Research, Proposal & Thesis.

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How to read for new Research.

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Research, Proposal & Thesis.

  1. 1. LITERATURE REVIEW- PART-1.1 • READING STRATEGIES • READING CRITICALLY
  2. 2. Why do you read? Finding and identifying useful sources • To find out about the field of your research • To identify a topic for your research • To find out what has already been done
  3. 3. Why do you read? Finding and identifying useful sources • To place your research in a context • To find out about different research methods that you might use • To keep up to date
  4. 4. How do you find the relevant reading? Finding and identifying useful sources • Key word searches on library catalogues and databases • Browse university bookshelves • Identify key journals – skim titles and abstracts
  5. 5. How do you find the relevant reading? Finding and identifying useful sources • Use the snowball technique of following up references in bibliographies • Identify key authors and search for their publications
  6. 6. Efficient reading strategies SQ3R Survey – get the gist; is the text relevant to read in detail? Question – what questions do you expect the text to answer Read the text carefully Recall the main points Review the text to check your recall
  7. 7. Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R • Survey • Question • Read • Recall • Review
  8. 8. Survey (5 min.) Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Survey – What's the gist; is the text relevant to read in detail? DON’T: Read the entire paper/book/section DO: Glance through a chapter in order to identify (sub) headings and features in the text. GOAL: in order to identify ideas and formulate questions about the content of the chapter.
  9. 9. Survey (5 min.) Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R • The title, headings, and subheadings • Captions under pictures, charts, graphs or maps • Review questions or teacher-made study guides • Introductory and concluding paragraphs • summary
  10. 10. Survey (5 min.) Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R • REFLECT AND ASK YOURSELF: • Do you see anything familiar/new? • Think about the topic and ask yourself • What do I – Already know about it: Want to know about it – Expect to learn about it: Remember about it
  11. 11. Question Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Question – Make/jot questions the text should answer DON’T: Take Text as generic statements (passive) DO: Develop questions about the content of the reading. E.g. convert (sub)headings into questions, and then look for answers in the content of the text. GOAL: To setup text for personal use. Divide and understand text and utilize for answering questions related (Hadith Technique)
  12. 12. Question Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Read questions (you formed) at the end of the chapters or after each subheading Write out these questions for consideration Now note down any questions that led to reading/you thought of during your survey What else you want to achieve from this reading
  13. 13. Question Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R What do you need to find out from this material? What are you most interested in learning? How will this information help you? Rationale: When you question the material, you engage your mind and prepare it for learning. Far more likely to understand and retain information.
  14. 14. Question Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Mechanism: Questions create curiosity, improve concentration, give purpose to your search, and make important ideas more visible - all aiding comprehension.
  15. 15. Read Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Read the text carefully DON’T: Read and memorize all the text. DO: Use the background work done with "S" and "Q" in order to begin reading actively. Focus on understanding for now, not memorization GOAL: Do personalized and purposeful reading. Answer the questions jotted/raised in the S and Q steps.
  16. 16. Read Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R • Read one section at a time & add more questions • Reduce your speed for difficult passages • Stop and reread parts which are not clear • Make a note of anything that you don't understand • Read only a section at a time and recall (R2) after each section
  17. 17. Read Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Highlight/Underline important passages (key points) Use Mind Maps or Cornell Note Taking to take notes on important concepts, and to record your reactions to what you're reading Try to link what you are reading to what you already know.
  18. 18. Read Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Rationale: Focus on reading the most important sections/parts. Use text for your own personal use. Mechanism: Divide and understand through answering the questions you made. Avoid useless details.
  19. 19. Recall Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Recall the main points DON’T: Use sentences from what your read DO: Use key phrases employing your own words, to identify major points and answers to questions from the "Q" step for each section. GOAL: Personalize the detailed text and make part of your own knowledge.
  20. 20. Recall Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Summarize, in your own words taking lead from the questions you developed The more senses you use the more likely you are to remember what you read Triple strength learning: Seeing, saying, hearing Quadruple strength learning: Seeing , saying , hearing, writing!!!
  21. 21. Recall Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R If you can’t recall the answers to your questions Reread the section, or the part of the section, that has to do with the question Tip: Pretend you have to teach the topic - think about how you'd explain it to someone who knows nothing about it.
  22. 22. Recall Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Rationale: this step aims at organizing and memorizing the read material according to your own questions and through your own vocabulary. Mechanism: Memorizing is better done by organizing the text through own questions and words. It is a separate (though iterative) process than reading.
  23. 23. Review Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Review the text to check your recall DON’T: Go back to the Original text (unless required) DO: Use the notes made in Recall phase to check if you remember/forget the important points. GOAL: Use your personalized version of detailed text to check your memory and also make part of your own knowledge.
  24. 24. Review Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Page through the text and/or your notebook to re- acquaint yourself with the important points. Orally recite or write the answers from memory. Weave your reading into your personal information so that it can become the part of long term memory. Refine, develop and enhance your perspectives and frameworks of looking at your reality by integrating the information you have aquired
  25. 25. Review Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Discuss the material with someone else – this is a highly effective method of reviewing information. Explain what you have just learned as comprehensively as you can, and do your best to put the information into a context that's meaningful for your team, organization, or industry.
  26. 26. Review Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Schedule regular reviews of the material to keep it fresh in your mind. Do this after a week, after a month, and after several months – this helps to embed the material into your long-term memory This is a secret to keeping your knowledge from “evaporating” (Hazrat Imam Bukhari, I do “Nazar”)
  27. 27. Review Efficient reading strategies- SQ3R Rationale: Revision is necessary to avoid forgetting. Mechanism: Revise through getting an overview of he material, you may enhance the way material is organized.
  28. 28. READING CRITICALLY
  29. 29. Critical Reading Critical reading does not take a text at face value, but involves an examination of claims put forwards well as in the text's section and selection of the information presented.
  30. 30. Critical Reading Understanding of single words depends on the understanding of the text as a whole (as well as the culture in which the text is produced) and vice versa: You cannot understand a text if you do not understand the words in the text and Vice versa. ("hermeneutic circle“)
  31. 31. Critical Reading • What is the author’s main point/argument? What does the author want you the reader to accept? • What conclusions does the author reach? • What evidence does the author put forward to support his/her arguments and conclusions?
  32. 32. Critical Reading • Is the evidence adequate, i.e. relevant and wide reaching enough? • Does the author make any assumptions about shared beliefs with the reader? • Can these assumptions be challenged?
  33. 33. Critical Reading Critical reading of a given text thus implies: A critical examination of the concepts used… The soundness of the arguments… The value and relevance of the assumptions… The traditions on which the text is given. "Reading between the lines“: ability to uncover implicit messages and bias.
  34. 34. Critical Reading Epistemological issues (Hermeneutics by Hans-Georg Gadamer) Hermeneutics is the theory of text interpretation The way we read and interpret texts is dependent on our "pre-understanding" and "prejudices". Human knowledge is always an interpretative clarification of the world, not a pure, interest-free theory.
  35. 35. Critical Reading The way we read is partly determined by the intellectual traditions, which have formed our beliefs and thinking. Generally we read papers within our own culture or tradition less critically compared to our reading of papers from other traditions or "paradigms".
  36. 36. The reciprocal nature of reading and writing Reading is done to seek information. Confronted with different views forces a person to consider own position. In this process, the reader is converted to a "writer", whether or not he writes or publishes his own ideas. Reading and writing are thus reciprocal processes.
  37. 37. The reciprocal nature of reading and writing Reading is an active process, and the best way to learn critical reading is probably by training academic writing.

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