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Petrology

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Petrology

  1. 1. pETROLOGY<br />And its content………………….<br />
  2. 2. INDEX<br /><ul><li>INTRODUCTION TO PETROLOGY
  3. 3. GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS
  4. 4. COMMON TEXTURE
  5. 5. STRUCTURES
  6. 6. ROCK CYCLE
  7. 7. CIVIL ENGG. IMPORTANCE
  8. 8. CONCLUSION</li></li></ul><li>PETROLOGY AND ITS DEFINITION<br /> Petrology (from Greek: petra, rock; and logos, knowledge) is the branch of GEOLOGY that studies rocks, and the conditions in which rocks form. <br /> The subject matter of PETROLOGY consists the origin, association, occurrence, mineral composition, chemical composition, texture,structure,physical properties, etc., of rocks .<br /> Whereas PETROGRAPHY deals with the descriptive part of rocks and PETROGENY deals with the mode of formation of rocks. These two together makeup Petrology.<br />
  9. 9. GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF ROCKS<br /> The rocks are classified in various ways based on different principles such as Physical, Chemical ‘n’ Geological Classifications. Among the different classifications. Geological classification of rocks is the most proper because grouping of rocks is more logical , less ambiguous, orderly and comprehensive.<br /> The Geological classification of rocks is based on their MODE OF ORIGIN. They are –<br />IGNEOUS ROCKS<br />SEDIMENTARY ROCKS and<br />METAMORPHIC ROCKS.<br />
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION CHART<br />
  11. 11. IGNEOUS ROCKS<br />These are primary rocks,Most abundant rocks in the earth’s crust.<br /> These are formed at a very high temperature and pressure conditions directly as a result of solidification of magma or lava.<br />MAGMA: The term magma is applied when the melt is underground.<br />LAVA: The melt when it reaches the earth’s surface and flows over it, is called lava.<br /> COOLING OF LAVA<br />SOME IGNEOUS ROCKS<br />
  12. 12. SEDIMENTARY ROCKS<br />Sediments are the products of weathering. Since these are secondary materials(i.e., derived from pre-existing rocks), the rocks formed out of them are called sedimentary or secondary rocks.<br />The origin of sedimentary rocks is totally related to the weathering influence on rocks.<br />sedimentary rock<br />
  13. 13. METAMORPHIC ROCKS<br /> Metamorphism literally means change.<br /> The change in pre-existing rocks under the influence of temperature, pressure and chemically active solutions.<br /> The metamorphic rocks formed from igneous rocks are called Orthometamorphic rocks and those formed from sedimentary rocks are called Parametamorphic rocks.<br />
  14. 14. COMMON STRUCTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS In Igneous rocks the common structures are :Vesicular structure Amygdaloidal structure Columnar structure Sheet structure Flow structure and Pillow structure<br />
  15. 15. COMMON STRUCTURES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Structures in sedimentary rocks can be divided in to- 1)Primary structures (formed during deposition) and 2)Secondary structures (formed after deposition).<br />
  16. 16. COMMON STRUCTURES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS The most common structures found in metamorphic rocks are – 1)Gneissose type, 2)Schistose type and3)Granulose type.<br />Quartzite<br />
  17. 17. TEXTURE The size, form and orientation of clasts or minerals in a rock is called its texture. The texture is a small-scale property of a rock, but determined many of its large-scale properties, such as the density, porosityy or permeabililty<br />
  18. 18. TEXTURES OF IGNEOUS ROCKS<br />Textures based on the<br />1) Degree of Crystallinity<br />2)Granularity and<br />3)Shapes of Crystals.<br />
  19. 19. TEXTURES OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS 1) Crystalloblastic and Palimpsest Textures and 2)Xenoblastic and Idioblastic Textures.<br />
  20. 20. ROCK CYCLE<br />
  21. 21. CIVIL ENGINEERING IMPORTANCE OF PETROLOGYPetrology is very important from civil engineering point of view, as it provides a proper concept and logical basis for interpreting physical properties of rocks. The study of texture, structure, mineral composition, chemical composition etc., gives all necessary details regarding the strength,durabiliy,colour,appeareance, workability, etc., These inherent characters of rocks are of chief concern for a civil engineer to judiciously assess the suitabilityoccuring at project site for required purpose.<br />
  22. 22. THANKS FOR YOUR KIND CO-OPERATION<br />
  23. 23. QUERIES???<br />

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