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UNIT-II
MINERALOGY
MINERALOGY
• A mineral is naturally occurring homogeneous inorganic substance
having distinctive physical properties and a more or less definite
chemical composition.
• Minerals are to a large extent the units which make up the rocks of
the earths crust or the outer shell.
MODE OF FORMATION OF MINERALS
• Three kinds of formation of minerals in nature
1. Formed from magma
2. Secondary process
3. Metamorphism
I. Directly formed from deposition of molten magma - feldspar, quartz,
pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas
II. Due to weathering, precipitation, deposition (secondary process) –
calcite, dolomite, bauxite, coal, petroleum
III. Formed under the influence of high temperatures and pressures with
and without the active involvement of chemically active solution
(metamorphism)- Garnets, chlorite, graphite
CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
• Great majority of minerals when the conditions of formations are
favorable, occur in definite and characteristic geometric forms
known as crystals.
• Crystal-Greek word “Krystallos” meaning clear ice.
• The study of crystals is called as crystallography..
• “Crystals are bodies bounded by surfaces usually flat, arranged on
a definite plan which is an expression of an orderly internal
arrangement of the atoms”.
CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC ARRANGEMENT
SYMMETRY
• All crystals show by the arrangement of their faces a definite
symmetry which enables one to group them into different classes
• Types of symmetry
– Plane of symmetry
– Axis of symmetry
– Centre of symmetry
SYMMETRY
1.PLANE OF SYMMETRY
A plane of symmetry divides a
crystal into two similar and
similarly placed halves
2.Axis of symmetry
If a crystal on being rotated comes to occupy
the same position in space more than once in
a complete turn the axis about which the
rotation has taken Is called as axis of
symmetry
3.Centre of symmetry
A crystal is said to have centre of symmetry if an imaginary line can be passed
from any point on its surface through its centre and a similar point can be found
on the line at an equal distance beyond the centre
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
1. Colour
2. Lustre
3. Structure
4. Hardness
5. Cleavage
6. Fracture
7. Specific gravity
8. Tenacity
9. Odour and taste
Colour
very useful in identifying mineral in spite of the fact that colour is constant
in most of the minerals and commonly colour is due to stain or impurities in
the minerals.
Lustre
Appearance of a fresh surface of a mineral in a ordinary reflected light
Metallic- galena
Glassy-vitreous
Pearly-talc
Structure
Term used to denote the shape and form of minerals.
1. Columnar
2. Bladed
3. Fibrous
4. Radiated
5. Lamellar
6. granular
Hardness
Resistance a mineral offers to abrasion or scratching and is measure
relative to a standard scale of ten minerals known as Moh’s scale of
hardness
Cleavage
Tendency of many crystallized minerals to break or split in certain parallel
directions yielding more or less smooth surfaces known as cleavage
planes.
May be perfect and imperfect
Fracture
Appearance of the broken surface of the mineral.
Specific gravity
Specific gravity of a mineral is the ratio of its weight to the weight of an
equal volume of water.
Tenacity
The resistance which the mineral offers to breaking, crushing, bending
or tearing-in short its cohesiveness is known as tenacity
Ex Brittle, sec tile, malleable, flexible and ductile
Taste
A few minerals which are soluble in water have more or less
characteristic tastes
Acid, alkaline, astringent, bitter, cooling, pungent, saline
ISOMORPHISM
• Peculiar natural phenomenon
• Minerals appear to be mixtures of two different
minerals from chemical composition.
• This type of formation is called as isomorphism
• Examples: Feldspar, pyroxene, amphiboles and garnets
ROCK FORMING MINERALS
• Silicate ranks first in the earths crust for rock forming minerals.
• SiO4 tetrahedron ins the fundamental unit of all silicate minerals.
STRUCTURE OF SILICATES:
1. Nesosilicates - SiO4 occurs as Independent unit E.g. garnet.
2. Sorosilicate - SiO4 occurs as pairs unit E.g. garnet.
3. Inosilicate - SiO4 occurs as chains along one direction or single chain
silicates e.g. pyroxenes
4. Cyclosilicates - SiO4 occurs as ring form as 3 or 4 units called as ring
silicates e.g beryl
5. Phyllosilicates - SiO4 occurs as sheets; called as sheet silicates. E.g mica,
chlorite
6. Tectosilicates - SiO4 occurs as three dimensional frame work e.g quartz,
feldspar
MINERAL GROUP OR FAMILIES
• Some silicate minerals have similar atomic structure and
chemical composition. Such set of minerals are called as
groups or families.
Examples of some important groups of silicate minerals
1. Feldspar group
2. Pyroxene group
3. Amphibole group
4. Garnet group
I. FELDSPARS
• Most abundant of all the silicate minerals.
• The name refers to a group and not a single mineral
• Make up about half the rocks of earths crust
• Form monoclinic and triclinic crystals and are aluminous silicates of K,
Na or Ca.
• Three common molecules
– Orthoclase - KAlSi3O3
– Albite - NaAlSi308
– Anorthite - CaAlSi3O8
IMPORTANT DETAILS OF ROCK FORMING MINERAL
CRYSTAL SYSTEM : MONOCLINIC
Any mineral that falls under the
following specifications belongs to
the monoclinic crystal system.
 Three axes, all of them are
unequal in length. Two of them
are at right angles to each
other, while the third is lies at
an angle other than 90°.
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION-FELDSPAR
In chemical constitution, felspars are chiefly Alumino-silicates of sodium,
potassium and calcium with the following general formula : WZ4 O8
where W=Na ,K, Ca and Ba and Z= Si and Al .
The Si : Al shows a variation of 3:1 to 1:1 .
Some examples of chemical composition of felspar minerals are : KAlSi3O8
– NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8
Occurs in isomorphous series
ATOMIC STRUCTURE-FELDSPAR
1. At atomic level ,the felspars shows a continuous three-dimensional
network type of structure in which SiO4 tetrahedra are linked at all the
corners, each oxygen ion being shared by two adjacent tetrahedral.
2. The SiO4 tetrahedra is accompanied by AlO4 tetrahedra so that the
feldspar are complex three dimensional framework of the above two
types of tetrahedra.
3. The resulting network is negatively charged and these negative
charges are satisfied by the presence of positively charged K, Na, Ca
and Ba.
4. The felspar group of minerals crystallize only in two crystallographic
systems Monoclinic and Triclinic.
CRYSTALLIZATION
The feldsdpar group of minerals crystallize only in two crystallographic systems
Monoclinic and Triclinic.
CLASSIFICATION
Chemically felspar fall into two main groups:
The potash felspar
 The soda lime felspar .
Common members of the two groups are -
Potash felspar :
Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), Sanidine(KAlSi3O8) and Microline (KAlSi3O8).
Soda – lime feldspar :
These are also called the plagioclase feldspars and consists of an
isomorphous series of six felspar with two components: NAlSi3O8 and Ca Al2
Si2O8 as the end members.
1. Albite 4. Labradorite
2. Oligoclase 5. Bytwonite
3. Andesine 6. Anorthite
The above series is also known as Albite-Anorthite series.
Crystallographically ,felspar fall in two crystal systems .
Monoclinic Feldspars
1. Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8 )
2. Sanidine (KAlSi3O8 )
Triclinic Feldspars
1. Microcline (KAlSi3O8 )
2. Albite – Anorthite series (six minerals)-(six minerals)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
In addition to their close relationship in chemical composition ,crystallography and
atomic constitution ,felspar group of minerals exhibit a broad similarity and closeness
in their physical characters as well so that differentiation of one variety from other
requires very thorough, sometimes microscopic examination.
 Light in colour,
 lower specific gravity ,
 have a double cleavage and a hardness varying between 6-6.5.
COMMON TYPE OF MINERALS
1. Orthoclase 2. Microcline 3. Albite 4. Anorthite
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES-FELDSPAR
Form Tubular, mineral occurs as uniform thickness
Colour Generally white, pale grey or pale red
Streak White or pale body colour
Lustre Vitreous
Fracture Even to uneven
Cleavage Two sets one set is better developed
Hardness 6
Density Medium, 2.57
Occurrence weathering
Orthoclase
22
Crystal system Monoclinic ; β=63•57•.Crystals commonly occur in prismatic
shape.
