—the new study says
.
New analysis of ancient human remains show that people were
buried at the southern England site from about 3000 B.C. until
after the first large stones were raised around 2500 B.C.
"This is really exciting, because it shows that Stonehenge, from
its beginning to its zenith, is being used as a place to physically
put the remains of the dead," said Mike Parker Pearson of
England's University of Sheffield.
Stonehenge Theories
October 2009 33Stonehenge Mystery - Riquette Mory
Previous excavations indicate that
Stonehenge was linked via the River Avon
and two avenues to a matching timber
monument at nearby Durrington Walls.
The paired circles—Stonehenge and the
wooden circle at Durrington —represented
the realms of the living and the dead,
according to Parker Pearson.
Stonehenge Theories
The theory is that the majority of the dead were deposited in
the river upstream at Durrington Walls, and only "a select few“
were buried at Stonehenge itself, he said.
The site was excavated in 2006 as part of the Stonehenge
Riverside Project. The Stonehenge Riverside Project's other
finds in 2007 included further insights into a large seasonal
village at Durrington Walls, where the builders of Stonehenge
likely lived.
"All the little details of daily life were preserved in the floor.
Several houses were also uncovered along the avenue to the
river, which may have been used by spectators during religious
processions,” he said.
The ancients near eastThe ancients near east
mesopotamiamesopotamia
• learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,
construct irrigation canals, etc.construct irrigation canals, etc.
• Region gave birth to 3 of world’s modern faiths:Region gave birth to 3 of world’s modern faiths:
Judaism, Christianity and IslamJudaism, Christianity and Islam
• Invention of Writing: oldest written documents areInvention of Writing: oldest written documents are
from Mesopotamia (administrative acts andfrom Mesopotamia (administrative acts and
commercial transactions).commercial transactions).
• 3400-3200 BCE: Sumerians used pictographs3400-3200 BCE: Sumerians used pictographs
(pictures stand for words)(pictures stand for words)
• 3000-2900 BCE: Sumerians developed cuneiform3000-2900 BCE: Sumerians developed cuneiform
(complex grammatical constructions/ The Epic of(complex grammatical constructions/ The Epic of
Gilgamesh)Gilgamesh)
• 19th century excavations: Leonard Woolley19th century excavations: Leonard Woolley
discovered in 1920’s Royal Cemetery at Ur- madediscovered in 1920’s Royal Cemetery at Ur- made
public aware of Mesopotamian artpublic aware of Mesopotamian art
The Gods of Mesopotamia: IThe Gods of Mesopotamia: I
• AnuAnu: The father of the gods; god of: The father of the gods; god of
heaven (above left)heaven (above left)
• Adad:Adad: the rain god, and of stormsthe rain god, and of storms
• Dumuzi (Tanmuz):Dumuzi (Tanmuz): God ofGod of
vegetation and the Underword;vegetation and the Underword;
Husband of Ishtar,Husband of Ishtar,
• Ishtar (Innana):Ishtar (Innana): Goddess of love,Goddess of love,
fertility, and war; Queen of Heaven;fertility, and war; Queen of Heaven;
Nemesis of Gilgamesh (lower left)Nemesis of Gilgamesh (lower left)
The Gods of Mesopotamia IIThe Gods of Mesopotamia II
• Apsu: God of the primeval sweet watersApsu: God of the primeval sweet waters
• Ea: God of wisdom and patron of the artsEa: God of wisdom and patron of the arts
• Enlil: God of earth, wind, and air (aka Marduk inEnlil: God of earth, wind, and air (aka Marduk in
later cultures)later cultures)
• Ninhursag: Mother goddess, creator ofNinhursag: Mother goddess, creator of
vegetation; wife of Enlilvegetation; wife of Enlil
• Nisaba: Goddess of grainNisaba: Goddess of grain
• Skanash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver;Skanash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver;
god of wisdomgod of wisdom
• Sin: Goddess of the moonSin: Goddess of the moon
Lapis lazuliLapis lazuli
cuneiformcuneiform
Bottom Right: Warka Vase/ Narrative Art-Relief Sculpture – used pictures to tell stories
(religious festival) /Composition arranged in Registers or Friezes/Composite View of figures
(combo of frontal and profile views)/No overlapping/ Rendered Conceptual Approach/Hierarchy
of Scale
Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk,
Iraq, ca. 3200-3000 BCE, marble, 8”
high
•Flat back, drilled holes for
attachment to wooden head and
body, once had colored shells or
stones in eyebrow and eye area, wig
of gold leaf, etc.
