Art in the caves• Art in Altamira Spain– Discovered in 1879– Around 18,000 years old– Art were once considered as forgerie...
Lascaux Cave (France)Discovered in 1940 by 4 localboys and robotMore than 2000 animal figuresMost famous for The Hall of t...
Chauvet caveDiscovered 1994Images date up to 31,000 yearsagoNotable for the images ofstencilled hands
Art outside of the caves
The mask of la roche cotardFrom the Loire River, France33,000 years old
Venus of WillendorfFound in Austria30,000 years old
Venus of Berekhat RamGolan Heights, Israel1.4 inches long230,000 years old
Venus of Tan-TanMorocco6cm in heightFound in the Draa River
Venus of HohleFelsAlso called the venus ofSchelkingen6cm in heightFound in Germany40,000 years oldMade from mammothtusk
Stonehenge Builders Village FoundDurringtonWalls andits position inrelation toStonehenge.
The people who excavated the immensestones and the smaller bluestones andthen arranged them into a circularmonument, came ...
American astronomer Gerald Hawkins useda computer to do a much more elaborate andexacting study of Stonehenges astronomica...
The site appears to have been intended as a cemetery from thevery start, around 5,000 years ago—centuries before the giant...
October 2009 33Stonehenge Mystery - Riquette MoryPrevious excavations indicate thatStonehenge was linked via the River Avo...
The theory is that the majority of the dead were deposited inthe river upstream at Durrington Walls, and only "a select fe...
The ancients near eastThe ancients near east
mesopotamiamesopotamia
• learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,construct irrigati...
The Gods of Mesopotamia: IThe Gods of Mesopotamia: I• AnuAnu: The father of the gods; god of: The father of the gods; god ...
The Gods of Mesopotamia IIThe Gods of Mesopotamia II• Apsu: God of the primeval sweet watersApsu: God of the primeval swee...
Lapis lazuliLapis lazuli
cuneiformcuneiform
Bottom Right: Warka Vase/ Narrative Art-Relief Sculpture – used pictures to tell stories(religious festival) /Composition ...
Female head (possibly Inanna)from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraqca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.marbleapproximately 8 in. highGoddess of L...
Warka Vasefrom Uruk (modern Warka) Iraqca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.alabasterapproximately 3 ft. highMost important relief sculpt...
Warka Vasefrom Uruk (modern Warka) Iraqca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.alabasterapproximately 3 ft. highHIERARCHY OF SCALEOr heratic...
Sumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell AsmarSumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell AsmarCache of sculpture...
Statuettes of worshippersfrom Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraqca. 2,700 B.C.E.gypsum, shell, black limestonetallest 30 in...
Statuettes of worhippersfrom Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraqca. 2,700 B.C.E.gypsum, shell, black limestonetallest 30 in....
White Templeand ziggurat,Uruk (ModernWarka), Iraq,ca. 3200-3000BCEHome ofGilgameshReconstruction DrawingReconstruction Dra...
Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)• Spread of irrigation canalsSpread of irrigation canals• Construction of ...
Eridu (5000-3100 BC)Eridu (5000-3100 BC)• Most of the early structures at Eridu were residentialMost of the early structur...
Re creation of the ziggurat of EriduRe creation of the ziggurat of Eridu
Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)• The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000The first city, Uruk...
Uruk and Vicinity: Technology andUruk and Vicinity: Technology andTradeTrade• PotteryPottery• Fine design of Ubaid gave wa...
UrUr• Site of theSite of the ““Royal CemeteryRoyal Cemetery”” uncovered byuncovered bySir Leonard Woolley, English archaeo...
Historical narrative/ below shows two sides (war and peace)/ registers/ composite view offigures= frontal eye and body wit...
Standard of Urfrom Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur(modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red li...
Standard of Ur (war side)from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, shell, lapis la...
Standard of Ur (peace side)from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, shell, lapis ...
Bull-headed lyrefrom Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur(modern Tell Muqayyar)ca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, gold leaf, lapis lazuliapproxi...
Evidence of Extreme Stratification:Evidence of Extreme Stratification:BurialsBurials• Sir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 b...
Akkadian Art
AkkadAkkad• First of the empires thatFirst of the empires thatconsolidated city statesconsolidated city states’’• Sargon I...
Gudea?Statue ofSumerian PrincePeaceful pose,holds fountain.Plan of temple,Ensi not King.Piety, simplicity,simple dress.