Cleavage Shows cleavage in 2 directions. The one parallel to basal pinacoid
(001) is perfect. The cleavage angle is 90•.
Colour Various shades of pink and red, such as flesh red, reddish white,
light pink . The transparent variety is called the Adularia .
Luster Vitreous to semiviterous.
Hardness and specific
gravity
6-6.5 ; 2.56 to 2.58
Composition KAlSi3O8
Optical Optically negative (-)
Occurrence A most common and essential constituent of many igneous rocks
,especially granites .
Economic use As a ceramic material.
Varieties 1. Adularia-a transparent orthoclase.
2. Sanidinc-a high temperature variety stable above 900•C
microcline
23
Crystal system Triclinic, resembles closely with orthoclase in crystal
habits.
Cleavage In two directions, the one parallel to basal pinacoid(001) is
perfect.
Colour Similar to orthoclase. In addition , may occur as a greenish
felspar,when it is called amazonite.
Streak ,hardness and specific
gravity
colorless, 6-6.5,2.54 to 2.57
Composition KAlSi3O8
Optical Optically negative (-).
Occurrence It occurs along with the orthoclase in granites and other
igneous rocks.
Economic use As a ceramic material and semi-precious stone (amazonite).
Varieties Anorthoclase (meaning-not orthoclase).It is a triclinic
felspar containing sodium aluminum silicate.
albite
Crystal system Triclinic ,it is the first member of the isomorphous
plagioclase series .
Cleavage Present in 2 directions. the one parallel to basal pinacoid
(001)is perfect.
Colour Commonly whitish or pinkish white but shows shades of
grey,green and blue.
Streak Colourless
Luster Vitreous to pearly.
Hardness and specific gravity 6-6.5 , 2.60-2.62
Composition Sodium aluminum silicate with NaAlSi3O8 - 100-90 % and
CaAl2Si2O8 -0-10%.
Optical Optically positive(+).
Occurrence It is an essential constituent of many igneous rocks such
as granite,syenites,rhyolites and dacites.
Economic use As a ceramic material.
As an ornamental stone in polished form.
anorthite
Crystal system Triclinic, it is the last member of the isomorphous plagioclase series.
Cleavage Present in two directions, the one parallel to basal pinacoid (001)if
perfect .
Colour Generally white, may also occur in reddish and light grey shades.
Streak Colourless
Luster Semi-vitreous.
Composition CaAl2Si2O8 -100-90%
Optical Optically positive (+)
Occurrence An important constituent of many basic types of igneous rocks.
Varieties Composition of other members of plagioclase felspars has mentioned
above . These maybe broadly considered the varieties of plagioclase
felspars.
II. QUARTZ
• Composition of SiO2
• Most abundant material next to felspar
• Colourless or white
• Many coloured varieties are mainly due to impurities.
• Three main varieties
1. Crystalline -Rock crystal, amethyst, rose quartz, milky quartz
2. Crypto-crystalline -Chalcedony, carnclian
3. Amorphous-opal
Mostly used for jewellery and ornamental purposes
QUARTZ
27
Crystal system Hexagonal, (rhombohedral). Crystals common ; some
crystals weighing many tones have been reported.
Twinned ,right-handed and left-handed crystals are
common.
Cleavage Generally absent
Fracture Conchoidal
Colour Colourless when pure, quartz also occur in coloured
varieties :red, green , blue and mixture.
Hardness 7
Sp. Gravity 2.65-2.66
Streak White in coloured varieties
Varieties It is a very common rock forming mineral and occurs in
numerous varieties . A few common varieties are mentioned
below.
Polymorphous transformation
Quartz, when heated , transforms into high temperature modifications as follows:
(870•C) (1470•C) (1713•C)
Quartz ↔ Tridymite ↔ Cristobalite ↔ melt
The variety named as QUARTZ itself has two polymorphs :
1. Α quartz, 2. β quartz.
Identification of the exact type of quartz (into Αand β) requires thoroug
investigations of the mode of formation of mineral as observed by its place of
occurrence and also type of symmetry.
Right handed and left handed quartz :
 When occurring, quartz may be distinguished into right handed and left handed
types.
Carried out on the basis of recognition of some typical faces such as trigonal,
trapezohedron and dipyramid. These two faces normally occur at the edges of the
prism faces, one above the another. In the left handed quartz ,these faces are located
on the left side of the upper edge of the prism, whereas in the right handed quartz,
these occur on the right upper edge of the crystals. Such a location of these faces in
manifestation of an internal atomic arrangement in the crystal.
• COLOURED VARIETIES :
Common pure quartz is a colourless transparent mineral. Presence of even a trace
of an impurity may give it a characteristic colour and hence a variety . A few
common types of quartz distinguished on their basis are :
1. Amethyst – purple or violet
2. Smoky- dark to light brown, even black
3. Milky- pure white and opaque
4. Rose red – colour is attributed to presence of titanium.
29
CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE TYPES :
In many cases, crystalline of pure silica to quartz remains incomplete due to interruption in
the process for one reason to another. Silica occurring in these cryptocrystalline varieties,
although close in composition and physical properties to quartz is named differently. A few
common varieties of cryptocrystalline silica are as follows :
1. Chalcedony – luster ,waxy, commonly translucent, generally massive.
2. Agate – often banded , opaque and massive.
3. Onyx – a regularly banded agate having alternating and evenly paced layers of different
colours.
4. Flint – a dull opaque variety of chalcedony breaking with characteristic conchoidal fracture.
5. Jasper- a dull red, yellow,almost amorphous variety of silica.
OCCURRENCE
Quartz and its varieties occur in all types of rocks ;igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic.
In igneous rocks, quartz makes up bulk of acidic varieties.
In sedimentary rocks quartz makes up sandstones and ortho quartzites.
Loose sands consist mostly of quartz grains.
The metamorphic rocks like gneisses contain good proportion of quartz in some cases.
A metamorphic rock named as (Para) quartzite is entirely made up of quartz.
PIEZOELECTRICITY
Quartz crystals have piezoelectric properties; they develop an electric potential upon
the application of mechanical stress. An early use of this property of quartz crystals
was in phonograph pickups. One of the most common piezoelectric uses of quartz
today is as a crystal oscillator. The quartz clock is a familiar device using the
mineral. The resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillator is changed by
mechanically loading it, and this principle is used for very accurate measurements
of very small mass changes in the quartz crystal microbalance and in thin-film
thickness monitors.
Quartz scepters
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES-QUARTZ
Form Granular or short prismatic
Colour Black or dark greenish black; pale colour – magnesium rich
pyroxene
Streak White or pale body
Lustre Vitreous
Fracture Uneven
Cleavage Two sets od prismatic cleavage 87° and 93°
Hardness 5 to 6
Density Medium
Specific gravity 3.2 to 3.5
III. PYROXENE
• Constitute important group of minerals that are generally
recognized by their stout crystals and their two cleavages
right angles to each other.
• Most pyroxenes are dark coloured
• Ca, Mg and Fe silicate composition
• Varieties
– Monoclinic pyroxene - Augite
– Orthorhombic pyroxene - Hypersthene
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
– Composition mainly consists of silicates of calcium, magnesium and
ferrous iron.
– At initial formation magnesium rich varieties
– At later stage iron rich formation
– General formula R2(AlSi)2 where R –divalent calcium, magnesium or
ferrous iron
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
– Single chain silicates
– Have 1:3 ratio of silicon and oxygen
– Mostly crystallize in the form of either orthorhombic or monoclinic
system
MONOCLINIC PYROXENE- AUGITE
AUGITE - DESCRIPTION
• Chemical Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Al,Si)2O6
• Augite is an important rock-forming mineral, and large crystals are
fairly common.
• It is the most widespread member of the pyroxene group, and it
frequently alters to many other minerals, including Hornblende.
• Augite usually occurs in dull crystals that are ugly and uninteresting.
• The name Augite is derived from the Greek word augites,
"brightness", in reference to the bright luster this mineral
occasionally exhibits.
OCCURRENCE
• Major rock forming mineral in mafic igneous
rocks, ultramafic rocks and some high grade
metamorphic rocks.