SUMERIAN ART
Female head (possibly Inanna)
from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq
ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.
marble
approximately 8 in. high
Goddess of Love & War
Wore big, bitumen eyebrows, inlaid eyes
with shells and lapiz lazuli
RECOVERED
Warka Vase
from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq
ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.
alabaster
approximately 3 ft. high
Most important relief sculpture…reliefs
showing Inanna
Tiered REGISTERS WITH FIRM GROUND
LINE
Warka Vase
from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq
ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.
alabaster
approximately 3 ft. high
HIERARCHY OF SCALE
Or heratic sclae
Sumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell AsmarSumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell Asmar
Cache of sculptures found buried beneath temple floor/range in size from under a foot to 30” tall/representCache of sculptures found buried beneath temple floor/range in size from under a foot to 30” tall/represent
mortals rather than deities/votive figures/hands folded as in prayer, some hold beakers used in religious rites/mortals rather than deities/votive figures/hands folded as in prayer, some hold beakers used in religious rites/
simple forms (cones and cylinders)/ oversized eyes and tiny hands are disproportionate/open-eyed staresimple forms (cones and cylinders)/ oversized eyes and tiny hands are disproportionate/open-eyed stare
symbolizes the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfill their dutysymbolizes the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfill their duty
Statuettes of two worshippers, from the Square Temple at
Eshnunna (Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700 BCE, Gypsum inlaid
with shell and black limestone, male figure 2’6” high
Statuettes of worshippers
from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq
ca. 2,700 B.C.E.
gypsum, shell, black limestone
tallest 30 in. high
Also known as Votive Statues
Statuettes of worhippers
from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq
ca. 2,700 B.C.E.
gypsum, shell, black limestone
tallest 30 in. high
White Temple
and ziggurat,
Uruk (Modern
Warka), Iraq,
ca. 3200-3000
BCE
Home of
Gilgamesh
Reconstruction Drawing
Reconstruction Drawing
Constructed of mud brick (no access to stone quarries)/white-washed walls/ temple stands on top of ziggurat (40 ft.
above street level in center of city)/ bent-axis approach to entrance of temple, not linear entry like the
Egyptians/oriented to cardinal points of the compass/ dedicated to Anu (god of sky, 61X16 ft.)/ Cella (central hall)-
for divinity and stepped altar , referred to as “waiting rooms” where deities would descend & appear before the priests
SUMERIANS
believed gods
reside above the
world of
humans=
elevated
structures
toward sky
Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)
• Spread of irrigation canalsSpread of irrigation canals
• Construction of temple complexesConstruction of temple complexes
• A monochrome pottery designA monochrome pottery design
• Triangles, grids, zigzag lines were commonTriangles, grids, zigzag lines were common
• Ceramics made on slow-turning potterCeramics made on slow-turning potter’’s wheels wheel
• For lack of workable stone and metals, toolsFor lack of workable stone and metals, tools
were made of fired claywere made of fired clay
Eridu (5000-3100 BC)Eridu (5000-3100 BC)
• Most of the early structures at Eridu were residentialMost of the early structures at Eridu were residential
• Later, public and ritual centers were erectedLater, public and ritual centers were erected
• At its peak, population was 5000At its peak, population was 5000
• In one site, a series of shrines were constructed, oneIn one site, a series of shrines were constructed, one
over anotherover another
• Earliest, dated 5000 BC, was a simple shrineEarliest, dated 5000 BC, was a simple shrine
• By 3000 AD, a ziggurat was constructed in the formBy 3000 AD, a ziggurat was constructed in the form
of a 200 yard square enclosureof a 200 yard square enclosure
• Unidentified God statuette at EriduUnidentified God statuette at Eridu
Re creation of the ziggurat of EriduRe creation of the ziggurat of Eridu
Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)
• The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000
• Overshadowed by the Anu Ziggurat and later theOvershadowed by the Anu Ziggurat and later the
White TempleWhite Temple
• Named after the principal god AnuNamed after the principal god Anu
• Like Eridu, constructed over earlier shrinesLike Eridu, constructed over earlier shrines
• The White Temple was constructed over the AnuThe White Temple was constructed over the Anu
ZigguratZiggurat
• Both temples entailed massive manpower inputsBoth temples entailed massive manpower inputs——
7500 man-years alone7500 man-years alone
• Structures separated priestly residents from theStructures separated priestly residents from the
populacepopulace
• Walls were constructed in Early Dynastic PeriodWalls were constructed in Early Dynastic Period
(3100-2370 BC)(3100-2370 BC)
