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KINETIKA
KIMIA
NOV IRMAWATI INDA
INTRODUCTION
How can an experiment confirm that a reaction is happening in a particular
way? What is the mechanism of the reaction? What intermediates are
occurring, and in what order do the bond-making and bond-breaking steps
take place?
There are many experiments designed to illustrate how reactions happen.
One of the methods used is chemical kinetics, in which the rate of a reaction
is measured. By making changes in the reaction conditions and measuring
the effect of the changes on the rate of reaction, we can infer what is going on
at the molecular level.
- Chemical kinetics is the measurement of how quickly reactions occur.
- If changes in conditions affect the speed of reaction, we can learn something
about how the reaction happens.
INTRODUCTION
Kinetic studies are important in understanding reactions, and they also have
practical implications. For example, in industry, reactions are conducted in
reactors in which compounds are mixed together, possibly heated and stirred
for a while, and then moved to the next phase of the process. It is important
to know how long to hold the reaction at one stage before moving on, to make
sure that reaction has finished before starting the next one.
By understanding how a reaction takes place, many processes can be
improved. For example, if it is known that a particular intermediate is involved
in a reaction, the use of conditions (such as certain solvents) that are
incompatible with that intermediate might be avoided. In addition, reagents
might be added that would make certain steps in the reaction happen more
easily.
Not only are kinetic studies important in industry, but they are also used to
understand biological processes, especially enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
They also play a role in environmental and atmospheric chemistry, as part of
an effort to understand a variety of issues ranging from the fate of prescription
pharmaceuticals in wastewater to the cascade of reactions involved in the
ozone cycle.
KINETIKA KIMIA
- Kinetika kimia merupakan cabang ilmu kimia yang menjelaskan
mengenai kecepatan suatu reaktan untuk bereaksi dalam satuan
konsentrasi/waktu.
- Menjelaskan tentang mekanisme reaksi (bagaimana reaksi itu
terjadi).
FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI
KINETIKA REAKSI
- Physical state of reactants
- Concentration of reactants
- Temperature
- Presence of catalysts
- Pressure
PHYSICAL STATE OF REACTANTS
- In order to react, molecules
must come in contact with
each other. If the reaction is
happening between a solid and
a liquid, it will react only on the
surface.
- The more homogenous the
mixture of the reactants, the
facter the molecules can react.
CONCENTRATION OF REACTANTS
As the concentration of reactants increases, so
does the likelihood that reactant molecules will
collide.
TEMPERATURE
At higher temperatures, reactant molecules have more kinetic
energy, move faster, and collide more often and with greater energy.
K.E. = ½ m v2
where m is the mass and v is the velocity. Since the molecules have a
fixed mass, an increased kinetic energy means an increased velocity.
That is, the molecules are moving faster in a hot system than in a cold
one. For a collection of moving molecules in a fixed volume, the
molecules will collide more often if they are moving faster. Therefore,
one way that increasing the temperature increases reaction rate is by
making the molecules collide more often. This is only a minor factor,
however.
TEMPERATURE
A second way that increasing the temperature increases reaction rate is
through its effect on the collision energy. This is by far, the most
important factor in increasing the reaction rate. Every chemical reaction
has a characteristic activation energy. The activation energy is the
minimum energy that the reacting molecules must bring into the collision
in order to react. If they collide with less than this amount of energy, they
simply bounce off of each other unchanged. If the average kinetic energy
of the molecules is small in comparison to the activation energy, most of
the molecular collisions don't lead to reaction. Collisions may be
occurring frequently, but most of them are ineffective, so the reaction rate
is very low. If the system is heated, the average kinetic energy of the
molecules is increased. When the average kinetic energy is comparable
to the activation energy, a much greater fraction of the molecules
successfully react when they collide. The percentage of successful
collisions usually does not reach 100%, even when the average kinetic
energy far exceeds the activation energy. This is because the molecules
must collide in the correct orientation in order to react.
TEMPERATURE
PRESENCE OF CATALYSTS
A catalyst is a substance that
accelerates the rate of a chemical
reaction but remains chemically
unchanged afterwards. The catalyst
increases rate reaction by providing
a different reaction mechanism to
occur with a lower activation
energy. In autocatalysis a reaction
product is itself a catalyst for that
reaction leading to positive
feedback.
Proteins that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions are called enzymes.
Michaelis–Menten kinetics describe the rate of enzyme mediated reactions.
A catalyst does not affect the position of the equilibria, as the catalyst
speeds up the backward and forward reactions equally.
PRESENCE OF CATALYSTS
A catalyst may be either homogeneous or heterogeneous.
A homogeneous catalyst is one which is in the same state as the substances
in the reaction being catalyzed. For example, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 in
aqueous solution slowly decomposes into water and oxygen:
2H2O2(aq) ----------> 2H2O(l) + O2(aq) (slow)
Unassisted, this reaction is very slow. However, if we add an aqueous
solution containing iodide ions (I-), the reaction is much faster.