Crystal System : Monoclinic
• Any mineral that falls
under the following
specifications belongs to
the monoclinic crystal
system:
Three axes, all of them
are unequal in length.
Two of them are at right
angles to each other,
while the third is lies at
an angle other than 90°.
AUGITE – PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour : dark green to black
• Streak : white to gray, augite can be slightly harder than a streak plate so
brittle fragments rather than a powder will sometimes be produced.
• Lustre : vitreous
• Diaphaneity : translucent to opaque
• Cleavage : prismatic
• Hardness : 5.5 – 6
• Specific Gravity : 3.2 - 3.6
• Distinguishing Characteristics : Two cleavage directions almost at right angles,
dark green to black colour
• Chemical Classification : silicate
USES OF AUGITE
• Augite is a dark green to black mineral that is used for
ceramics.
• It contains large amounts of aluminum, iron, and
magnesium and can be found in meteroic stones.
• ceramic glazing, manufacturing aluminum, purifying water.
Crystals – long, slender, prismatic, sometimes fibrous
Prism angle – 124’
41
AMPHIBOLE MINERALS
MONOCLINIC
ORTHORHOMBIC
IV.AMPHIBOLES
Another type
of mineral
Crystallization Important
Amphibole Group – Resemble – Pyroxene Group
CHARACTERISTICS
• HARDNESS: 5 – 6
• SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 3 – 3.5
• Dark in Colour
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
• Amphibole minerals – Metal silicates – Si : O – 4 : 11
• Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Na, K, H – metallic ions
• (OH) ions – F and Cl –
• Chemical Formula – [Si4 O11]2 [OH]2
• Various ions – Al, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, K, H, F – replaced – giving rise to a variety of Amphibole
minerals
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
• Difference – Amphiboles and Pyroxenes
• Amphiboles – SiO4 tetrahedra – double chains
• Reason – more complex than Pyroxenes – chemical composition
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
• Crystallise in only 2 crystal systems
• Dark in colour.
• Hardness – 5 to 6
• Specific Gravity – 2.8 to 3.6
• Elongated
• Slender
• Often fibrous in nature
Orthorhombic Amphiboles
ANTHOPHYLLITE (Mg, Fe)3 [Si4O11]2 [OH]2
43
CRYSTAL SYSTEM Orthorhombic – thin, slender fibres
CLEAVAGE Perfect and Prismatic
COLOR Grey, brownish or greenish
HARDNESS 5.56 – 6
SP. GRAVITY 2.85 – 3.20
LUSTRE Vitreous
OPTICAL Optically (+)
OCCURRENCE Only in metamorphic rocks
VARIETIES OF AMPHIBOLES
1. Hornblende
2. Tremolite
3. Actinolite
4. Asbestos
Hornblende is the most common variety
AMPHIBOLE - 1.Hornblende
Hornblende – Description
 Chemical formula : Ca2(Mg,Fe)4Al(Si7Al)O22(OH,F)2
 Any of a subgroup of amphibole minerals that are calcium-
iron-magnesium-rich and monoclinic in crystal structure.
 Hornblende, occurs widely in metamorphic and igneous
rocks.
 Common hornblende is dark green to black in colour and
usually found in middle-grade metamorphic rocks (formed
under medium conditions of temperature and pressure).
 Such metamorphic rocks with abundant hornblende are
called amphibolite's.
System : Monoclinic
• Block diagram showing the
relationship between the
crystallographic axes and the
indicatrix axes.
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour : distinctly coloured, shades of green, yellow-green, blue-
green and brown
• Composition : exhibits a wide range of compositions.
• Occurrence : common mineral found in a variety of geological
environments, i.e. in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks
• Alteration : may be altered to biotite, chlorite or other Fe-Mg
silicates
• Distinguishing Features : cleavage and grain shape, inclined
extinction, pleochroism
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour : dark green to black.
• Streak : gray to greenish gray
• Lustre : vitreous
• Diaphaneity : translucent to nearly opaque
• Cleavage : good
• Hardness : 5.0 - 6.0
• Specific Gravity : 3.0 - 3.5
USES
• The hornblende mineral is
used in a variety of common
things that we use every day.
• These things include: steel,
soap, oil, buildings, and
statues.
CRYSTAL SYSTEM Monoclinic –long, bladed
CLEAVAGE Prismatic and Perfect
COLOUR White to light grey
HARDNESS 5.5 – 6.0
SP. GRAVITY 2.9 – 3.0
LUSTRE Vitreous
OPTICAL Optically (-)
OCCURRENCE Igneous and metamorphic rocks..
(mostly)
Ca2Mg5 [(Si4O11)]2 [OH]2
CRYSTAL SYSTEM Monoclinic
CLEAVAGE Perfect and Prismatic
COLOUR Green due to ferrous ion
HARDNESS 5.5 – 6.0
SP. GRAVITY 3.1 – 3.3
VARIETY Asbestos – fibrous form – long and
flexible fibres
Ca2 (Mg, Fe)5 [(Si4O11)]2 [OH]2
V. INTRODUCTION-MICA
• Mica is the name given to a group of
silicate minerals that
have silicon and oxygen as their two
major components.
• The Mica family of minerals includes
several variations based on chemical
composition and characteristics.
 Mica’s are besides feldspars, pyroxenes and amphiboles, very
common rock forming minerals comprising approximately 4
percent of the Earth.
 They have great variation in their Chemical Composition.
 Despite this, mica minerals are easily grouped together
because of their similar atomic structure.
 (Mica’s yield water when heated in a closed test tube.)
DIFFERENT TYPES
The 11 common variations are:
1. Biotite
2. Celadonite
3. Fuchsite
4. Glauconite
5. Lepidolite
6. Margarite
7. Muscovite
8. Phengite (or) Mariposite
9. Phlogopite
10. Sericite
11. Stilpnomelane
The many variations come from the diverse ways it formed. Mica
formations are associated with volcanoes and hydrothermal vents.
GENERAL FORMULA
Chemically, micas can be given the general formula
X2Y4–6 Z8 O20(OH,F)4
in which,
X is K, Na, or Ca or less commonly Ba, Rb, or Cs;
Y is Al, Mg, or Fe or less commonly Mn, Cr, Ti, Li, etc.;
Z is chiefly Si or Al, but also may include Fe3+ or Ti.
CHARACTERISTICS
• Mica has a brilliant shininess that glitters and sparkles. In fact
the name mica is believed to have come from the Latin word
‘MICARE’ which means “to shine.”
• Mica is responsible for the flashes of light in composite rocks
such as granite, gneiss, and slate.
• The crystal structure is monoclinic with a somewhat
hexagonal crystal shape. These two characteristics are due to
the structure of the atoms that make up the mica group.
PROPERTIES
Name Content
Color White, Yellowish, Green, Gray
Streak Colorless
Luster Vitreous to Pearly
Transparency Transparent, Translucent and
Opaque
Crystal System Monoclinic
Specific Gravity 2.8
Hardness(Mohs) 2.5-3
Cleavage Perfect
Fracture Uneven
Uses Mainly as Insulators in Electronics
Location Mica is found in many rocks around the world.
Notable deposits are found in India, South
Dakota, Russia and Brazil. Larger deposits are
found in Colorado(USA), Evje(Norway) and Minas
Gerais(Brazil).
BIOTITE
DESCRIPTION OF BIOTITE
• General Formula: K2(Mg,Fe)3 AlSi3O10(OH,O,F2)2
• Biotite is a group of common rock-forming minerals
forming a series between phlogopite and annite. The name
is best used as a field name for dark micas for which the
exact composition has not been determined.
DESCRIPTION OF BIOTITE – CONTD.
• Biotite survives a certain amount of weathering and is found in
soils, sediments and sedimentary rocks. Weathered Biotite
becomes relatively brassy of bronzy in colour and has been
mistaken for gold.
• Its lower density, cleavage, and other properties are soon
apparent to the careful observer. Finally Biotite can form as a
result of hydrothermal processes, especially wall-rock alteration
around ore veins.
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour: Typically brown, brownish green or reddish brown.
• Occurrence: Common in a wide range of igneous and metamorphic rocks
and may be an important detrital mineral in sediments.
• Cleavage: Perfect cleavage on {001}.