Uruk and Vicinity: Technology andUruk and Vicinity: Technology and
TradeTrade
• PotteryPottery
• Fine design of Ubaid gave way to crudelyFine design of Ubaid gave way to crudely
made utilitarian objectsmade utilitarian objects
• Plow was invented with a metal tippedPlow was invented with a metal tipped
wooden bladewooden blade
• Far more productive than the digging stickFar more productive than the digging stick
• Agricultural base diversifiedAgricultural base diversified
• Wheat, barley, flax, datesWheat, barley, flax, dates
• Cattle raising and fishingCattle raising and fishing
UrUr
• Site of theSite of the ““Royal CemeteryRoyal Cemetery”” uncovered byuncovered by
Sir Leonard Woolley, English archaeologistSir Leonard Woolley, English archaeologist
• Site contained chariots, headdresses, lyres,Site contained chariots, headdresses, lyres,
jewelryjewelry
• Classic example: lyres with bearded bullClassic example: lyres with bearded bull
• The blue is constructed from lapis lazuliThe blue is constructed from lapis lazuli
crystalscrystals
• Lower graphic is a typical Sumerian theme:Lower graphic is a typical Sumerian theme:
animals with human facesanimals with human faces
• This comes from the front panel of a lyreThis comes from the front panel of a lyre
Historical narrative/ below shows two sides (war and peace)/ registers/ composite view of
figures= frontal eye and body with profile head and feet/ hierarchy of scale/ uncertain of
purpose
Right: Actual 3-D shape of Standard of Ur, from Royal
Cemetery at Ur, Iraq
Below: Detail from peace side
of the Standard of Ur
The excavator, Leonard Woolley, thought it was originally
mounted on a pole like a military standard. Art historians
are uncertain of its purpose.
Standard of Ur
from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur
(modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq
ca. 2,600 B.C.E.
wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone
approximately 8 x 19 in.
War
Peace
Registers
Found in Sumer
HIERARCHY OF SCALE
Bigger = better
Standard of Ur (war side)
from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq
ca. 2,600 B.C.E.
wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone
approximately 8 x 19 in.
Standard of Ur (peace side)
from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq
ca. 2,600 B.C.E.
wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone
approximately 8 x 19 in.
Bull-headed lyre
from Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur
(modern Tell Muqayyar)
ca. 2,600 B.C.E.
wood, gold leaf, lapis lazuli
approximately 65 in. high
Sound box. Found in sumer.
Evidence of Extreme Stratification:Evidence of Extreme Stratification:
BurialsBurials
• Sir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 burialsSir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 burials
• Fewer than 20 were of royaltyFewer than 20 were of royalty
• Queen Shub-ad was lying on a bed accompanied by femaleQueen Shub-ad was lying on a bed accompanied by female
attendantsattendants
• 2 wagons drawn by oxen driven by male servants backed2 wagons drawn by oxen driven by male servants backed
down into entry rampdown into entry ramp
• 59 bodies, mostly female, were on the ground near the59 bodies, mostly female, were on the ground near the
tombtomb
• All retainers were lavishly bedecked with crafted elementsAll retainers were lavishly bedecked with crafted elements
• Oxen dispatched, then all in the party consumed poisonOxen dispatched, then all in the party consumed poison
• Lyre with bullLyre with bull’’s head was associated with the Good Queens head was associated with the Good Queen
Akkadian Art
AkkadAkkad
• First of the empires thatFirst of the empires that
consolidated city statesconsolidated city states’’
• Sargon I led the expansion (UpperSargon I led the expansion (Upper
left)left)
• Detail from Victory stelae from SusaDetail from Victory stelae from Susa
• Irony: a stela intended to celebrateIrony: a stela intended to celebrate
Akkadian victory actuallyAkkadian victory actually
documented their defeatdocumented their defeat
Gudea?
Statue of
Sumerian Prince
Peaceful pose,
holds fountain.
Plan of temple,
Ensi not King.
Piety, simplicity,
simple dress.
LagashLagash
• Lagash, ruled by Gudea,Lagash, ruled by Gudea,
succeeded Akkadsucceeded Akkad
• Gudea drew a temple plan from aGudea drew a temple plan from a
vision of the gods (upper)vision of the gods (upper)
• Lower: Gudea with temple plan onLower: Gudea with temple plan on
his laphis lap
• Represents a model of theRepresents a model of the
inspiration of heaven on earthinspiration of heaven on earth
through Gudea as a channelthrough Gudea as a channel
Head of an Akkadian ruler
from Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq
ca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E., copper
14 3/8 in. high
Arrogant power
Earliest hollow cast metal sculpture
Victory stele of Naram-Sin
from Susa, Iran
ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E.
sandstone
79 in. high
Victory stele of Naram-Sin
from Susa, Iran
ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E.
sandstone
79 in. high
Kings were divinely chosen.