I-
2H2O2(aq) ----------> 2H2O(l) + O2(g) (fast)
The I- is in aqueous solution, and so is the H2O2 it catalyzes. The catalyst
and reactant are in the same state, making the I- a homogeneous catalyst.
PRESENCE OF CATALYSTS
A heterogeneous catalyst is in a different state than the substances in the
reaction being catalyzed. For example, the hydrogenation of acetylene
(C2H2) to form ethylene (C2H4) is catalyzed by a nickel metal surface:
Ni
C2H2(g) + H2(g) ----------> C2H4(g)
Here, a reaction between two gaseous substances is catalyzed by nickel, a
solid. The nickel is a heterogeneous catalyst because it is in a different state
than the substances whose reaction is being catalyzed.
PRESSURE
If the substances involved in the
reaction are gases, pressure will have
an effect on reaction rate. For solids
and liquids, the effect is negligible,
because solids and liquids are
essentially incompressible. Gases are
readily compressible, however, so
pressure acts as a kind of
"concentration" for gases. We know
from Boyle's law that the volume of a
gas decreases as the pressure
increases.
For a given amount of gas, increasing the pressure means we are forcing the
same number of gas molecules to occupy a smaller volume. In the smaller
volume, the molecules will collide more often, which means there will be a
greater number of successful (leading to reaction) collisions in a given period
of time. We expect reaction rate to increase with pressure.
SURFACE AREA
If a chemical reaction takes place at a
boundary between two phases, the
surface area will affect the reaction
rate. When we consider surface area,
we are usually thinking of a solid
reactant in contact with a liquid
solution that contains another reactant.
We want to compare the reaction rate when an intact "chunk" of substance A
and a powdered form of substance A each react with substance B in solution.
Since only the molecules at the surface of the solid are available to react,
increasing the surface area increases the number of molecules available to
react. With a larger surface area, there will be more molecular collisions that
potentially could lead to reaction. Therefore, there will be more successful
collisions in a given period of time, and we will observe a higher reaction
rate. In general chemistry laboratories, this is often demonstrated by
comparing the reaction rates for solid sticks of chalk (calcium carbonate,
CaCO3) and powdered chalk when dropped into an acid solution, such as
hydrochloric acid (HCl).
Figure 1. SEM photographs of PDVB, XAD-4 and PVA/Alg-GA crosslinked gel polymeric particle impregnated with LIX84-I
kinetika kimia.pptx
kinetika kimia.pptx

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kinetika kimia.pptx

  • 2. INTRODUCTION How can an experiment confirm that a reaction is happening in a particular way? What is the mechanism of the reaction? What intermediates are occurring, and in what order do the bond-making and bond-breaking steps take place? There are many experiments designed to illustrate how reactions happen. One of the methods used is chemical kinetics, in which the rate of a reaction is measured. By making changes in the reaction conditions and measuring the effect of the changes on the rate of reaction, we can infer what is going on at the molecular level. - Chemical kinetics is the measurement of how quickly reactions occur. - If changes in conditions affect the speed of reaction, we can learn something about how the reaction happens.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Kinetic studies are important in understanding reactions, and they also have practical implications. For example, in industry, reactions are conducted in reactors in which compounds are mixed together, possibly heated and stirred for a while, and then moved to the next phase of the process. It is important to know how long to hold the reaction at one stage before moving on, to make sure that reaction has finished before starting the next one. By understanding how a reaction takes place, many processes can be improved. For example, if it is known that a particular intermediate is involved in a reaction, the use of conditions (such as certain solvents) that are incompatible with that intermediate might be avoided. In addition, reagents might be added that would make certain steps in the reaction happen more easily. Not only are kinetic studies important in industry, but they are also used to understand biological processes, especially enzyme-catalyzed reactions. They also play a role in environmental and atmospheric chemistry, as part of an effort to understand a variety of issues ranging from the fate of prescription pharmaceuticals in wastewater to the cascade of reactions involved in the ozone cycle.
  • 4. KINETIKA KIMIA - Kinetika kimia merupakan cabang ilmu kimia yang menjelaskan mengenai kecepatan suatu reaktan untuk bereaksi dalam satuan konsentrasi/waktu. - Menjelaskan tentang mekanisme reaksi (bagaimana reaksi itu terjadi). FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KINETIKA REAKSI - Physical state of reactants - Concentration of reactants - Temperature - Presence of catalysts - Pressure
  • 5. PHYSICAL STATE OF REACTANTS - In order to react, molecules must come in contact with each other. If the reaction is happening between a solid and a liquid, it will react only on the surface. - The more homogenous the mixture of the reactants, the facter the molecules can react.