• Twinning: Rarely visible.
• Optic Orientation: Extinction is parallel or nearly parallel, with a maximum
extinction angle of a few degrees. Cleavage traces are length slow.
• Alteration: Alters to chlorite, clay minerals, and/or sericite, iron-titanium
oxides, epidote, calcite, and sulphides
• Distinguishing Features : colour, "birds-eye" extinction, nearly parallel
extinction
BIOTITE - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour: black, dark green, dark brown
• Streak: white to gray.
• Lustre: vitreous.
• Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent.
• Cleavage: basal, perfect
• Hardness: 2.5 – 3
• Specific Gravity: 2.7 - 3.3
• Chemical Classification: silicate
BIOTITE - USES
• Biotite has very limited commercial use.
• Biotite particles are sometimes used as a surface treatment in
decorative concrete, plaster and other construction materials.
• It is also used in the potassium-argon method of dating
igneous rocks.
MUSCOVITE
OCCURRENCE
• A common rock forming mineral, muscovite is found in
igneous, metamorphic and detrital sedimentary rocks.
• It is not usually valuable as a mineral specimen but can be
found associated with other valued minerals such as
tourmaline, topaz, beryl, almandine and others.
MINERAL DESCRIPTION
• Chemical formula : KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2
• MUSCOVITE was once commonly used for windows.
• The Russian mica mines that produced it gave muscovite its name (it
was once widely known as "Muscovy glass").
• Muscovite is a high-aluminium member of the mica family of minerals,
all known for the property of perfect basal cleavage; cleavage layers
can be easily peeled off into very thin sheets which are quite durable
and are not easily destroyed by erosion.
• Muscovite sheets have high heat and electrical insulating properties
and are used to make electrical components.
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour : colourless
• Composition : highly variable
• Form : found as micaceous flakes or tablets with irregular outlines
• Twinning : rare
• Optic Orientation : parallel extinction, cleavage traces are length slow
• Alteration : not generally altered
• Distinguishing Features : colourless, parallel extinction, "birds-eye" extinction
• Bird's eye maple, or bird's eye extinction, is a specific type
of extinction exhibited by minerals of the mica group under
cross polarized light (sometimes called the optical analyser). It gives the
mineral a pebbly appearance as it passes into extinction.
SYSTEM: MONOCLINIC
• Block diagram showing the
relationship between the
crystallographic axes and
the indicatrix axes.
MUSCOVITE - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
• Colour : colourless, yellow, brown,
green, red
• Streak : white
• Lustre : vitreous
• Diaphaneity : transparent to translucent
• Cleavage : perfect
• Hardness : 2.5 – 3
• Specific Gravity : 2.8 - 2.9
• Chemical Classification : silicate
MUSCOVITE – USES
• Muscovite has a high resistance to
heat and, split into thin
transparent sheets, it has been
used as windows on high-
temperature furnaces and ovens.
• It is an insulator and was used in
the past to make circuit boards.
• Historically, it was used as an early
window glass.
CALCITE
CALCITE - DESCRIPTION
• Calcite is a rock-forming mineral with a chemical formula of
CaCO3.
• It is extremely common and found throughout the world
in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks.
• Calcite is the principal constituent of limestone and marble.
• These rocks are extremely common and make up a
significant portion of Earth's crust.
• They serve as one of the largest carbon repositories on our
planet.
CALCITE - DESCRIPTION – CONTD.
• The properties of calcite make it one of the most widely used
minerals.
• It is used as a construction material, abrasive, agricultural soil
treatment, construction aggregate, pigment, pharmaceutical and
more.
• It has more uses than almost any other mineral.
CRYSTAL SYSTEM
• The true rhombohedral unit cell,
which is the acute rhombohedra,
and the cleavage rhombohedron
setup.
• The true unit cell includes 2
CaCO3 with calcium ions at the
corners of the rhombohedron and
CO3 groups.
• Each of which consists of a carbon
ion at the centre of a planar group of
oxygen atoms whose centres define
an equilateral triangle.
CALCITE – PHYSICAL PROPERTY
• Mineral class : Carbonates - Calcite group.
• Cleavage : Perfect rhomboedric in three planes, subconchoidal
fracture.
• Hardness : 3
• Density : 2.7
• Colour : usually colourless, but nuances in blue, yellow, green,
red, violet, even black and opaque.
• Streak : White to greyish.
• Lustre : Vitreous to pearly or dull.
USES OF CALCITE IN CONSTRUCTION
• The construction industry is the primary consumer of calcite
in the form of limestone and marble.
• These rocks have been used as dimension stones and in
mortar for thousands of years.
• Limestone blocks were the primary construction material
used in many of the pyramids of Egypt and Latin America.
• Today, rough and polished limestone and marble are still an
important material used in prestige architecture.
USES OF CALCITE IN CONSTRUCTION – CONTD.
• Modern construction uses calcite in the form of limestone and
marble to produce cement and concrete.
• These materials are easily mixed, transported and placed in the
form of a slurry that will harden into a durable construction
material.
• Concrete is used to make buildings, highways, bridges, walls .
OTHER USES OF CALCITE
• In a powdered form, calcite often has an extremely white colour.
• Powdered calcite is often used as a white pigment or "whiting".
• Some of the earliest paints were made with calcite. It is a primary
ingredient in whitewash and it is used as an inert colouring
ingredient of paint.
• It is softer than the stone, porcelain and plastic surfaces found in
kitchens and bathrooms but more durable than dried food and
other debris that people want to remove .
• This is a non-flammable dust that is sprayed onto the walls and
roofs of underground coal mines to reduce the amount of coal dust.
GYPSUM (CaSO4.2H2O)
• Gypsum- a soft sulphate mineral composed of calcium
sulphate di hydrate.
• Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān, "spear
stone", referring to its crystalline projections.
• Dehydrated gypsum is popularly known as “plaster of
Paris”.
• Gypsum crystals contain anion water and hydrogen
bonding.
PROPERTIES
• Category
• Colour
• Cleavage
• Mohs scale
• Lustre
• Specific
gravity
• Solubility
-Sulphate minerals
-White, colorless. May be pink,
brown, red due to impurities.
-Perfect on 010 distinct on 100
-1.5-2
-Vitreous to silky, pearly or waxy.
-2.31 to 2.33
-Hot, dilute Hcl
GYPSUM CRYSTALS
APPLICATIONS
• Used as cement blocks in building.
• An ancient mortar used in building construction.
• Binder in fast-dry tennis courts.
• Fertilizer and soil conditioner.
CLAY
• Clay- a fine grained soil.
• Distinguished from other soil by size.
• Formed by gradual weathering of rocks.
• Absorb or lose water depending on humidity changes.
• Due to absorption of water, specific gravity of clay is
variable.
• Divided into kaolinite, illite, vermiculite, smectite and
chlorite.
PRODUCTION
USES
• Used in pottery, decorative and construction products.
• Macaws use clay licks for survival.
• Can soothe an upset stomach.
• Primary ingredient in building techniques.
• Kaolin clay – used as anti-diarrheal medicines.
• Removal of heavy metals from waste water.
PROPERTIES QUARTZ FELSPAR
GROUP
MUSCOVI
TE
BIOTITE MICA GYPSUM
CRYSTAL
SYSTEM
Hexagona
l
Monoclinic
and
Triclinic
Monoclini
c
Monoclinic Monoclinic Category
of sulphate
COLOUR Colourles
s when
pure; red,
green,
blue
Grey,
green,
blue, pink
and white
White to
Colourles
s
Greenish
to brown
or black;
even
yellow
White,
yellowish,
green, grey
White,
colourless
HARDNESS 7 6 – 6.5 2 – 2.5 2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 1.5 - 2
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
2.65 –
2.66
2.54 – 2.57 2.76 - 3 2.7 – 3.1 2.8 2.31 – 2.33
CLEAVAGE Generally
absent
Perfect Highly
perfect
basal
cleavage
Highly
perfect
basal
cleavage
Perfect Perfect
LUSTRE Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous
PROPERTIES AMPHIBOLE
MINERALS
CALCITE
CRYSTAL
SYSTEM
Monoclinic Crystalline, granular,
rhombohedra
COLOUR White to light grey White or colourless;
also grey, yellow &
green
HARDNESS 5.5 – 6 3
SPECIFIC
GRAVITY
2.9 - 3 2.71
CLEAVAGE Perfect Perfect with 74’
LUSTRE Vitreous Vitreous

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4182196.ppt

  • 2. MINERALOGY • A mineral is naturally occurring homogeneous inorganic substance having distinctive physical properties and a more or less definite chemical composition. • Minerals are to a large extent the units which make up the rocks of the earths crust or the outer shell.