Horned crown = divinity
Victory over Iran. Soldiers not generic
Enemies die, plead
Ziggurat (restored)at Ur
Neo sumerian period
at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq
ca. 2,100 B.C.E.
mud brick
Babylonian Art
Stele with code of Hammurabi
from Susa, Iran
ca. 1,780 B.C.E.
basalt
88 in. high
Hammurabi codified laws..
1st known example
Laws & penalties, protections
for widows & kids.
An eye for an Eye
No vigilantisms, but system
of justice.
Seated sun God giving the
rod of justice.
Basis for today’s laws!
Babylon: Code of HammurabiBabylon: Code of Hammurabi
• Hammurabi: The LawgiverHammurabi: The Lawgiver
• As commerce increased, civilAs commerce increased, civil
law served to regulatelaw served to regulate
transactionstransactions
• Criminal law was institutedCriminal law was instituted
• Lex talionisLex talionis——eye for an eyeeye for an eye——
became one of thebecame one of the
cornerstonescornerstones
• Here, Hammurabi receives theHere, Hammurabi receives the
law code from the sun godlaw code from the sun god
Babylon: Tower of BabelBabylon: Tower of Babel
• Babylon was the site ofBabylon was the site of
another ziggurat, theanother ziggurat, the
Tower of BabelTower of Babel
• Biblical interpretations:Biblical interpretations:
humankindhumankind’’s intellectuals intellectual
arrogancearrogance
• God imposed differentGod imposed different
languages on the builderslanguages on the builders
• However, BabylonHowever, Babylon
already had a diversity ofalready had a diversity of
languages and cultureslanguages and cultures
• Why construction wasWhy construction was
halted remains a mysteryhalted remains a mystery
Assyrian Art
•1st true empire..
•900 BCE conquered upper Mesopotamia
•Savage culture, militaristic
•Flayed their enemies alive
•Art: perspective, anatomy
•Commemorated victories & hunts
•Sargon = King of All
•Conquered Mesopotamia, ruled 5 generations
Reconstruction drawing
of the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq
ca. 720-705 B.C.E.
Lamassu (winged human headed bull)
from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq
ca. 720-705 B.C.E.
limestone
13 ft. 10 in. high
Guarded palace… relief AND in the round sculpture… 5 legs
Gilgamesh? Wrestling Lion
from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin
ca. 720-705 B.C.E.
limestone
13 ft. 10 in. high
Ashurbanipal hunting lions
Last great Assyrian king.. Shows bravery in hunting lions. Dying
lioness drags back legs, King hierarchy of scale.
from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq
ca. 645-640 B.C.E.
gypsum
approximately 5 ft. high
Ashurbanipal hunting lions
from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq
ca. 645-640 B.C.E.
gypsum
approximately 5 ft. high
Ashurbanipal hunting lions
from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq
ca. 645-640 B.C.E.
gypsum
approximately 5 ft. high
Neo-Babylonian Art
Ishtar Gate (restored)
from Babylon, Iraq
ca. 575 B.C.E.
glazed brick
Ishtar Gate (restored)
details of dragon (Marduk) and
bull (Adad)
from Babylon, Iraq
ca. 575 B.C.E.
glazed brick
Ishtar Gate (restored)
details of lion (Ishtar)
from Babylon, Iraq
ca. 575 B.C.E.
glazed brick

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Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art

  • 1. Art in the caves • Art in Altamira Spain – Discovered in 1879 – Around 18,000 years old – Art were once considered as forgeries for they were too good for that time
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Lascaux Cave (France) Discovered in 1940 by 4 local boys and robot More than 2000 animal figures Most famous for The Hall of the Bulls
  • 7.
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  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11.
  • 12.
  • 13. Chauvet cave Discovered 1994 Images date up to 31,000 years ago Notable for the images of stencilled hands
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20. Art outside of the caves
  • 21. The mask of la roche cotard From the Loire River, France 33,000 years old
  • 22. Venus of Willendorf Found in Austria 30,000 years old
  • 23. Venus of Berekhat Ram Golan Heights, Israel 1.4 inches long 230,000 years old
  • 24. Venus of Tan-Tan Morocco 6cm in height Found in the Draa River
  • 25. Venus of Hohle Fels Also called the venus of Schelkingen 6cm in height Found in Germany 40,000 years old Made from mammoth tusk
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. Stonehenge Builders' Village Found Durrington Walls and its position in relation to Stonehenge.
