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The study of the chemistry,
atomic structure, physical
properties, and genesis of
minerals

Descriptive Mineralogy – documenting
physical and optical properties

Crystal Chemistry – relationship of chemical
composition to atomic structure

Crystallography – relationship of crystal
symmetry and form to atomic structure

Mineral Genesis – interpreting the geologic
setting in which a mineral forms from its
physical, chemical, and structural attributes
and its associated minerals
 Petrology – the study of the origin of rocks is
largely determined by evaluating the structure,
texture, and chemistry of the minerals they
contain.
 Geochemistry – study of the chemistry of earth
materials which reflects the collective chemistry of
the minerals they contain
 Structural Geology and Tectonics – Deformation of
rocks is controlled by the orientation and
crystal structure of its constituent minerals
 Environmental Geology/Hydrogeology – the study
of how the biosphere, hydrosphere, and
atmosphere interacts with rock and minerals
(the lithosphere).
 Economic Geology – study of the origin and
beneficiation of mineral deposits
A mineral is a naturally
occurring solid with a highly
ordered atomic arrangement
and a definite (but not fixed)
chemical composition. It is
usually formed by inorganic
processes
 Mineral “arts” dates back to early
human civilization
 Mineral science begins with
Renaissance/ Age of Reason
(Agricola, 1556; Steno 1669)
 1700’s measurements of crystal
geometry and symmetry
 Early 1800’s precise measurements
of crystal symmetry heralds the field
of crystallography; analytical
chemistry leads to chemical
classification of minerals
 Late 1800’s – creation of polarizing
microscope opens field of
petrography and the study of optical
properties of minerals
 Early 1900’s - X-ray diffraction measurements
allows for precise measurement of internal
symmetry and structure of minerals
 1960 – development of the electron microprobe
allows for accurate in situ analysis of mineral
chemistry
 1970 – development of transmission electron
microscope allow for visualization of atomic
structure and symmetry
 1980 – ion microprobe allow for study of isotopic
composition of minerals
Economic
Importance of
Minerals

classified by major anionic components
(oxides, silicates, sulfides, halides, ...)

new minerals – must be accepted by the
CNMNMNIMA after careful description of
atomic structure and chemical composition

names – few rules (appearance, major
chemical attribute, location of discovery,
discoverer...)

some local notables – pigeonite, grunerite,
hibbingite

pigeonite

grunerite

hibbingite
 Crystal Chemistry I
Composition of the Earth
Structure of Atoms
Elements and the Periodic Table
Ions, Cations, Anions and Valence States
 Read

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Introduction to mineralogy.ppt

  • 1.
  • 2. The study of the chemistry, atomic structure, physical properties, and genesis of minerals
  • 3.  Descriptive Mineralogy – documenting physical and optical properties  Crystal Chemistry – relationship of chemical composition to atomic structure  Crystallography – relationship of crystal symmetry and form to atomic structure  Mineral Genesis – interpreting the geologic setting in which a mineral forms from its physical, chemical, and structural attributes and its associated minerals
  • 4.  Petrology – the study of the origin of rocks is largely determined by evaluating the structure, texture, and chemistry of the minerals they contain.  Geochemistry – study of the chemistry of earth materials which reflects the collective chemistry of the minerals they contain  Structural Geology and Tectonics – Deformation of rocks is controlled by the orientation and crystal structure of its constituent minerals  Environmental Geology/Hydrogeology – the study of how the biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere interacts with rock and minerals (the lithosphere).  Economic Geology – study of the origin and beneficiation of mineral deposits
  • 5. A mineral is a naturally occurring solid with a highly ordered atomic arrangement and a definite (but not fixed) chemical composition. It is usually formed by inorganic processes
  • 6.  Mineral “arts” dates back to early human civilization  Mineral science begins with Renaissance/ Age of Reason (Agricola, 1556; Steno 1669)  1700’s measurements of crystal geometry and symmetry  Early 1800’s precise measurements of crystal symmetry heralds the field of crystallography; analytical chemistry leads to chemical classification of minerals  Late 1800’s – creation of polarizing microscope opens field of petrography and the study of optical properties of minerals
  • 7.  Early 1900’s - X-ray diffraction measurements allows for precise measurement of internal symmetry and structure of minerals  1960 – development of the electron microprobe allows for accurate in situ analysis of mineral chemistry  1970 – development of transmission electron microscope allow for visualization of atomic structure and symmetry  1980 – ion microprobe allow for study of isotopic composition of minerals
  • 9.
  • 10.  classified by major anionic components (oxides, silicates, sulfides, halides, ...)  new minerals – must be accepted by the CNMNMNIMA after careful description of atomic structure and chemical composition  names – few rules (appearance, major chemical attribute, location of discovery, discoverer...)  some local notables – pigeonite, grunerite, hibbingite
  • 12.  Crystal Chemistry I Composition of the Earth Structure of Atoms Elements and the Periodic Table Ions, Cations, Anions and Valence States  Read