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Maurizio Tosi - GIS and Silk Road Studies

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Maurizio Tosi - GIS and Silk Road Studies

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Maurizio Tosi - GIS and Silk Road Studies

  1. 1. GIS AND SILK ROAD STUDIES MONITORING LANDSCAPE AND POPULATION CHANGES AT SAMARKAND AND IN THE ZERAVSHAN VALLEY Maurizio Tosi Department of Archaeology University of Bologna
  2. 2. THE MIDDLE ASIAN SPACE
  3. 3. Landscape Archaeology HISTORY GEOGRAPHYHistorical Topography Settlement Archaeology Social Anthropology Archaeology as an Instrument for Regional Studies More Descriptive More Interpretative
  4. 4. WHATEVER THE TARGET OF OUR REASONING, ANY STUDY OF CENTRAL ASIAN HISTORY HAS TO CONSIDER THE NOMADS AS STOCK BREEDERS
  5. 5. ……FOR AN EVEN MORE ELUSIVE WEALTH
  6. 6. ELUSIVE RESIDENCES…………
  7. 7. WHILE VERY LITTLE INFORMATION COULD BE RECOVERED FOR THEIR RESIDENCES AND ECONOMY, THE VISIBILITY OF NOMADS IN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RECORD HAS BEEN LIMITED TO THEIR BURIALS. WILL GIS HELP ?
  8. 8. DTM RELIEF WATERCOURSES PASTURELANDS FIELDS SETTLEMENTS HERDS CAMPSITES SITE DISTRIBUTION & ATTRIBUTE DATA THE FARMERS THE NOMADS Hydrological Data Soil & Zoological Data
  9. 9. THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE MURGHAB DELTA 1990-2002
  10. 10. MURGHAB DELTA ZERAVSHAN 1 2
  11. 11. THE LOST MURGHAB DELTA OF THE 3rd MILL> BCE
  12. 12. YAZ DEPE : 2nd -1st MILL. BCE
  13. 13. PANCHROMATIC CORONA MOSAIC OF (1964) ON LANDSAT-7 ( 2001)
  14. 14. Palaeochannel Network Reconstruction on the Basis of Landsat-7 Image: from Aerial Photos (blue), from CORONA (green), from Landsat-5 (pink), from Landsat-7 (yellow). Archaeological Sites Distribution (red)
  15. 15. BACTRIAN CIVILIZATION (3rd -2nd MILL> BCE
  16. 16. Distribution of Andronovo type campsites (circles) and Late Bronze Age sedentary settlements (squares). Legend: dotted area = massive aeolian sands; meander lines = ancient riverbeds recognized with aerial photographs; enclosed lines = takhir areas.
  17. 17. Relationships between ICW campsites and main farmer centres during the Late Bronze Age. Legend: square = Late Bronze Age sites; circles = Andronovo type campsites; dotted area = massive aeolian sands; meander lines = ancient riverbeds recognized with aerial photographs; enclosed lines = takhir areas; buffers around Late Bronze Age river beds.
  18. 18. Frequency of ICW site surface for Andronovo Sites
  19. 19. Tazabag’yab Culture: Southern Regions of the Akcha-darya Delta
  20. 20. THE MIDDLE ZERAVSHAN VALLEY
  21. 21. Lowland Sections Highland Sections Catchments Basin Alluvial Valley Plain ValleyDeltaic Plains Lateral Rivers Lateral Affluents Mountain Strems Terminal Lake Fossil Subdelta
  22. 22. 1 3 2 4 1. Natural 2. Dargom 3. Bulungur 4. Eski Angor
  23. 23. 1. Koktepa 2. Ciakka 3. Sazagan 4. Faizabad 5. Bes1 6. Muminabad 7. Cep1 8. Sarazm