  • 29.
  • 30. The people who excavated the immense stones and the smaller bluestones and then arranged them into a circular monument, came and went many centuries ago, without leaving any explanation. A theory suggested that those are healing stones that came from Africa. Stonehenge Secrets
  • 31. American astronomer Gerald Hawkins used a computer to do a much more elaborate and exacting study of Stonehenge's astronomical alignments. In his analysis, he found 165 points on the structure associated with movements of the Sun and Moon (but not any stars or visible planets). He proposed that Stonehenge was in itself a sort of ancient computer, designed to predict lunar eclipses. Stonehenge Theories
  • 32. The site appears to have been intended as a cemetery from the very start, around 5,000 years ago—centuries before the giant sandstone blocks were erected—the new study says . New analysis of ancient human remains show that people were buried at the southern England site from about 3000 B.C. until after the first large stones were raised around 2500 B.C. "This is really exciting, because it shows that Stonehenge, from its beginning to its zenith, is being used as a place to physically put the remains of the dead," said Mike Parker Pearson of England's University of Sheffield. Stonehenge Theories
  • 33. October 2009 33Stonehenge Mystery - Riquette Mory Previous excavations indicate that Stonehenge was linked via the River Avon and two avenues to a matching timber monument at nearby Durrington Walls. The paired circles—Stonehenge and the wooden circle at Durrington —represented the realms of the living and the dead, according to Parker Pearson. Stonehenge Theories
  • 34. The theory is that the majority of the dead were deposited in the river upstream at Durrington Walls, and only "a select few“ were buried at Stonehenge itself, he said. The site was excavated in 2006 as part of the Stonehenge Riverside Project. The Stonehenge Riverside Project's other finds in 2007 included further insights into a large seasonal village at Durrington Walls, where the builders of Stonehenge likely lived. "All the little details of daily life were preserved in the floor. Several houses were also uncovered along the avenue to the river, which may have been used by spectators during religious processions,” he said.
  • 35.
  • 36.
  • 37. The ancients near eastThe ancients near east
  • 39. • learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods, construct irrigation canals, etc.construct irrigation canals, etc. • Region gave birth to 3 of world’s modern faiths:Region gave birth to 3 of world’s modern faiths: Judaism, Christianity and IslamJudaism, Christianity and Islam • Invention of Writing: oldest written documents areInvention of Writing: oldest written documents are from Mesopotamia (administrative acts andfrom Mesopotamia (administrative acts and commercial transactions).commercial transactions). • 3400-3200 BCE: Sumerians used pictographs3400-3200 BCE: Sumerians used pictographs (pictures stand for words)(pictures stand for words) • 3000-2900 BCE: Sumerians developed cuneiform3000-2900 BCE: Sumerians developed cuneiform (complex grammatical constructions/ The Epic of(complex grammatical constructions/ The Epic of Gilgamesh)Gilgamesh) • 19th century excavations: Leonard Woolley19th century excavations: Leonard Woolley discovered in 1920’s Royal Cemetery at Ur- madediscovered in 1920’s Royal Cemetery at Ur- made public aware of Mesopotamian artpublic aware of Mesopotamian art
  • 40. The Gods of Mesopotamia: IThe Gods of Mesopotamia: I • AnuAnu: The father of the gods; god of: The father of the gods; god of heaven (above left)heaven (above left) • Adad:Adad: the rain god, and of stormsthe rain god, and of storms • Dumuzi (Tanmuz):Dumuzi (Tanmuz): God ofGod of vegetation and the Underword;vegetation and the Underword; Husband of Ishtar,Husband of Ishtar, • Ishtar (Innana):Ishtar (Innana): Goddess of love,Goddess of love, fertility, and war; Queen of Heaven;fertility, and war; Queen of Heaven; Nemesis of Gilgamesh (lower left)Nemesis of Gilgamesh (lower left)
  • 41. The Gods of Mesopotamia IIThe Gods of Mesopotamia II • Apsu: God of the primeval sweet watersApsu: God of the primeval sweet waters • Ea: God of wisdom and patron of the artsEa: God of wisdom and patron of the arts • Enlil: God of earth, wind, and air (aka Marduk inEnlil: God of earth, wind, and air (aka Marduk in later cultures)later cultures) • Ninhursag: Mother goddess, creator ofNinhursag: Mother goddess, creator of vegetation; wife of Enlilvegetation; wife of Enlil • Nisaba: Goddess of grainNisaba: Goddess of grain • Skanash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver;Skanash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver; god of wisdomgod of wisdom • Sin: Goddess of the moonSin: Goddess of the moon