LagashLagash• Lagash, ruled by Gudea,Lagash, ruled by Gudea,succeeded Akkadsucceeded Akkad• Gudea drew a temple plan from ...
Head of an Akkadian rulerfrom Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E., copper14 3/8 in. highArrogant powerEar...
Victory stele of Naram-Sinfrom Susa, Iranca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E.sandstone79 in. high
Victory stele of Naram-Sinfrom Susa, Iranca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E.sandstone79 in. highKings were divinely chosen.Horned crown...
Ziggurat (restored)at UrNeo sumerian periodat Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,100 B.C.E.mud brick
Babylonian Art
Stele with code of Hammurabifrom Susa, Iranca. 1,780 B.C.E.basalt88 in. highHammurabi codified laws..1st known exampleLaws...
Babylon: Code of HammurabiBabylon: Code of Hammurabi• Hammurabi: The LawgiverHammurabi: The Lawgiver• As commerce increase...
Babylon: Tower of BabelBabylon: Tower of Babel• Babylon was the site ofBabylon was the site ofanother ziggurat, theanother...
Assyrian Art•1st true empire..•900 BCE conquered upper Mesopotamia•Savage culture, militaristic•Flayed their enemies alive...
Reconstruction drawingof the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraqca. 720-705 B.C.E.
Lamassu (winged human headed bull)from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraqca. 720-705 B.C.E.li...
Gilgamesh? Wrestling Lionfrom the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukinca. 720-705 B.C.E.limestone13 ft. 10 in. high
Ashurbanipal hunting lionsLast great Assyrian king.. Shows bravery in hunting lions. Dyinglioness drags back legs, King hi...
Ashurbanipal hunting lionsfrom the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 645-640 B.C.E.gypsumapp...
Ashurbanipal hunting lionsfrom the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 645-640 B.C.E.gypsumapp...
Neo-Babylonian Art
Ishtar Gate (restored)from Babylon, Iraqca. 575 B.C.E.glazed brick
Ishtar Gate (restored)details of dragon (Marduk) andbull (Adad)from Babylon, Iraqca. 575 B.C.E.glazed brick
Ishtar Gate (restored)details of lion (Ishtar)from Babylon, Iraqca. 575 B.C.E.glazed brick
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art
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  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
  • Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.
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  • Prehistoric art and mesopotamian art

    1. 1. Art in the caves• Art in Altamira Spain– Discovered in 1879– Around 18,000 years old– Art were once considered as forgeries forthey were too good for that time
    2. 2. Lascaux Cave (France)Discovered in 1940 by 4 localboys and robotMore than 2000 animal figuresMost famous for The Hall of theBulls
    3. 3. Chauvet caveDiscovered 1994Images date up to 31,000 yearsagoNotable for the images ofstencilled hands
    4. 4. Art outside of the caves
    5. 5. The mask of la roche cotardFrom the Loire River, France33,000 years old
    6. 6. Venus of WillendorfFound in Austria30,000 years old
    7. 7. Venus of Berekhat RamGolan Heights, Israel1.4 inches long230,000 years old
    8. 8. Venus of Tan-TanMorocco6cm in heightFound in the Draa River
    9. 9. Venus of HohleFelsAlso called the venus ofSchelkingen6cm in heightFound in Germany40,000 years oldMade from mammothtusk
    10. 10. Stonehenge Builders Village FoundDurringtonWalls andits position inrelation toStonehenge.
    11. 11. The people who excavated the immensestones and the smaller bluestones andthen arranged them into a circularmonument, came and went manycenturies ago, without leaving anyexplanation.A theory suggested that those are healingstones that came from Africa.Stonehenge Secrets
    12. 12. American astronomer Gerald Hawkins useda computer to do a much more elaborate andexacting study of Stonehenges astronomicalalignments. In his analysis, he found 165points on the structure associated withmovements of the Sun and Moon (but not anystars or visible planets). He proposed thatStonehenge was in itself a sort of ancientcomputer, designed to predict lunar eclipses.Stonehenge Theories
    13. 13. The site appears to have been intended as a cemetery from thevery start, around 5,000 years ago—centuries before the giantsandstone blocks were erected—the new study says.New analysis of ancient human remains show that people wereburied at the southern England site from about 3000 B.C. untilafter the first large stones were raised around 2500 B.C."This is really exciting, because it shows that Stonehenge, fromits beginning to its zenith, is being used as a place to physicallyput the remains of the dead," said Mike Parker Pearson ofEnglands University of Sheffield.Stonehenge Theories
    14. 14. October 2009 33Stonehenge Mystery - Riquette MoryPrevious excavations indicate thatStonehenge was linked via the River Avonand two avenues to a matching timbermonument at nearby Durrington Walls.The paired circles—Stonehenge and thewooden circle at Durrington —representedthe realms of the living and the dead,according to Parker Pearson.Stonehenge Theories
    15. 15. The theory is that the majority of the dead were deposited inthe river upstream at Durrington Walls, and only "a select few“were buried at Stonehenge itself, he said.The site was excavated in 2006 as part of the StonehengeRiverside Project. The Stonehenge Riverside Projects otherfinds in 2007 included further insights into a large seasonalvillage at Durrington Walls, where the builders of Stonehengelikely lived."All the little details of daily life were preserved in the floor.Several houses were also uncovered along the avenue to theriver, which may have been used by spectators during religiousprocessions,” he said.