  24. 24. -Occorre distinguere quindi per primo l’asse naturale principale nella sua Interezza fino alle paludi – acquitrini terminali. -Successivamente vanno separate le due fasce principali del triangolo deltizio, a monte e a valle della linea di rottura nell’asse principale. - Va stabilita anche la rispettiva superficie areale. Il rapporto tra la superficie delle due aree è importante per il confronto relativo tra diversi delta. linea di diramazione punto di inizio collegatoallaquotadipendio plaja terminale
  25. 25. MAIN COURSE Confini delle aree di pertinenza Divisione siti per grandezza
  26. 26. Measuring internodes 1 2 3 4 5 5.1 5.2.2 5.3.2 5.4.2 5.2.1 5.3.1 5.4.1 5.5.1 3.1 3.2.1 4.1 4.2.1 4.3.1 4.4.1 3.5.1 3.4.1 3.3.1 3.2.2 1.2.1 1.1.1 1.2.3 1.3.31.2.2 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4.1 2.1.1 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3.1 2.4.1 Breaking-Points and Biforcations n.n.n Bacini numerati in senso anti-orario, da N a S e da W a E punto di diramazione
  27. 27. 3. M. Buchanan 2003, Nexus Create a GMS based on standardized data inserting fuzzy logic keys To “block the procedure whenever contradictory” 1 2 3 4 FRACTALS FUZZY LOGIC Breaking-Points and BI-forcations
  28. 28. MEASURING THE DOABS
  29. 29. Il Calcolo delle Jazireh (Ischie) Jazireh tradizionali Nuovi sistemi adduzione Canali artificiali moderni Diga moderna Si solvono fare le aree centrali, già ben irrigate e molto produttive, sopra le presenze di colture tradizionali di pregio, come i frutteti
  30. 30. LA DISTRIBUZIONE DEI KURGAN NELLA MEDIA VALLE DELLO ZERAVSHAN: L’AREA MERIDIONALE DI SAMARCANDA
  31. 31. LOCATION OF KURGAN IN ZERAVSHAN VALLEY
  32. 32. IDENTIFICATION OF KURGAN BY REMOTE SENSING
  33. 33. TIPOLOGY OF KURGAN SAZAGAN AGALIK Obel’cenko, 1969
  34. 34. KURGAN OF TEPAKUL
  35. 35. SZG 137 SAZAGAN SITE137
  36. 36. MODELLO 3D DELL’AREA FUNERARIA DI SAZAGAN
  37. 37. COMPLEXITY IN EARLY 4th MILLENNIUM BCE: THE VILLAGES OF MULLALI & YALANGACH IN TEJEN DELTA
  38. 38. MULLALI DEPE SECTIONS ACROSS CHALCOLITHIC CANALS
  39. 39. THE SHAHR-I SOKHTA AREA EXCAVATIONS RESIDENTIAL AREA
  40. 40. SHAHDAD
  41. 41. TEPE YAHYA
  42. 42. TEPE YAHYA IVC c. 3000 BC
  43. 43. NORTHERN AFGHANISTAN 1969 THE BEGINNING OF A NEW CHAPTER IN MIDDLE ASIAN ARCHAEOLOGY
  44. 44. NORTH-EASTERN AFGHANISTAN
  45. 45. BRONZE;AGE ARCHITECTURE AT DASHLY-3
  46. 46. THE MIDDLE ASIAN CIRCUIT OF EXCHANGES
  47. 47. SHORTUGAI 1977-79 DISCOVERY OF AN HARAPPAN OUTPOST ON THE AMUDARYA
  48. 48. SERAZM
  49. 49. THE MIDDLE ZERAVSHAN VALLEY NEAR SERAZM
  50. 50. A Turbinella pyrum Sanka Shell Found in a late 4th millennium Grave at Serazm : 1850 km north of the Arabian Sea
  51. 51. THE LAND OF MARHASHI
  52. 52. THE HALIL RUD VALLEY IN JIROFT LOOKING SOUTHWARDS
  53. 53. JIROFT BRONZE AGE STEATITE CARVED VESSELS
  54. 54. KONAR SANDAL 1
  55. 55. KONAR SANDAL 2

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