  • 44. Bottom Right: Warka Vase/ Narrative Art-Relief Sculpture – used pictures to tell stories (religious festival) /Composition arranged in Registers or Friezes/Composite View of figures (combo of frontal and profile views)/No overlapping/ Rendered Conceptual Approach/Hierarchy of Scale Female head (Inanna?), from Uruk, Iraq, ca. 3200-3000 BCE, marble, 8” high •Flat back, drilled holes for attachment to wooden head and body, once had colored shells or stones in eyebrow and eye area, wig of gold leaf, etc. SUMERIAN ART
  • 45. Female head (possibly Inanna) from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. marble approximately 8 in. high Goddess of Love & War Wore big, bitumen eyebrows, inlaid eyes with shells and lapiz lazuli RECOVERED
  • 46. Warka Vase from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. alabaster approximately 3 ft. high Most important relief sculpture…reliefs showing Inanna Tiered REGISTERS WITH FIRM GROUND LINE
  • 47. Warka Vase from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraq ca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E. alabaster approximately 3 ft. high HIERARCHY OF SCALE Or heratic sclae
  • 48. Sumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell AsmarSumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell Asmar Cache of sculptures found buried beneath temple floor/range in size from under a foot to 30” tall/representCache of sculptures found buried beneath temple floor/range in size from under a foot to 30” tall/represent mortals rather than deities/votive figures/hands folded as in prayer, some hold beakers used in religious rites/mortals rather than deities/votive figures/hands folded as in prayer, some hold beakers used in religious rites/ simple forms (cones and cylinders)/ oversized eyes and tiny hands are disproportionate/open-eyed staresimple forms (cones and cylinders)/ oversized eyes and tiny hands are disproportionate/open-eyed stare symbolizes the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfill their dutysymbolizes the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfill their duty Statuettes of two worshippers, from the Square Temple at Eshnunna (Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700 BCE, Gypsum inlaid with shell and black limestone, male figure 2’6” high
  • 49. Statuettes of worshippers from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq ca. 2,700 B.C.E. gypsum, shell, black limestone tallest 30 in. high Also known as Votive Statues
  • 50. Statuettes of worhippers from Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraq ca. 2,700 B.C.E. gypsum, shell, black limestone tallest 30 in. high
  • 51. White Temple and ziggurat, Uruk (Modern Warka), Iraq, ca. 3200-3000 BCE Home of Gilgamesh Reconstruction Drawing Reconstruction Drawing Constructed of mud brick (no access to stone quarries)/white-washed walls/ temple stands on top of ziggurat (40 ft. above street level in center of city)/ bent-axis approach to entrance of temple, not linear entry like the Egyptians/oriented to cardinal points of the compass/ dedicated to Anu (god of sky, 61X16 ft.)/ Cella (central hall)- for divinity and stepped altar , referred to as “waiting rooms” where deities would descend & appear before the priests SUMERIANS believed gods reside above the world of humans= elevated structures toward sky
  • 52. Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC) • Spread of irrigation canalsSpread of irrigation canals • Construction of temple complexesConstruction of temple complexes • A monochrome pottery designA monochrome pottery design • Triangles, grids, zigzag lines were commonTriangles, grids, zigzag lines were common • Ceramics made on slow-turning potterCeramics made on slow-turning potter’’s wheels wheel • For lack of workable stone and metals, toolsFor lack of workable stone and metals, tools were made of fired claywere made of fired clay
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55. Eridu (5000-3100 BC)Eridu (5000-3100 BC) • Most of the early structures at Eridu were residentialMost of the early structures at Eridu were residential • Later, public and ritual centers were erectedLater, public and ritual centers were erected • At its peak, population was 5000At its peak, population was 5000 • In one site, a series of shrines were constructed, oneIn one site, a series of shrines were constructed, one over anotherover another • Earliest, dated 5000 BC, was a simple shrineEarliest, dated 5000 BC, was a simple shrine • By 3000 AD, a ziggurat was constructed in the formBy 3000 AD, a ziggurat was constructed in the form of a 200 yard square enclosureof a 200 yard square enclosure • Unidentified God statuette at EriduUnidentified God statuette at Eridu
  • 56.