    16. 16. The ancients near eastThe ancients near east
    17. 17. mesopotamiamesopotamia
    18. 18. • learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,learned how to use the wheel, plow, control floods,construct irrigation canals, etc.construct irrigation canals, etc.• Region gave birth to 3 of world’s modern faiths:Region gave birth to 3 of world’s modern faiths:Judaism, Christianity and IslamJudaism, Christianity and Islam• Invention of Writing: oldest written documents areInvention of Writing: oldest written documents arefrom Mesopotamia (administrative acts andfrom Mesopotamia (administrative acts andcommercial transactions).commercial transactions).• 3400-3200 BCE: Sumerians used pictographs3400-3200 BCE: Sumerians used pictographs(pictures stand for words)(pictures stand for words)• 3000-2900 BCE: Sumerians developed cuneiform3000-2900 BCE: Sumerians developed cuneiform(complex grammatical constructions/ The Epic of(complex grammatical constructions/ The Epic ofGilgamesh)Gilgamesh)• 19th century excavations: Leonard Woolley19th century excavations: Leonard Woolleydiscovered in 1920’s Royal Cemetery at Ur- madediscovered in 1920’s Royal Cemetery at Ur- madepublic aware of Mesopotamian artpublic aware of Mesopotamian art
    19. 19. The Gods of Mesopotamia: IThe Gods of Mesopotamia: I• AnuAnu: The father of the gods; god of: The father of the gods; god ofheaven (above left)heaven (above left)• Adad:Adad: the rain god, and of stormsthe rain god, and of storms• Dumuzi (Tanmuz):Dumuzi (Tanmuz): God ofGod ofvegetation and the Underword;vegetation and the Underword;Husband of Ishtar,Husband of Ishtar,• Ishtar (Innana):Ishtar (Innana): Goddess of love,Goddess of love,fertility, and war; Queen of Heaven;fertility, and war; Queen of Heaven;Nemesis of Gilgamesh (lower left)Nemesis of Gilgamesh (lower left)
    20. 20. The Gods of Mesopotamia IIThe Gods of Mesopotamia II• Apsu: God of the primeval sweet watersApsu: God of the primeval sweet waters• Ea: God of wisdom and patron of the artsEa: God of wisdom and patron of the arts• Enlil: God of earth, wind, and air (aka Marduk inEnlil: God of earth, wind, and air (aka Marduk inlater cultures)later cultures)• Ninhursag: Mother goddess, creator ofNinhursag: Mother goddess, creator ofvegetation; wife of Enlilvegetation; wife of Enlil• Nisaba: Goddess of grainNisaba: Goddess of grain• Skanash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver;Skanash: God of the sun, judge, and law giver;god of wisdomgod of wisdom• Sin: Goddess of the moonSin: Goddess of the moon
    21. 21. Lapis lazuliLapis lazuli
    22. 22. cuneiformcuneiform
    23. 23. Bottom Right: Warka Vase/ Narrative Art-Relief Sculpture – used pictures to tell stories(religious festival) /Composition arranged in Registers or Friezes/Composite View of figures(combo of frontal and profile views)/No overlapping/ Rendered Conceptual Approach/Hierarchyof ScaleFemale head (Inanna?), from Uruk,Iraq, ca. 3200-3000 BCE, marble, 8”high•Flat back, drilled holes forattachment to wooden head andbody, once had colored shells orstones in eyebrow and eye area, wigof gold leaf, etc.SUMERIAN ART
    24. 24. Female head (possibly Inanna)from Uruk (modern Warka) Iraqca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.marbleapproximately 8 in. highGoddess of Love & WarWore big, bitumen eyebrows, inlaid eyeswith shells and lapiz lazuliRECOVERED
    25. 25. Warka Vasefrom Uruk (modern Warka) Iraqca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.alabasterapproximately 3 ft. highMost important relief sculpture…reliefsshowing InannaTiered REGISTERS WITH FIRM GROUNDLINE
    26. 26. Warka Vasefrom Uruk (modern Warka) Iraqca. 3,200-3,000 B.C.E.alabasterapproximately 3 ft. highHIERARCHY OF SCALEOr heratic sclae