  • 3. MODE OF FORMATION OF MINERALS • Three kinds of formation of minerals in nature 1. Formed from magma 2. Secondary process 3. Metamorphism I. Directly formed from deposition of molten magma - feldspar, quartz, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas II. Due to weathering, precipitation, deposition (secondary process) – calcite, dolomite, bauxite, coal, petroleum III. Formed under the influence of high temperatures and pressures with and without the active involvement of chemically active solution (metamorphism)- Garnets, chlorite, graphite
  • 4. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY • Great majority of minerals when the conditions of formations are favorable, occur in definite and characteristic geometric forms known as crystals. • Crystal-Greek word “Krystallos” meaning clear ice. • The study of crystals is called as crystallography.. • “Crystals are bodies bounded by surfaces usually flat, arranged on a definite plan which is an expression of an orderly internal arrangement of the atoms”.
  • 6. SYMMETRY • All crystals show by the arrangement of their faces a definite symmetry which enables one to group them into different classes • Types of symmetry – Plane of symmetry – Axis of symmetry – Centre of symmetry
  • 7. SYMMETRY 1.PLANE OF SYMMETRY A plane of symmetry divides a crystal into two similar and similarly placed halves 2.Axis of symmetry If a crystal on being rotated comes to occupy the same position in space more than once in a complete turn the axis about which the rotation has taken Is called as axis of symmetry 3.Centre of symmetry A crystal is said to have centre of symmetry if an imaginary line can be passed from any point on its surface through its centre and a similar point can be found on the line at an equal distance beyond the centre
  • 8. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 1. Colour 2. Lustre 3. Structure 4. Hardness 5. Cleavage 6. Fracture 7. Specific gravity 8. Tenacity 9. Odour and taste
  • 9. Colour very useful in identifying mineral in spite of the fact that colour is constant in most of the minerals and commonly colour is due to stain or impurities in the minerals. Lustre Appearance of a fresh surface of a mineral in a ordinary reflected light Metallic- galena Glassy-vitreous Pearly-talc Structure Term used to denote the shape and form of minerals. 1. Columnar 2. Bladed 3. Fibrous 4. Radiated 5. Lamellar 6. granular
  • 10. Hardness Resistance a mineral offers to abrasion or scratching and is measure relative to a standard scale of ten minerals known as Moh’s scale of hardness Cleavage Tendency of many crystallized minerals to break or split in certain parallel directions yielding more or less smooth surfaces known as cleavage planes. May be perfect and imperfect Fracture Appearance of the broken surface of the mineral. Specific gravity Specific gravity of a mineral is the ratio of its weight to the weight of an equal volume of water.
  • 11. Tenacity The resistance which the mineral offers to breaking, crushing, bending or tearing-in short its cohesiveness is known as tenacity Ex Brittle, sec tile, malleable, flexible and ductile Taste A few minerals which are soluble in water have more or less characteristic tastes Acid, alkaline, astringent, bitter, cooling, pungent, saline
  • 12. ISOMORPHISM • Peculiar natural phenomenon • Minerals appear to be mixtures of two different minerals from chemical composition. • This type of formation is called as isomorphism • Examples: Feldspar, pyroxene, amphiboles and garnets
  • 13. ROCK FORMING MINERALS • Silicate ranks first in the earths crust for rock forming minerals. • SiO4 tetrahedron ins the fundamental unit of all silicate minerals. STRUCTURE OF SILICATES: 1. Nesosilicates - SiO4 occurs as Independent unit E.g. garnet. 2. Sorosilicate - SiO4 occurs as pairs unit E.g. garnet. 3. Inosilicate - SiO4 occurs as chains along one direction or single chain silicates e.g. pyroxenes 4. Cyclosilicates - SiO4 occurs as ring form as 3 or 4 units called as ring silicates e.g beryl 5. Phyllosilicates - SiO4 occurs as sheets; called as sheet silicates. E.g mica, chlorite 6. Tectosilicates - SiO4 occurs as three dimensional frame work e.g quartz, feldspar
  • 14. MINERAL GROUP OR FAMILIES • Some silicate minerals have similar atomic structure and chemical composition. Such set of minerals are called as groups or families. Examples of some important groups of silicate minerals 1. Feldspar group 2. Pyroxene group 3. Amphibole group 4. Garnet group
  • 15. I. FELDSPARS • Most abundant of all the silicate minerals. • The name refers to a group and not a single mineral • Make up about half the rocks of earths crust • Form monoclinic and triclinic crystals and are aluminous silicates of K, Na or Ca. • Three common molecules – Orthoclase - KAlSi3O3 – Albite - NaAlSi308 – Anorthite - CaAlSi3O8 IMPORTANT DETAILS OF ROCK FORMING MINERAL
  • 16. CRYSTAL SYSTEM : MONOCLINIC Any mineral that falls under the following specifications belongs to the monoclinic crystal system.  Three axes, all of them are unequal in length. Two of them are at right angles to each other, while the third is lies at an angle other than 90°.
  • 17. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION-FELDSPAR In chemical constitution, felspars are chiefly Alumino-silicates of sodium, potassium and calcium with the following general formula : WZ4 O8 where W=Na ,K, Ca and Ba and Z= Si and Al . The Si : Al shows a variation of 3:1 to 1:1 . Some examples of chemical composition of felspar minerals are : KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8 Occurs in isomorphous series
  • 18. ATOMIC STRUCTURE-FELDSPAR 1. At atomic level ,the felspars shows a continuous three-dimensional network type of structure in which SiO4 tetrahedra are linked at all the corners, each oxygen ion being shared by two adjacent tetrahedral. 2. The SiO4 tetrahedra is accompanied by AlO4 tetrahedra so that the feldspar are complex three dimensional framework of the above two types of tetrahedra. 3. The resulting network is negatively charged and these negative charges are satisfied by the presence of positively charged K, Na, Ca and Ba. 4. The felspar group of minerals crystallize only in two crystallographic systems Monoclinic and Triclinic.
  • 19. CRYSTALLIZATION The feldsdpar group of minerals crystallize only in two crystallographic systems Monoclinic and Triclinic. CLASSIFICATION Chemically felspar fall into two main groups: The potash felspar  The soda lime felspar . Common members of the two groups are - Potash felspar : Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8), Sanidine(KAlSi3O8) and Microline (KAlSi3O8). Soda – lime feldspar : These are also called the plagioclase feldspars and consists of an isomorphous series of six felspar with two components: NAlSi3O8 and Ca Al2 Si2O8 as the end members. 1. Albite 4. Labradorite 2. Oligoclase 5. Bytwonite 3. Andesine 6. Anorthite The above series is also known as Albite-Anorthite series.