  • 57. Re creation of the ziggurat of EriduRe creation of the ziggurat of Eridu
  • 58. Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC) • The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000 • Overshadowed by the Anu Ziggurat and later theOvershadowed by the Anu Ziggurat and later the White TempleWhite Temple • Named after the principal god AnuNamed after the principal god Anu • Like Eridu, constructed over earlier shrinesLike Eridu, constructed over earlier shrines • The White Temple was constructed over the AnuThe White Temple was constructed over the Anu ZigguratZiggurat • Both temples entailed massive manpower inputsBoth temples entailed massive manpower inputs—— 7500 man-years alone7500 man-years alone • Structures separated priestly residents from theStructures separated priestly residents from the populacepopulace • Walls were constructed in Early Dynastic PeriodWalls were constructed in Early Dynastic Period (3100-2370 BC)(3100-2370 BC)
  • 59.
  • 60.
  • 61. Uruk and Vicinity: Technology andUruk and Vicinity: Technology and TradeTrade • PotteryPottery • Fine design of Ubaid gave way to crudelyFine design of Ubaid gave way to crudely made utilitarian objectsmade utilitarian objects • Plow was invented with a metal tippedPlow was invented with a metal tipped wooden bladewooden blade • Far more productive than the digging stickFar more productive than the digging stick • Agricultural base diversifiedAgricultural base diversified • Wheat, barley, flax, datesWheat, barley, flax, dates • Cattle raising and fishingCattle raising and fishing
  • 62.
  • 63. UrUr • Site of theSite of the ““Royal CemeteryRoyal Cemetery”” uncovered byuncovered by Sir Leonard Woolley, English archaeologistSir Leonard Woolley, English archaeologist • Site contained chariots, headdresses, lyres,Site contained chariots, headdresses, lyres, jewelryjewelry • Classic example: lyres with bearded bullClassic example: lyres with bearded bull • The blue is constructed from lapis lazuliThe blue is constructed from lapis lazuli crystalscrystals • Lower graphic is a typical Sumerian theme:Lower graphic is a typical Sumerian theme: animals with human facesanimals with human faces • This comes from the front panel of a lyreThis comes from the front panel of a lyre
  • 64. Historical narrative/ below shows two sides (war and peace)/ registers/ composite view of figures= frontal eye and body with profile head and feet/ hierarchy of scale/ uncertain of purpose Right: Actual 3-D shape of Standard of Ur, from Royal Cemetery at Ur, Iraq Below: Detail from peace side of the Standard of Ur The excavator, Leonard Woolley, thought it was originally mounted on a pole like a military standard. Art historians are uncertain of its purpose.
  • 65. Standard of Ur from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone approximately 8 x 19 in. War Peace Registers Found in Sumer HIERARCHY OF SCALE Bigger = better
  • 66. Standard of Ur (war side) from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone approximately 8 x 19 in.
  • 67. Standard of Ur (peace side) from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestone approximately 8 x 19 in.
  • 68. Bull-headed lyre from Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) ca. 2,600 B.C.E. wood, gold leaf, lapis lazuli approximately 65 in. high Sound box. Found in sumer.
  • 69.
  • 70. Evidence of Extreme Stratification:Evidence of Extreme Stratification: BurialsBurials • Sir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 burialsSir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 burials • Fewer than 20 were of royaltyFewer than 20 were of royalty • Queen Shub-ad was lying on a bed accompanied by femaleQueen Shub-ad was lying on a bed accompanied by female attendantsattendants • 2 wagons drawn by oxen driven by male servants backed2 wagons drawn by oxen driven by male servants backed down into entry rampdown into entry ramp • 59 bodies, mostly female, were on the ground near the59 bodies, mostly female, were on the ground near the tombtomb • All retainers were lavishly bedecked with crafted elementsAll retainers were lavishly bedecked with crafted elements • Oxen dispatched, then all in the party consumed poisonOxen dispatched, then all in the party consumed poison • Lyre with bullLyre with bull’’s head was associated with the Good Queens head was associated with the Good Queen
  • 71.
  • 73. AkkadAkkad • First of the empires thatFirst of the empires that consolidated city statesconsolidated city states’’ • Sargon I led the expansion (UpperSargon I led the expansion (Upper left)left) • Detail from Victory stelae from SusaDetail from Victory stelae from Susa • Irony: a stela intended to celebrateIrony: a stela intended to celebrate Akkadian victory actuallyAkkadian victory actually documented their defeatdocumented their defeat
  • 74. Gudea? Statue of Sumerian Prince Peaceful pose, holds fountain. Plan of temple, Ensi not King. Piety, simplicity, simple dress.