    27. 27. Sumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell AsmarSumerian Art: Statues of Worshippers from Tell AsmarCache of sculptures found buried beneath temple floor/range in size from under a foot to 30” tall/representCache of sculptures found buried beneath temple floor/range in size from under a foot to 30” tall/representmortals rather than deities/votive figures/hands folded as in prayer, some hold beakers used in religious rites/mortals rather than deities/votive figures/hands folded as in prayer, some hold beakers used in religious rites/simple forms (cones and cylinders)/ oversized eyes and tiny hands are disproportionate/open-eyed staresimple forms (cones and cylinders)/ oversized eyes and tiny hands are disproportionate/open-eyed staresymbolizes the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfill their dutysymbolizes the eternal wakefulness necessary to fulfill their dutyStatuettes of two worshippers, from the Square Temple atEshnunna (Tell Asmar), Iraq, ca. 2700 BCE, Gypsum inlaidwith shell and black limestone, male figure 2’6” high
    28. 28. Statuettes of worshippersfrom Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraqca. 2,700 B.C.E.gypsum, shell, black limestonetallest 30 in. highAlso known as Votive Statues
    29. 29. Statuettes of worhippersfrom Eshnunna (modern Tell Asmar) Iraqca. 2,700 B.C.E.gypsum, shell, black limestonetallest 30 in. high
    30. 30. White Templeand ziggurat,Uruk (ModernWarka), Iraq,ca. 3200-3000BCEHome ofGilgameshReconstruction DrawingReconstruction DrawingConstructed of mud brick (no access to stone quarries)/white-washed walls/ temple stands on top of ziggurat (40 ft.above street level in center of city)/ bent-axis approach to entrance of temple, not linear entry like theEgyptians/oriented to cardinal points of the compass/ dedicated to Anu (god of sky, 61X16 ft.)/ Cella (central hall)-for divinity and stepped altar , referred to as “waiting rooms” where deities would descend & appear before the priestsSUMERIANSbelieved godsreside above theworld ofhumans=elevatedstructurestoward sky
    31. 31. Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)Ubaid Era (5300-4100 BC)• Spread of irrigation canalsSpread of irrigation canals• Construction of temple complexesConstruction of temple complexes• A monochrome pottery designA monochrome pottery design• Triangles, grids, zigzag lines were commonTriangles, grids, zigzag lines were common• Ceramics made on slow-turning potterCeramics made on slow-turning potter’’s wheels wheel• For lack of workable stone and metals, toolsFor lack of workable stone and metals, toolswere made of fired claywere made of fired clay
    32. 32. Eridu (5000-3100 BC)Eridu (5000-3100 BC)• Most of the early structures at Eridu were residentialMost of the early structures at Eridu were residential• Later, public and ritual centers were erectedLater, public and ritual centers were erected• At its peak, population was 5000At its peak, population was 5000• In one site, a series of shrines were constructed, oneIn one site, a series of shrines were constructed, oneover anotherover another• Earliest, dated 5000 BC, was a simple shrineEarliest, dated 5000 BC, was a simple shrine• By 3000 AD, a ziggurat was constructed in the formBy 3000 AD, a ziggurat was constructed in the formof a 200 yard square enclosureof a 200 yard square enclosure• Unidentified God statuette at EriduUnidentified God statuette at Eridu
    33. 33. Re creation of the ziggurat of EriduRe creation of the ziggurat of Eridu
    34. 34. Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)Uruk Period (4100-3100 BC)• The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000The first city, Uruk with a population of 10,000• Overshadowed by the Anu Ziggurat and later theOvershadowed by the Anu Ziggurat and later theWhite TempleWhite Temple• Named after the principal god AnuNamed after the principal god Anu• Like Eridu, constructed over earlier shrinesLike Eridu, constructed over earlier shrines• The White Temple was constructed over the AnuThe White Temple was constructed over the AnuZigguratZiggurat• Both temples entailed massive manpower inputsBoth temples entailed massive manpower inputs——7500 man-years alone7500 man-years alone• Structures separated priestly residents from theStructures separated priestly residents from thepopulacepopulace• Walls were constructed in Early Dynastic PeriodWalls were constructed in Early Dynastic Period(3100-2370 BC)(3100-2370 BC)