  • 20. Crystallographically ,felspar fall in two crystal systems . Monoclinic Feldspars 1. Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8 ) 2. Sanidine (KAlSi3O8 ) Triclinic Feldspars 1. Microcline (KAlSi3O8 ) 2. Albite – Anorthite series (six minerals)-(six minerals) PHYSICAL PROPERTIES In addition to their close relationship in chemical composition ,crystallography and atomic constitution ,felspar group of minerals exhibit a broad similarity and closeness in their physical characters as well so that differentiation of one variety from other requires very thorough, sometimes microscopic examination.  Light in colour,  lower specific gravity ,  have a double cleavage and a hardness varying between 6-6.5. COMMON TYPE OF MINERALS 1. Orthoclase 2. Microcline 3. Albite 4. Anorthite
  • 21. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES-FELDSPAR Form Tubular, mineral occurs as uniform thickness Colour Generally white, pale grey or pale red Streak White or pale body colour Lustre Vitreous Fracture Even to uneven Cleavage Two sets one set is better developed Hardness 6 Density Medium, 2.57 Occurrence weathering
  • 22. Orthoclase 22 Crystal system Monoclinic ; β=63•57•.Crystals commonly occur in prismatic shape. Cleavage Shows cleavage in 2 directions. The one parallel to basal pinacoid (001) is perfect. The cleavage angle is 90•. Colour Various shades of pink and red, such as flesh red, reddish white, light pink . The transparent variety is called the Adularia . Luster Vitreous to semiviterous. Hardness and specific gravity 6-6.5 ; 2.56 to 2.58 Composition KAlSi3O8 Optical Optically negative (-) Occurrence A most common and essential constituent of many igneous rocks ,especially granites . Economic use As a ceramic material. Varieties 1. Adularia-a transparent orthoclase. 2. Sanidinc-a high temperature variety stable above 900•C
  • 23. microcline 23 Crystal system Triclinic, resembles closely with orthoclase in crystal habits. Cleavage In two directions, the one parallel to basal pinacoid(001) is perfect. Colour Similar to orthoclase. In addition , may occur as a greenish felspar,when it is called amazonite. Streak ,hardness and specific gravity colorless, 6-6.5,2.54 to 2.57 Composition KAlSi3O8 Optical Optically negative (-). Occurrence It occurs along with the orthoclase in granites and other igneous rocks. Economic use As a ceramic material and semi-precious stone (amazonite). Varieties Anorthoclase (meaning-not orthoclase).It is a triclinic felspar containing sodium aluminum silicate.
  • 24. albite Crystal system Triclinic ,it is the first member of the isomorphous plagioclase series . Cleavage Present in 2 directions. the one parallel to basal pinacoid (001)is perfect. Colour Commonly whitish or pinkish white but shows shades of grey,green and blue. Streak Colourless Luster Vitreous to pearly. Hardness and specific gravity 6-6.5 , 2.60-2.62 Composition Sodium aluminum silicate with NaAlSi3O8 - 100-90 % and CaAl2Si2O8 -0-10%. Optical Optically positive(+). Occurrence It is an essential constituent of many igneous rocks such as granite,syenites,rhyolites and dacites. Economic use As a ceramic material. As an ornamental stone in polished form.
  • 25. anorthite Crystal system Triclinic, it is the last member of the isomorphous plagioclase series. Cleavage Present in two directions, the one parallel to basal pinacoid (001)if perfect . Colour Generally white, may also occur in reddish and light grey shades. Streak Colourless Luster Semi-vitreous. Composition CaAl2Si2O8 -100-90% Optical Optically positive (+) Occurrence An important constituent of many basic types of igneous rocks. Varieties Composition of other members of plagioclase felspars has mentioned above . These maybe broadly considered the varieties of plagioclase felspars.
  • 26. II. QUARTZ • Composition of SiO2 • Most abundant material next to felspar • Colourless or white • Many coloured varieties are mainly due to impurities. • Three main varieties 1. Crystalline -Rock crystal, amethyst, rose quartz, milky quartz 2. Crypto-crystalline -Chalcedony, carnclian 3. Amorphous-opal Mostly used for jewellery and ornamental purposes
  • 27. QUARTZ 27 Crystal system Hexagonal, (rhombohedral). Crystals common ; some crystals weighing many tones have been reported. Twinned ,right-handed and left-handed crystals are common. Cleavage Generally absent Fracture Conchoidal Colour Colourless when pure, quartz also occur in coloured varieties :red, green , blue and mixture. Hardness 7 Sp. Gravity 2.65-2.66 Streak White in coloured varieties Varieties It is a very common rock forming mineral and occurs in numerous varieties . A few common varieties are mentioned below.
  • 28. Polymorphous transformation Quartz, when heated , transforms into high temperature modifications as follows: (870•C) (1470•C) (1713•C) Quartz ↔ Tridymite ↔ Cristobalite ↔ melt The variety named as QUARTZ itself has two polymorphs : 1. Α quartz, 2. β quartz. Identification of the exact type of quartz (into Αand β) requires thoroug investigations of the mode of formation of mineral as observed by its place of occurrence and also type of symmetry. Right handed and left handed quartz :  When occurring, quartz may be distinguished into right handed and left handed types. Carried out on the basis of recognition of some typical faces such as trigonal, trapezohedron and dipyramid. These two faces normally occur at the edges of the prism faces, one above the another. In the left handed quartz ,these faces are located on the left side of the upper edge of the prism, whereas in the right handed quartz, these occur on the right upper edge of the crystals. Such a location of these faces in manifestation of an internal atomic arrangement in the crystal.
  • 29. • COLOURED VARIETIES : Common pure quartz is a colourless transparent mineral. Presence of even a trace of an impurity may give it a characteristic colour and hence a variety . A few common types of quartz distinguished on their basis are : 1. Amethyst – purple or violet 2. Smoky- dark to light brown, even black 3. Milky- pure white and opaque 4. Rose red – colour is attributed to presence of titanium. 29
  • 30. CRYPTOCRYSTALLINE TYPES : In many cases, crystalline of pure silica to quartz remains incomplete due to interruption in the process for one reason to another. Silica occurring in these cryptocrystalline varieties, although close in composition and physical properties to quartz is named differently. A few common varieties of cryptocrystalline silica are as follows : 1. Chalcedony – luster ,waxy, commonly translucent, generally massive. 2. Agate – often banded , opaque and massive. 3. Onyx – a regularly banded agate having alternating and evenly paced layers of different colours. 4. Flint – a dull opaque variety of chalcedony breaking with characteristic conchoidal fracture. 5. Jasper- a dull red, yellow,almost amorphous variety of silica. OCCURRENCE Quartz and its varieties occur in all types of rocks ;igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic. In igneous rocks, quartz makes up bulk of acidic varieties. In sedimentary rocks quartz makes up sandstones and ortho quartzites. Loose sands consist mostly of quartz grains. The metamorphic rocks like gneisses contain good proportion of quartz in some cases. A metamorphic rock named as (Para) quartzite is entirely made up of quartz.
  • 31. PIEZOELECTRICITY Quartz crystals have piezoelectric properties; they develop an electric potential upon the application of mechanical stress. An early use of this property of quartz crystals was in phonograph pickups. One of the most common piezoelectric uses of quartz today is as a crystal oscillator. The quartz clock is a familiar device using the mineral. The resonant frequency of a quartz crystal oscillator is changed by mechanically loading it, and this principle is used for very accurate measurements of very small mass changes in the quartz crystal microbalance and in thin-film thickness monitors. Quartz scepters
  • 32. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES-QUARTZ Form Granular or short prismatic Colour Black or dark greenish black; pale colour – magnesium rich pyroxene Streak White or pale body Lustre Vitreous Fracture Uneven Cleavage Two sets od prismatic cleavage 87° and 93° Hardness 5 to 6 Density Medium Specific gravity 3.2 to 3.5
  • 33. III. PYROXENE • Constitute important group of minerals that are generally recognized by their stout crystals and their two cleavages right angles to each other. • Most pyroxenes are dark coloured • Ca, Mg and Fe silicate composition • Varieties – Monoclinic pyroxene - Augite – Orthorhombic pyroxene - Hypersthene
  • 34. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION – Composition mainly consists of silicates of calcium, magnesium and ferrous iron. – At initial formation magnesium rich varieties – At later stage iron rich formation – General formula R2(AlSi)2 where R –divalent calcium, magnesium or ferrous iron ATOMIC STRUCTURE – Single chain silicates – Have 1:3 ratio of silicon and oxygen – Mostly crystallize in the form of either orthorhombic or monoclinic system
  • 36. AUGITE - DESCRIPTION • Chemical Formula: (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Al,Si)2O6 • Augite is an important rock-forming mineral, and large crystals are fairly common. • It is the most widespread member of the pyroxene group, and it frequently alters to many other minerals, including Hornblende. • Augite usually occurs in dull crystals that are ugly and uninteresting. • The name Augite is derived from the Greek word augites, "brightness", in reference to the bright luster this mineral occasionally exhibits.
  • 37. OCCURRENCE • Major rock forming mineral in mafic igneous rocks, ultramafic rocks and some high grade metamorphic rocks.