  • 75. LagashLagash • Lagash, ruled by Gudea,Lagash, ruled by Gudea, succeeded Akkadsucceeded Akkad • Gudea drew a temple plan from aGudea drew a temple plan from a vision of the gods (upper)vision of the gods (upper) • Lower: Gudea with temple plan onLower: Gudea with temple plan on his laphis lap • Represents a model of theRepresents a model of the inspiration of heaven on earthinspiration of heaven on earth through Gudea as a channelthrough Gudea as a channel
  • 76. Head of an Akkadian ruler from Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E., copper 14 3/8 in. high Arrogant power Earliest hollow cast metal sculpture
  • 77. Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa, Iran ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E. sandstone 79 in. high
  • 78. Victory stele of Naram-Sin from Susa, Iran ca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E. sandstone 79 in. high Kings were divinely chosen. Horned crown = divinity Victory over Iran. Soldiers not generic Enemies die, plead
  • 79. Ziggurat (restored)at Ur Neo sumerian period at Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraq ca. 2,100 B.C.E. mud brick
  • 81.
  • 82. Stele with code of Hammurabi from Susa, Iran ca. 1,780 B.C.E. basalt 88 in. high Hammurabi codified laws.. 1st known example Laws & penalties, protections for widows & kids. An eye for an Eye No vigilantisms, but system of justice. Seated sun God giving the rod of justice. Basis for today’s laws!
  • 83. Babylon: Code of HammurabiBabylon: Code of Hammurabi • Hammurabi: The LawgiverHammurabi: The Lawgiver • As commerce increased, civilAs commerce increased, civil law served to regulatelaw served to regulate transactionstransactions • Criminal law was institutedCriminal law was instituted • Lex talionisLex talionis——eye for an eyeeye for an eye—— became one of thebecame one of the cornerstonescornerstones • Here, Hammurabi receives theHere, Hammurabi receives the law code from the sun godlaw code from the sun god
  • 84. Babylon: Tower of BabelBabylon: Tower of Babel • Babylon was the site ofBabylon was the site of another ziggurat, theanother ziggurat, the Tower of BabelTower of Babel • Biblical interpretations:Biblical interpretations: humankindhumankind’’s intellectuals intellectual arrogancearrogance • God imposed differentGod imposed different languages on the builderslanguages on the builders • However, BabylonHowever, Babylon already had a diversity ofalready had a diversity of languages and cultureslanguages and cultures • Why construction wasWhy construction was halted remains a mysteryhalted remains a mystery
  • 85. Assyrian Art •1st true empire.. •900 BCE conquered upper Mesopotamia •Savage culture, militaristic •Flayed their enemies alive •Art: perspective, anatomy •Commemorated victories & hunts •Sargon = King of All •Conquered Mesopotamia, ruled 5 generations
  • 86. Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq ca. 720-705 B.C.E.
  • 87. Lamassu (winged human headed bull) from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraq ca. 720-705 B.C.E. limestone 13 ft. 10 in. high Guarded palace… relief AND in the round sculpture… 5 legs
  • 88.
  • 89.
  • 90.
  • 91.
  • 92. Gilgamesh? Wrestling Lion from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin ca. 720-705 B.C.E. limestone 13 ft. 10 in. high
  • 93. Ashurbanipal hunting lions Last great Assyrian king.. Shows bravery in hunting lions. Dying lioness drags back legs, King hierarchy of scale. from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 645-640 B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high
  • 94. Ashurbanipal hunting lions from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 645-640 B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high
  • 95. Ashurbanipal hunting lions from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraq ca. 645-640 B.C.E. gypsum approximately 5 ft. high
  • 97.
  • 98.
  • 99. Ishtar Gate (restored) from Babylon, Iraq ca. 575 B.C.E. glazed brick
  • 100. Ishtar Gate (restored) details of dragon (Marduk) and bull (Adad) from Babylon, Iraq ca. 575 B.C.E. glazed brick
  • 101.
  • 102.
  • 103.
  • 104.
  • 105. Ishtar Gate (restored) details of lion (Ishtar) from Babylon, Iraq ca. 575 B.C.E. glazed brick

Editor's Notes

  1. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  2. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  3. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  4. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  5. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  6. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  7. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  8. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  9. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  10. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  11. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  12. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  13. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  14. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  15. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  16. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  17. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  18. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  19. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  20. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  21. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  22. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  23. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  24. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  25. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  26. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  27. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  28. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  29. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  30. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.