    35. 35. Uruk and Vicinity: Technology andUruk and Vicinity: Technology andTradeTrade• PotteryPottery• Fine design of Ubaid gave way to crudelyFine design of Ubaid gave way to crudelymade utilitarian objectsmade utilitarian objects• Plow was invented with a metal tippedPlow was invented with a metal tippedwooden bladewooden blade• Far more productive than the digging stickFar more productive than the digging stick• Agricultural base diversifiedAgricultural base diversified• Wheat, barley, flax, datesWheat, barley, flax, dates• Cattle raising and fishingCattle raising and fishing
    36. 36. UrUr• Site of theSite of the ““Royal CemeteryRoyal Cemetery”” uncovered byuncovered bySir Leonard Woolley, English archaeologistSir Leonard Woolley, English archaeologist• Site contained chariots, headdresses, lyres,Site contained chariots, headdresses, lyres,jewelryjewelry• Classic example: lyres with bearded bullClassic example: lyres with bearded bull• The blue is constructed from lapis lazuliThe blue is constructed from lapis lazulicrystalscrystals• Lower graphic is a typical Sumerian theme:Lower graphic is a typical Sumerian theme:animals with human facesanimals with human faces• This comes from the front panel of a lyreThis comes from the front panel of a lyre
    37. 37. Historical narrative/ below shows two sides (war and peace)/ registers/ composite view offigures= frontal eye and body with profile head and feet/ hierarchy of scale/ uncertain ofpurposeRight: Actual 3-D shape of Standard of Ur, from RoyalCemetery at Ur, IraqBelow: Detail from peace sideof the Standard of UrThe excavator, Leonard Woolley, thought it was originallymounted on a pole like a military standard. Art historiansare uncertain of its purpose.
    38. 38. Standard of Urfrom Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur(modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestoneapproximately 8 x 19 in.WarPeaceRegistersFound in SumerHIERARCHY OF SCALEBigger = better
    39. 39. Standard of Ur (war side)from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestoneapproximately 8 x 19 in.
    40. 40. Standard of Ur (peace side)from Tomb 779, Royal Cemetery Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, shell, lapis lazuli, red limestoneapproximately 8 x 19 in.
    41. 41. Bull-headed lyrefrom Tomb 789, Royal Cemetery Ur(modern Tell Muqayyar)ca. 2,600 B.C.E.wood, gold leaf, lapis lazuliapproximately 65 in. highSound box. Found in sumer.
    42. 42. Evidence of Extreme Stratification:Evidence of Extreme Stratification:BurialsBurials• Sir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 burialsSir Leonard Woolley unearthed 2500 burials• Fewer than 20 were of royaltyFewer than 20 were of royalty• Queen Shub-ad was lying on a bed accompanied by femaleQueen Shub-ad was lying on a bed accompanied by femaleattendantsattendants• 2 wagons drawn by oxen driven by male servants backed2 wagons drawn by oxen driven by male servants backeddown into entry rampdown into entry ramp• 59 bodies, mostly female, were on the ground near the59 bodies, mostly female, were on the ground near thetombtomb• All retainers were lavishly bedecked with crafted elementsAll retainers were lavishly bedecked with crafted elements• Oxen dispatched, then all in the party consumed poisonOxen dispatched, then all in the party consumed poison• Lyre with bullLyre with bull’’s head was associated with the Good Queens head was associated with the Good Queen
    43. 43. Akkadian Art
    44. 44. AkkadAkkad• First of the empires thatFirst of the empires thatconsolidated city statesconsolidated city states’’• Sargon I led the expansion (UpperSargon I led the expansion (Upperleft)left)• Detail from Victory stelae from SusaDetail from Victory stelae from Susa• Irony: a stela intended to celebrateIrony: a stela intended to celebrateAkkadian victory actuallyAkkadian victory actuallydocumented their defeatdocumented their defeat
    45. 45. Gudea?Statue ofSumerian PrincePeaceful pose,holds fountain.Plan of temple,Ensi not King.Piety, simplicity,simple dress.