  • 38. Crystal System : Monoclinic • Any mineral that falls under the following specifications belongs to the monoclinic crystal system: Three axes, all of them are unequal in length. Two of them are at right angles to each other, while the third is lies at an angle other than 90°.
  • 39. AUGITE – PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Colour : dark green to black • Streak : white to gray, augite can be slightly harder than a streak plate so brittle fragments rather than a powder will sometimes be produced. • Lustre : vitreous • Diaphaneity : translucent to opaque • Cleavage : prismatic • Hardness : 5.5 – 6 • Specific Gravity : 3.2 - 3.6 • Distinguishing Characteristics : Two cleavage directions almost at right angles, dark green to black colour • Chemical Classification : silicate
  • 40. USES OF AUGITE • Augite is a dark green to black mineral that is used for ceramics. • It contains large amounts of aluminum, iron, and magnesium and can be found in meteroic stones. • ceramic glazing, manufacturing aluminum, purifying water.
  • 41. Crystals – long, slender, prismatic, sometimes fibrous Prism angle – 124’ 41 AMPHIBOLE MINERALS MONOCLINIC ORTHORHOMBIC IV.AMPHIBOLES Another type of mineral Crystallization Important
  • 42. Amphibole Group – Resemble – Pyroxene Group CHARACTERISTICS • HARDNESS: 5 – 6 • SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 3 – 3.5 • Dark in Colour CHEMICAL COMPOSITION • Amphibole minerals – Metal silicates – Si : O – 4 : 11 • Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Na, K, H – metallic ions • (OH) ions – F and Cl – • Chemical Formula – [Si4 O11]2 [OH]2 • Various ions – Al, Mg, Fe, Ca, Na, K, H, F – replaced – giving rise to a variety of Amphibole minerals ATOMIC STRUCTURE • Difference – Amphiboles and Pyroxenes • Amphiboles – SiO4 tetrahedra – double chains • Reason – more complex than Pyroxenes – chemical composition
  • 43. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Crystallise in only 2 crystal systems • Dark in colour. • Hardness – 5 to 6 • Specific Gravity – 2.8 to 3.6 • Elongated • Slender • Often fibrous in nature Orthorhombic Amphiboles ANTHOPHYLLITE (Mg, Fe)3 [Si4O11]2 [OH]2 43 CRYSTAL SYSTEM Orthorhombic – thin, slender fibres CLEAVAGE Perfect and Prismatic COLOR Grey, brownish or greenish HARDNESS 5.56 – 6 SP. GRAVITY 2.85 – 3.20 LUSTRE Vitreous OPTICAL Optically (+) OCCURRENCE Only in metamorphic rocks
  • 44. VARIETIES OF AMPHIBOLES 1. Hornblende 2. Tremolite 3. Actinolite 4. Asbestos Hornblende is the most common variety
  • 46. Hornblende – Description  Chemical formula : Ca2(Mg,Fe)4Al(Si7Al)O22(OH,F)2  Any of a subgroup of amphibole minerals that are calcium- iron-magnesium-rich and monoclinic in crystal structure.  Hornblende, occurs widely in metamorphic and igneous rocks.  Common hornblende is dark green to black in colour and usually found in middle-grade metamorphic rocks (formed under medium conditions of temperature and pressure).  Such metamorphic rocks with abundant hornblende are called amphibolite's.
  • 47. System : Monoclinic • Block diagram showing the relationship between the crystallographic axes and the indicatrix axes.
  • 48. OPTICAL PROPERTIES • Colour : distinctly coloured, shades of green, yellow-green, blue- green and brown • Composition : exhibits a wide range of compositions. • Occurrence : common mineral found in a variety of geological environments, i.e. in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks • Alteration : may be altered to biotite, chlorite or other Fe-Mg silicates • Distinguishing Features : cleavage and grain shape, inclined extinction, pleochroism
  • 49. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Colour : dark green to black. • Streak : gray to greenish gray • Lustre : vitreous • Diaphaneity : translucent to nearly opaque • Cleavage : good • Hardness : 5.0 - 6.0 • Specific Gravity : 3.0 - 3.5
  • 50. USES • The hornblende mineral is used in a variety of common things that we use every day. • These things include: steel, soap, oil, buildings, and statues.
  • 51. CRYSTAL SYSTEM Monoclinic –long, bladed CLEAVAGE Prismatic and Perfect COLOUR White to light grey HARDNESS 5.5 – 6.0 SP. GRAVITY 2.9 – 3.0 LUSTRE Vitreous OPTICAL Optically (-) OCCURRENCE Igneous and metamorphic rocks.. (mostly) Ca2Mg5 [(Si4O11)]2 [OH]2
  • 52. CRYSTAL SYSTEM Monoclinic CLEAVAGE Perfect and Prismatic COLOUR Green due to ferrous ion HARDNESS 5.5 – 6.0 SP. GRAVITY 3.1 – 3.3 VARIETY Asbestos – fibrous form – long and flexible fibres Ca2 (Mg, Fe)5 [(Si4O11)]2 [OH]2
  • 53. V. INTRODUCTION-MICA • Mica is the name given to a group of silicate minerals that have silicon and oxygen as their two major components. • The Mica family of minerals includes several variations based on chemical composition and characteristics.
  • 54.  Mica’s are besides feldspars, pyroxenes and amphiboles, very common rock forming minerals comprising approximately 4 percent of the Earth.  They have great variation in their Chemical Composition.  Despite this, mica minerals are easily grouped together because of their similar atomic structure.  (Mica’s yield water when heated in a closed test tube.)
  • 56. The 11 common variations are: 1. Biotite 2. Celadonite 3. Fuchsite 4. Glauconite 5. Lepidolite 6. Margarite 7. Muscovite 8. Phengite (or) Mariposite 9. Phlogopite 10. Sericite 11. Stilpnomelane The many variations come from the diverse ways it formed. Mica formations are associated with volcanoes and hydrothermal vents.
  • 57. GENERAL FORMULA Chemically, micas can be given the general formula X2Y4–6 Z8 O20(OH,F)4 in which, X is K, Na, or Ca or less commonly Ba, Rb, or Cs; Y is Al, Mg, or Fe or less commonly Mn, Cr, Ti, Li, etc.; Z is chiefly Si or Al, but also may include Fe3+ or Ti.
  • 58. CHARACTERISTICS • Mica has a brilliant shininess that glitters and sparkles. In fact the name mica is believed to have come from the Latin word ‘MICARE’ which means “to shine.” • Mica is responsible for the flashes of light in composite rocks such as granite, gneiss, and slate. • The crystal structure is monoclinic with a somewhat hexagonal crystal shape. These two characteristics are due to the structure of the atoms that make up the mica group.
  • 59. PROPERTIES Name Content Color White, Yellowish, Green, Gray Streak Colorless Luster Vitreous to Pearly Transparency Transparent, Translucent and Opaque Crystal System Monoclinic Specific Gravity 2.8 Hardness(Mohs) 2.5-3 Cleavage Perfect
  • 60. Fracture Uneven Uses Mainly as Insulators in Electronics Location Mica is found in many rocks around the world. Notable deposits are found in India, South Dakota, Russia and Brazil. Larger deposits are found in Colorado(USA), Evje(Norway) and Minas Gerais(Brazil).
  • 62. DESCRIPTION OF BIOTITE • General Formula: K2(Mg,Fe)3 AlSi3O10(OH,O,F2)2 • Biotite is a group of common rock-forming minerals forming a series between phlogopite and annite. The name is best used as a field name for dark micas for which the exact composition has not been determined.
  • 63. DESCRIPTION OF BIOTITE – CONTD. • Biotite survives a certain amount of weathering and is found in soils, sediments and sedimentary rocks. Weathered Biotite becomes relatively brassy of bronzy in colour and has been mistaken for gold. • Its lower density, cleavage, and other properties are soon apparent to the careful observer. Finally Biotite can form as a result of hydrothermal processes, especially wall-rock alteration around ore veins.