  • 6. CONCENTRATION OF REACTANTS As the concentration of reactants increases, so does the likelihood that reactant molecules will collide.
  • 7. TEMPERATURE At higher temperatures, reactant molecules have more kinetic energy, move faster, and collide more often and with greater energy. K.E. = ½ m v2 where m is the mass and v is the velocity. Since the molecules have a fixed mass, an increased kinetic energy means an increased velocity. That is, the molecules are moving faster in a hot system than in a cold one. For a collection of moving molecules in a fixed volume, the molecules will collide more often if they are moving faster. Therefore, one way that increasing the temperature increases reaction rate is by making the molecules collide more often. This is only a minor factor, however.
  • 8. TEMPERATURE A second way that increasing the temperature increases reaction rate is through its effect on the collision energy. This is by far, the most important factor in increasing the reaction rate. Every chemical reaction has a characteristic activation energy. The activation energy is the minimum energy that the reacting molecules must bring into the collision in order to react. If they collide with less than this amount of energy, they simply bounce off of each other unchanged. If the average kinetic energy of the molecules is small in comparison to the activation energy, most of the molecular collisions don't lead to reaction. Collisions may be occurring frequently, but most of them are ineffective, so the reaction rate is very low. If the system is heated, the average kinetic energy of the molecules is increased. When the average kinetic energy is comparable to the activation energy, a much greater fraction of the molecules successfully react when they collide. The percentage of successful collisions usually does not reach 100%, even when the average kinetic energy far exceeds the activation energy. This is because the molecules must collide in the correct orientation in order to react.
  • 10. PRESENCE OF CATALYSTS A catalyst is a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction but remains chemically unchanged afterwards. The catalyst increases rate reaction by providing a different reaction mechanism to occur with a lower activation energy. In autocatalysis a reaction product is itself a catalyst for that reaction leading to positive feedback. Proteins that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions are called enzymes. Michaelis–Menten kinetics describe the rate of enzyme mediated reactions. A catalyst does not affect the position of the equilibria, as the catalyst speeds up the backward and forward reactions equally.
  • 11. PRESENCE OF CATALYSTS A catalyst may be either homogeneous or heterogeneous. A homogeneous catalyst is one which is in the same state as the substances in the reaction being catalyzed. For example, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 in aqueous solution slowly decomposes into water and oxygen: 2H2O2(aq) ----------> 2H2O(l) + O2(aq) (slow) Unassisted, this reaction is very slow. However, if we add an aqueous solution containing iodide ions (I-), the reaction is much faster. I- 2H2O2(aq) ----------> 2H2O(l) + O2(g) (fast) The I- is in aqueous solution, and so is the H2O2 it catalyzes. The catalyst and reactant are in the same state, making the I- a homogeneous catalyst.
  • 12. PRESENCE OF CATALYSTS A heterogeneous catalyst is in a different state than the substances in the reaction being catalyzed. For example, the hydrogenation of acetylene (C2H2) to form ethylene (C2H4) is catalyzed by a nickel metal surface: Ni C2H2(g) + H2(g) ----------> C2H4(g) Here, a reaction between two gaseous substances is catalyzed by nickel, a solid. The nickel is a heterogeneous catalyst because it is in a different state than the substances whose reaction is being catalyzed.
  • 13. PRESSURE If the substances involved in the reaction are gases, pressure will have an effect on reaction rate. For solids and liquids, the effect is negligible, because solids and liquids are essentially incompressible. Gases are readily compressible, however, so pressure acts as a kind of "concentration" for gases. We know from Boyle's law that the volume of a gas decreases as the pressure increases. For a given amount of gas, increasing the pressure means we are forcing the same number of gas molecules to occupy a smaller volume. In the smaller volume, the molecules will collide more often, which means there will be a greater number of successful (leading to reaction) collisions in a given period of time. We expect reaction rate to increase with pressure.
  • 14. SURFACE AREA If a chemical reaction takes place at a boundary between two phases, the surface area will affect the reaction rate. When we consider surface area, we are usually thinking of a solid reactant in contact with a liquid solution that contains another reactant. We want to compare the reaction rate when an intact "chunk" of substance A and a powdered form of substance A each react with substance B in solution. Since only the molecules at the surface of the solid are available to react, increasing the surface area increases the number of molecules available to react. With a larger surface area, there will be more molecular collisions that potentially could lead to reaction. Therefore, there will be more successful collisions in a given period of time, and we will observe a higher reaction rate. In general chemistry laboratories, this is often demonstrated by comparing the reaction rates for solid sticks of chalk (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) and powdered chalk when dropped into an acid solution, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl).
  • 15.
  • 16. Figure 1. SEM photographs of PDVB, XAD-4 and PVA/Alg-GA crosslinked gel polymeric particle impregnated with LIX84-I