    46. 46. LagashLagash• Lagash, ruled by Gudea,Lagash, ruled by Gudea,succeeded Akkadsucceeded Akkad• Gudea drew a temple plan from aGudea drew a temple plan from avision of the gods (upper)vision of the gods (upper)• Lower: Gudea with temple plan onLower: Gudea with temple plan onhis laphis lap• Represents a model of theRepresents a model of theinspiration of heaven on earthinspiration of heaven on earththrough Gudea as a channelthrough Gudea as a channel
    47. 47. Head of an Akkadian rulerfrom Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 2,250-2,200 B.C.E., copper14 3/8 in. highArrogant powerEarliest hollow cast metal sculpture
    48. 48. Victory stele of Naram-Sinfrom Susa, Iranca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E.sandstone79 in. high
    49. 49. Victory stele of Naram-Sinfrom Susa, Iranca. 2,254-2,218 B.C.E.sandstone79 in. highKings were divinely chosen.Horned crown = divinityVictory over Iran. Soldiers not genericEnemies die, plead
    50. 50. Ziggurat (restored)at UrNeo sumerian periodat Ur (modern Tell Muqayyar) Iraqca. 2,100 B.C.E.mud brick
    51. 51. Babylonian Art
    52. 52. Stele with code of Hammurabifrom Susa, Iranca. 1,780 B.C.E.basalt88 in. highHammurabi codified laws..1st known exampleLaws & penalties, protectionsfor widows & kids.An eye for an EyeNo vigilantisms, but systemof justice.Seated sun God giving therod of justice.Basis for today’s laws!
    53. 53. Babylon: Code of HammurabiBabylon: Code of Hammurabi• Hammurabi: The LawgiverHammurabi: The Lawgiver• As commerce increased, civilAs commerce increased, civillaw served to regulatelaw served to regulatetransactionstransactions• Criminal law was institutedCriminal law was instituted• Lex talionisLex talionis——eye for an eyeeye for an eye——became one of thebecame one of thecornerstonescornerstones• Here, Hammurabi receives theHere, Hammurabi receives thelaw code from the sun godlaw code from the sun god
    54. 54. Babylon: Tower of BabelBabylon: Tower of Babel• Babylon was the site ofBabylon was the site ofanother ziggurat, theanother ziggurat, theTower of BabelTower of Babel• Biblical interpretations:Biblical interpretations:humankindhumankind’’s intellectuals intellectualarrogancearrogance• God imposed differentGod imposed differentlanguages on the builderslanguages on the builders• However, BabylonHowever, Babylonalready had a diversity ofalready had a diversity oflanguages and cultureslanguages and cultures• Why construction wasWhy construction washalted remains a mysteryhalted remains a mystery
    55. 55. Assyrian Art•1st true empire..•900 BCE conquered upper Mesopotamia•Savage culture, militaristic•Flayed their enemies alive•Art: perspective, anatomy•Commemorated victories & hunts•Sargon = King of All•Conquered Mesopotamia, ruled 5 generations
    56. 56. Reconstruction drawingof the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraqca. 720-705 B.C.E.
    57. 57. Lamassu (winged human headed bull)from the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukin (modern Khorsabad) Iraqca. 720-705 B.C.E.limestone13 ft. 10 in. highGuarded palace… relief AND in the round sculpture… 5 legs
    58. 58. Gilgamesh? Wrestling Lionfrom the citadel of Sargon II, Dar Sharrukinca. 720-705 B.C.E.limestone13 ft. 10 in. high
    59. 59. Ashurbanipal hunting lionsLast great Assyrian king.. Shows bravery in hunting lions. Dyinglioness drags back legs, King hierarchy of scale.from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 645-640 B.C.E.gypsumapproximately 5 ft. high
    60. 60. Ashurbanipal hunting lionsfrom the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 645-640 B.C.E.gypsumapproximately 5 ft. high
    61. 61. Ashurbanipal hunting lionsfrom the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Ninevah (modern Kuyunjik) Iraqca. 645-640 B.C.E.gypsumapproximately 5 ft. high
    62. 62. Neo-Babylonian Art
    63. 63. Ishtar Gate (restored)from Babylon, Iraqca. 575 B.C.E.glazed brick
    64. 64. Ishtar Gate (restored)details of dragon (Marduk) andbull (Adad)from Babylon, Iraqca. 575 B.C.E.glazed brick
    65. 65. Ishtar Gate (restored)details of lion (Ishtar)from Babylon, Iraqca. 575 B.C.E.glazed brick

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