  • 64. OPTICAL PROPERTIES • Colour: Typically brown, brownish green or reddish brown. • Occurrence: Common in a wide range of igneous and metamorphic rocks and may be an important detrital mineral in sediments. • Cleavage: Perfect cleavage on {001}. • Twinning: Rarely visible. • Optic Orientation: Extinction is parallel or nearly parallel, with a maximum extinction angle of a few degrees. Cleavage traces are length slow. • Alteration: Alters to chlorite, clay minerals, and/or sericite, iron-titanium oxides, epidote, calcite, and sulphides • Distinguishing Features : colour, "birds-eye" extinction, nearly parallel extinction
  • 65. BIOTITE - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Colour: black, dark green, dark brown • Streak: white to gray. • Lustre: vitreous. • Diaphaneity: transparent to translucent. • Cleavage: basal, perfect • Hardness: 2.5 – 3 • Specific Gravity: 2.7 - 3.3 • Chemical Classification: silicate
  • 66. BIOTITE - USES • Biotite has very limited commercial use. • Biotite particles are sometimes used as a surface treatment in decorative concrete, plaster and other construction materials. • It is also used in the potassium-argon method of dating igneous rocks.
  • 68. OCCURRENCE • A common rock forming mineral, muscovite is found in igneous, metamorphic and detrital sedimentary rocks. • It is not usually valuable as a mineral specimen but can be found associated with other valued minerals such as tourmaline, topaz, beryl, almandine and others.
  • 69. MINERAL DESCRIPTION • Chemical formula : KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2 • MUSCOVITE was once commonly used for windows. • The Russian mica mines that produced it gave muscovite its name (it was once widely known as "Muscovy glass"). • Muscovite is a high-aluminium member of the mica family of minerals, all known for the property of perfect basal cleavage; cleavage layers can be easily peeled off into very thin sheets which are quite durable and are not easily destroyed by erosion. • Muscovite sheets have high heat and electrical insulating properties and are used to make electrical components.
  • 70. OPTICAL PROPERTIES • Colour : colourless • Composition : highly variable • Form : found as micaceous flakes or tablets with irregular outlines • Twinning : rare • Optic Orientation : parallel extinction, cleavage traces are length slow • Alteration : not generally altered • Distinguishing Features : colourless, parallel extinction, "birds-eye" extinction • Bird's eye maple, or bird's eye extinction, is a specific type of extinction exhibited by minerals of the mica group under cross polarized light (sometimes called the optical analyser). It gives the mineral a pebbly appearance as it passes into extinction.
  • 71. SYSTEM: MONOCLINIC • Block diagram showing the relationship between the crystallographic axes and the indicatrix axes.
  • 72. MUSCOVITE - PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • Colour : colourless, yellow, brown, green, red • Streak : white • Lustre : vitreous • Diaphaneity : transparent to translucent • Cleavage : perfect • Hardness : 2.5 – 3 • Specific Gravity : 2.8 - 2.9 • Chemical Classification : silicate
  • 73. MUSCOVITE – USES • Muscovite has a high resistance to heat and, split into thin transparent sheets, it has been used as windows on high- temperature furnaces and ovens. • It is an insulator and was used in the past to make circuit boards. • Historically, it was used as an early window glass.
  • 75. CALCITE - DESCRIPTION • Calcite is a rock-forming mineral with a chemical formula of CaCO3. • It is extremely common and found throughout the world in sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. • Calcite is the principal constituent of limestone and marble. • These rocks are extremely common and make up a significant portion of Earth's crust. • They serve as one of the largest carbon repositories on our planet.
  • 76. CALCITE - DESCRIPTION – CONTD. • The properties of calcite make it one of the most widely used minerals. • It is used as a construction material, abrasive, agricultural soil treatment, construction aggregate, pigment, pharmaceutical and more. • It has more uses than almost any other mineral.
  • 77. CRYSTAL SYSTEM • The true rhombohedral unit cell, which is the acute rhombohedra, and the cleavage rhombohedron setup. • The true unit cell includes 2 CaCO3 with calcium ions at the corners of the rhombohedron and CO3 groups. • Each of which consists of a carbon ion at the centre of a planar group of oxygen atoms whose centres define an equilateral triangle.
  • 78. CALCITE – PHYSICAL PROPERTY • Mineral class : Carbonates - Calcite group. • Cleavage : Perfect rhomboedric in three planes, subconchoidal fracture. • Hardness : 3 • Density : 2.7 • Colour : usually colourless, but nuances in blue, yellow, green, red, violet, even black and opaque. • Streak : White to greyish. • Lustre : Vitreous to pearly or dull.
  • 79. USES OF CALCITE IN CONSTRUCTION • The construction industry is the primary consumer of calcite in the form of limestone and marble. • These rocks have been used as dimension stones and in mortar for thousands of years. • Limestone blocks were the primary construction material used in many of the pyramids of Egypt and Latin America. • Today, rough and polished limestone and marble are still an important material used in prestige architecture.
  • 80. USES OF CALCITE IN CONSTRUCTION – CONTD. • Modern construction uses calcite in the form of limestone and marble to produce cement and concrete. • These materials are easily mixed, transported and placed in the form of a slurry that will harden into a durable construction material. • Concrete is used to make buildings, highways, bridges, walls .
  • 81. OTHER USES OF CALCITE • In a powdered form, calcite often has an extremely white colour. • Powdered calcite is often used as a white pigment or "whiting". • Some of the earliest paints were made with calcite. It is a primary ingredient in whitewash and it is used as an inert colouring ingredient of paint. • It is softer than the stone, porcelain and plastic surfaces found in kitchens and bathrooms but more durable than dried food and other debris that people want to remove . • This is a non-flammable dust that is sprayed onto the walls and roofs of underground coal mines to reduce the amount of coal dust.
  • 82. GYPSUM (CaSO4.2H2O) • Gypsum- a soft sulphate mineral composed of calcium sulphate di hydrate. • Gypsum was known in Old English as spærstān, "spear stone", referring to its crystalline projections. • Dehydrated gypsum is popularly known as “plaster of Paris”. • Gypsum crystals contain anion water and hydrogen bonding.
  • 83. PROPERTIES • Category • Colour • Cleavage • Mohs scale • Lustre • Specific gravity • Solubility -Sulphate minerals -White, colorless. May be pink, brown, red due to impurities. -Perfect on 010 distinct on 100 -1.5-2 -Vitreous to silky, pearly or waxy. -2.31 to 2.33 -Hot, dilute Hcl
  • 85. APPLICATIONS • Used as cement blocks in building. • An ancient mortar used in building construction. • Binder in fast-dry tennis courts. • Fertilizer and soil conditioner.
  • 86. CLAY
  • 87. • Clay- a fine grained soil. • Distinguished from other soil by size. • Formed by gradual weathering of rocks. • Absorb or lose water depending on humidity changes. • Due to absorption of water, specific gravity of clay is variable. • Divided into kaolinite, illite, vermiculite, smectite and chlorite.
  • 89. USES • Used in pottery, decorative and construction products. • Macaws use clay licks for survival. • Can soothe an upset stomach. • Primary ingredient in building techniques. • Kaolin clay – used as anti-diarrheal medicines. • Removal of heavy metals from waste water.
  • 90.
  • 91. PROPERTIES QUARTZ FELSPAR GROUP MUSCOVI TE BIOTITE MICA GYPSUM CRYSTAL SYSTEM Hexagona l Monoclinic and Triclinic Monoclini c Monoclinic Monoclinic Category of sulphate COLOUR Colourles s when pure; red, green, blue Grey, green, blue, pink and white White to Colourles s Greenish to brown or black; even yellow White, yellowish, green, grey White, colourless HARDNESS 7 6 – 6.5 2 – 2.5 2.5 - 3 2.5 - 3 1.5 - 2 SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.65 – 2.66 2.54 – 2.57 2.76 - 3 2.7 – 3.1 2.8 2.31 – 2.33 CLEAVAGE Generally absent Perfect Highly perfect basal cleavage Highly perfect basal cleavage Perfect Perfect LUSTRE Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous Vitreous
  • 92. PROPERTIES AMPHIBOLE MINERALS CALCITE CRYSTAL SYSTEM Monoclinic Crystalline, granular, rhombohedra COLOUR White to light grey White or colourless; also grey, yellow & green HARDNESS 5.5 – 6 3 SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.9 - 3 2.71 CLEAVAGE Perfect Perfect with 74’ LUSTRE Vitreous Vitreous